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Edenite

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Formula:
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
The minerals in the edenite group is defined with A(Na+K+2Ca)≥0,5 apfu and C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)≤0,5 apfu and with (OH), F or Cl in the W position.

Edenite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant
System:MonoclinicColour:White, grey, pale to ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:5 - 6
Member of:Edenite Group > Calcium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Name:First mentioned in print in its mineralogical sense by Charles Upham Shepard in 1831, but he stated that the name was in common usage before 1831 and referred to the mineral's locality at Edenville, Orange Co., New York, USA. The first chemical analysis of edenite seems to be that published by Carl Rammelsberg in 1858.
This page provides mineralogical data about Edenite.

Classification of Edenite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.10-90
Strunz 9th edition ID:9.DE.15
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DE.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
Dana 8th edition ID:66.1.3a.10

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.11.12

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
11 : Aluminosilicates of Ca and Mg with or without alkalis
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1351.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Edenite

Type Locality:Edenville, Town of Warwick, Orange Co., New York, USA
Year of Discovery:1839

Physical Properties of Edenite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:White, grey, pale to dark green, also brown and pale pinkish-brown
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Cleavage:Perfect
on {110}

Crystallography of Edenite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 9.83Å, b = 17.95Å, c = 5.3Å
β = 105.18°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.548 : 1 : 0.295
Unit Cell Volume:V 902.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Edenite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.606 - 1.649 nβ = 1.617 - 1.660 nγ = 1.631 - 1.672
2V:Measured: 52° to 83°, Calculated: 84° to 90°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.025

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak to distinct

Chemical Properties of Edenite

Formula:
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2


The minerals in the edenite group is defined with A(Na+K+2Ca)≥0,5 apfu and C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)≤0,5 apfu and with (OH), F or Cl in the W position.

Edenite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant
Simplified for copy/paste:{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Essential elements:Al, Ca, H, Mg, Na, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, H, Mg, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Mn,K,P

Relationship of Edenite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Parvo-mangano-edenite (see here)
Forms a series with Pargasite (see here)
Member of:Edenite Group > Calcium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ferro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Ferro-fluoro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)F
 
2
Fluoro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DE.05Anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Group
☐{Li
 
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH,F,Cl)
 
2
9.DE.05Grunerite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mn
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite
{Na}{Li
 
2
}{Fe
 
2
Al
 
2
Li}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Joesmithite
{Pb}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tschermakite
☐(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Cannilloite
Ca(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
4
Al)(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluor-cannilloite
{Ca}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite
☐{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic- fluoro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite
{Na}{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Fe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophorite
NaCaNaFe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
AlFe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Winchite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite
{K}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite
K[CaNa][Mg
 
5
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite
☐[Mn
2+
 
Na][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Mg
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
4
Al}Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,
 
4
Al)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite
[(Na,K)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Mn
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mn
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Riebeckite
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiite
NaNa
 
2
(Mn
2+
2
Mn
3+
3
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
[(Fe
2+
3
,Mg)Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite
◻{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F)
 
2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
](F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{MgMn
3+
2
LiTi
4+
 
}Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
][(F,OH)
 
2
]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiMg
 
2
Al
 
2
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiFe
2+
2
Al
 
2
)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.11.1Madisonite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Si
 
3
O
 
13
or near
16.11.3Alumino-magnesio-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.4Tschermakite
☐(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.5Clintonite
Ca(Mg,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
3
SiO
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.6Juanite
Ca
 
10
Mg
 
4
Al
 
2
Si
 
11
O
 
39
· 4H
 
2
O or near
16.11.7Pumpellyite-(Mg)
Ca
 
2
MgAl
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
16.11.8Tacharanite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
2
Si
 
18
O
 
51
· 18H
 
2
O
16.11.9Aluminobarroisite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.10Taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.13Pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.14Katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
16.11.15Beidellite
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
)
 
0.3
Al
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
16.11.15Magnesiosadanagaite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.11.16Sadanagaite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Edenite

Synonyms:
Edenitic hornblendeSilicic edenite
Other Languages:
German:Edenit
Russian:Эденит
Simplified Chinese:浅闪石
Spanish:Edenita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Edenite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist:
44(1): 1-21.

