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Acetamide

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Formula:
CH
 
3
CONH
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless, grey
Hardness:1 - 1½
Name:Named for the chemical compound it represents: Acetic acid amide. Acetamide is the common short name (trivial name) of this compound.


Naturally occurring acetamide (acetic acid amide).

Classification of Acetamide

IMA status:Approved 1974
Strunz 8th edition ID:9/D.01-20
Strunz 9th edition ID:10.AA.20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:10.AA.20

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
A : Formates, Acetates, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:50.4.7.1

50 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
4 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:32.11

32 :
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Type Occurrence of Acetamide

Type Locality:Coal Mine, Chervonograd, L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin), L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast'), Ukraine
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Museum, St. Petersburg Mining Institute, St. Petersberg, Russia;
A.E.Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Year of Discovery:1974
Geological Setting of type material:In waste piles of a coal shaft. A seasonal mineral, appearing only in periods of dry weather.

Occurrences of Acetamide

Geological Setting:In burning waste coal heaps, formed between 50 degrees C and 150 degrees C. Also at At Shamokin, near Burnside, Northumberland Co., Pennsylvania, USA.

Physical Properties of Acetamide

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy
Colour:Colourless, grey
Comment:grey if included with carbonaceous material
Streak:white
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 1½
Fracture:Conchoidal

Crystallography of Acetamide

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 11.44Å, c = 13.5Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.18
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,530.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:18
Morphology:Crystals are prismatic, to 5 mm, with prominent {1120}; as small stalactites and in granular aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.7 (100)
3.98 (90)
3.83 (10)
3.54 (90)
3.32 (30)
2.86 (80)
2.17 (10)
(

Optical Data of Acetamide

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.495 nε = 1.460
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.035

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Acetamide

Formula:
CH
 
3
CONH
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:CH3CONH2
Essential elements:C, H, N, O
All elements listed in formula:C, H, N, O

Relationship of Acetamide to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
10.AA.05Formicaite
Ca(HCOO)
 
2
10.AA.10Dashkovaite
Mg(HCOO)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
10.AA.25Calclacite
Ca(CH
 
3
COO)Cl · 5H
 
2
O
10.AA.30Paceite
CaCu(CH
 
3
COO)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
10.AA.35Hoganite
Cu(CH
 
3
COO)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
32.1Evenkite
C
 
21
H
 
44
32.2 Fitchtelite
32.3Simonellite
C
 
19
H
 
24
32.4Kratochvílite
C
 
13
H
 
10
32.5Idrialite
C
 
22
H
 
14
32.6Carpathite
C
 
24
H
 
12
32.7Refikite
C
 
20
H
 
32
O
 
2
32.8Flagstaffite
C
 
10
H
 
22
O
 
3
32.9Hoelite
C
 
14
H
 
8
O
 
2
32.10Kladnoite
C
 
6
H
 
4
(CO)
 
2
NH
32.12Guanine
C
 
5
H
 
5
N
 
5
O
32.13Urea
CO(NH
 
2
)
 
2
32.14Uricite
C
 
5
H
 
4
N
 
4
O
 
3
32.15Abelsonite
Ni(C
 
31
H
 
32
N
 
4
)

Other Names for Acetamide

Synonyms:
IMA1974-039
Other Languages:
German:Acetamid
Russian:Ацетамид

Other Information

Other Information:Melting point: 81°C
Boiling point: 221°C (at 1.013 bar)
Acetamide is readily soluble in water (solubility: 2 g/ml at ambient temperature). Taste very bitter; volatilises on exposure to air and sunlight.
Decomposes to ammonium acetate in contact with acids or alkali.
Health Warning:Acetamide is classified as a potentially carcinogenic substance. It also is a mild irritant.
Industrial Uses:In the past, acetamide was used as a plasticiser and as a stabiliser. Molten acetamide was frequently used as a solvent in chemical synthesis. It also acts as a solubiliser; its mere addition renders many sparingly soluble compounds more soluble in water.

References for Acetamide

Reference List:

- +
Srebrodol'skii, B.I.:"Acetamide - a new mineral": Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1975): 104(3): 326-328; American Mineralogist (1976) 61: 338 (abstract).

Windholz, M., Budavari, S., Blumetti, R.F., and Otterbein, E.S. (eds): The Merck Index, 10th ed., Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway (NJ, USA), 1983.

Srebrodol'skii, B.I. (1986) "Phases of mineral formation on spoil heaps of coal mines": Doklady Acad. Nauk SSSR: 290: 1730174.

Acta Crystallographica (1971) B27: 1094-1098.

Journal of Physical Chemistry (1992) 96: 668.

Internet Links for Acetamide

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Acetamide on Wikipedia
  • Look for Acetamide on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Acetamide details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Acetamide

    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Ukraine
     
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin)
        • Chervonograd
    [ZVMO 104 (1975), 326; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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