Ishida, K. and Hawthorne, F.C. (2006) Assignment of infrared OH-stretching bands in calcic amphiboles through deuteration and heat treatment. American Mineralogist: 91: 871-879.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

Best Localities for Edenite

Best of Species:Edenite

Internet Links for Edenite

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  • Localities for Edenite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
    AmMin 36:361-367
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Collingwood River
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Huon district
    No reference listed
      • Waterhouse district
    Everard, J.L., Sutherland, F.L. and Zwingmann, H., 2004a. A Cretaceous phonolite dyke from the Tomahawk River, Northeast Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 138, 11-33.
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Drosendorf-Zissersdorf
          • Pingendorf
    Götzinger, M. A., Beran, A. & Libowitzky, E. (1994): Exkursion A: Mineralvorkommen und Lagerstätten im östlichen Waldviertel. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 139, 389-405.
    • Styria
      • Leoben
        • St Stefan ob Leoben
    Schantl (1975)
    Brazil
     
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Catingueira
    Souza Neto, J.A., Legrand, J.M., Volfinger, M., Pascal, M.-L., and Sonnet, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 185-205.
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Mandalay Division
      • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
        • Mogok Township
          • Mogok Valley
            • Dattaw Hill
    Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
    Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
    Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, Sieghard Ellenberger material
    Cameroon
     
    • North-West Region
      • Nkambe
    Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Golden Mining Division
        • Ice River Alkaline Complex
    Thomas Mumford (2007) Dykes of the Moose Creek Valley, Ice River Alkaline Complex, southeastern BC. MSc thesis University of New Brunswick.
    • Ontario
      • Algoma District
    www.venuewest.com/8IKC/s1post.htm.
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Monmouth Township
    collected at location & identified by other mindat members.
    Tony Nikischer
    Harvard Museum specimen no. 119146
      • Hastings Co.
        • Monteagle Township
    No reference listed
      • Rainy River District
    Neil T. Pettigrew, K´eiko H. Hattori (2006) The Quetico Intrusions of Western Superior Province: Neo-Archean examples of Alaskan/Ural-type mafic–ultramafic intrusions. Precambrian Research 149:21–42
      • Renfrew Co.
    RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R060029
      • Thunder Bay District
    Currie (1980)
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Can Min 32:843-854(1994)
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Anqing Prefecture
        • Taihu Co.
          • Lake Hualiangting
    Franz, L., Romer, R.L., Klemd, R., Schmid, R., Oberhänsli, R., Wagner, T., and Dong Shuwen (2001): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 141, 322-346.
    • Hainan Province (Hainan Island)
      • Tunchang Co.
    Deru Xu, Bin Xia, Bakun-Czubarow, N., Chi Ma, Pengchun Li, Bachlinski, R., and Guanghao Chen (2006): Acta Petrologica Sinica 22(12), 2987-3006
    • Henan Province
      • Xinyang Prefecture
        • Luoshan Co.
          • Sujiahe
    Ratschbacher, L., Franz, L., Enkelmann, E., Jonckheere, R., Pörschke, A., Hacker, B.R., Dong, S., and Zhang, Y. (2006), In: Hacker, B.R., McClelland, W.C., and Liou, J.G. (eds.): Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism: Deep continental subduction. Geological Society of America Special Paper 403, 45–75.
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Lianyungang Prefecture
        • Donghai Co.
    Rong Yan and Jianjun Yang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(5), 1621-1633
          • Zhimafang
    Am. Min. , V 88, pp. 180-188, 2003.
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Fuzhou Prefecture
        • Chongren Co.
    Yaohui Jiang, Hongfei Ling, Shaoyong Jiang, Honghai Fan, Weizhou Shen, and Pei Ni (2005): Journal of Petrology 46(6), 1-34.
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Dandong Prefecture
        • Fengcheng Co.
    Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
    Cuba
     
    • Pinar del Río Province
    García-Casco, A., Pérez de Arce, C., Millán, G., Iturralde-Vinent, M., Fonseca, E., Torres-Roldán, R., ... & Moraza, D. (2003). Metabasites from the northern serpentinite belt (Cuba) and a metamorphic perspective of the plate tectonic models for the Caribbean region. Memorias Geomin, 29-37.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Plzeň Region
        • Klatovy (Klattau)
    Černý, P.: Nerosty amfibolitů na Klatovsku. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1986, roč. 31, č. 4, s. 435.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Třebíč
    Houzar, S. & Novák, M. (2006): Clintonite-bearing assemblages in chondrodite marbles from the contact aureole of the Trebic Pluton, Moldanubian Zone, Bohemian Massif. J. Czech Geol. Soc. 51, 249-258. [http://www.jgeosci.org/content/JCGS2006_3-4__houzar.pdf]
    Egypt
     
    • Red Sea Governorate
      • Eastern Desert
    Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
    Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 72-84.
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
      • Joensuu
        • Eno
    Vuollo, J. I. 1988. Kolin kerrosjuonten petrologia-Kaunisniemen profiili. Pohjois-Karjalan malmiprojekti, Oulun Yliopisto, raportti 16, 122 s.
    • Lapland Region
      • Savukoski
        • Tulppio
    Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Kuhmo
    S. Blais and B. Auvray, Bull. Minéralo. , 1987, 110, pp. 73-92.
        • Siivikkovaara
    S. Blais and B. Auvray, Bull. Minéralo. , 1987, 110, pp. 73-92.
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Landes
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Monts-Dore massif
          • Chastreix
    Gourgaud A. (1985) Mélanges de magmas dans les séries alcalines et calco-alcalines : leur role dans la genèse des laves intermédiaires et leur influences sur les mécanismes éruptifs. PhD thesis, Clermont-Ferrand, 522 pp.
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Lesneven
    Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 683-696.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Tarn
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 879-891.
    French West Indies
     
    • Martinique
    Ph. D'arco, J. Cotten, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 153-159.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Bavarian Forest
          • Waldkirchen
            • Röhrnbach
    Habel, M. (2011): Neufunde aus dem östlichen Bayerischen Wald (VIII). Mineralien Welt. 22 (1),80-87
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Saint-Marcel
    Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Canavese District
          • Chiusella Valley
            • Traversella
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, (10), 1-54.
            • Vico Canavese
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Lanzo Valleys
          • Viù Valley
            • Viù
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Susa Valley
          • Oulx
            • Signols
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Kamikawa Province
        • Uryu-gun
    Ishizuka (1980) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 75, 372-377.
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Niigata Prefecture
          • Itoigawa City
    Jan Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities. (Granit s.r.o., Prague)
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Vakinankaratra Region
    Lefevre, M. & Thomas, L. (1998): Les pegmatites de la vallée de la Sahatany, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral no 19, 15-28
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Horombe Region
        • Ihosy District
    A.Lacroix (1941): Les gisement de phlogopite de Madagascar et les pyroxenites qui les renferment, Tananarive
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
      • Vatovavy-Fitovinany Region
        • Mananjary District
          • Mananjary emerald District
    http://www.the-conference.com/JConfAbs/6/OS06.pdf
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
        • Betroka District
    Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Bay of Plenty
        • Rotorua
          • Mt Ngongotaha
    Martin Stolworthy Collection
    • South Island
      • Canterbury
        • Banks Peninsula
    CanMin 38:191-216
    Norway
     
    • Finnmark
      • Hasvik
    Bøe, P. (2001): Geologi og mineralogi på Sørøya i Finnmark. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 18, 23-29
          • Sørsandfjorden
    Michalsen, A. (2010): Minerallokaliteter på Sørøya, Vest-Finnmark- den grønne øya i nord. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift.43, 41-52
    • Nordland
      • Lofoten
        • Flakstad
          • Flakstadøya Island
    Kullerud, K. (1996). Chlorine-rich amphiboles: interplay between amphibole composition and an evolving fluid. European Journal of Mineralogy 8, 355-370
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Tvedalen
    Larsen,A.O.(1998): "Revisjon av nomenklatur for de sorte amfibolene fra Oslofeltets syenittpegmatitter". Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14,9 (in norwegian)
    Poland
     
    • Małopolskie
      • Kraków
    Marszałek M. & Czerny J. 2009: Amphibole phenocrysts and their alteration in rhyodacitic porphyries from Zalas near Kraków. Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 34, p.18
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Rezh District
            • Lipovka pegmatite field
    Zap. Vseross. Mineral. Obshch., 132(2) pp. 49-59
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Ilmen Mts
            • Ilmen Natural Reserve
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Saint Kitts and Nevis
     
    Ph. D'arco, J. Cotten, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 153-159.
    Saint Lucia
     
    Ph. D'arco, J. Cotten, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 153-159.
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
     
    Ph. D'arco, J. Cotten, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 153-159.
    Slovakia
     
    • Bratislava Region
      • Pezinok Co.
        • Pezinok
    - Uher P., Kováčik M., Kubiš M., Shtukenberg A., Ozdín D., 2008: Metamorphic vanadian-chromian silicate mineralization in carbon-rich amphibole schists from the Malé Karpaty Mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. American Mineralogist, 93, 1, 63-73.
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    Slovenia
     
    Dobnikar, M., Fioretti, A.M., Bellieni, G. and Dolenec, T. (2002): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2002, A188
    South Korea
     
    • Chungcheongbukdo (Chungchong-pukto)
      • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
        • Joongwon-gun
          • Mt. Eorae
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Huelva
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 961-970.
    • Canary Islands
      • Las Palmas Province
        • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
    H.U. Schmincke and M. Sumita : "Tephra Event Stratigraphy and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Sediments, Mogan and Fataga Stratigraphic Intervals, Part II : Origin and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Layers", LEG 157—SCIENTIFIC RESULTS (ISSN: 1096-7451), Gran Canaria and Madeira Abyssal Plain, Sites 950-956, http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/157_SR/Abstract/15.HTM
    • Cantabria
      • Santander
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    Sri Lanka
     
    • Uva Province
      • Kolonne village
    GRAZIANI, G.; MARTARELLI, L.; ZOYSA, G.E. (2002): The peculiarity of olivine from Sri Lanka. - Z. Dtsch. Gemm. Ges. 51 (1), 29-39. Trade Name; Dunilite. Canadian Gemmologist, Vol.21, No.3, PP. 84-90.
    Sweden
     
    • Lappland
      • Vittangi
    IMA 18th General Meeting, Programme with Abstracts, 266
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 263.
    • Uri
      • Maderanertal
        • Brunni Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 148.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Merseyside
        • Wirral
    BMS Database
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    No reference listed
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 211; Graeme, R. (1981), Famous mineral localities: Bisbee, AZ, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
    • Arkansas
    Howard, 1987. Mineral Species of Arkansas, addenda
        • Little Rock
    • California
      • Plumas Co.
        • Edmanton District (Meadow Valley District)
          • Meadow Valley
    Andrew Lawson Univ. California, Dep. Geol. Bull. 3 (1903)219-229
          • Spanish Peak
    Lawson, Andrew Cowper (1903), Plumasite, an oligoclase corundum rock, near Spanish Peak, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 219, 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 401.
    • Colorado
      • Fremont Co.
    Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Dorchester District
          • Taylor Park
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Jackson Co.
        • Pearl District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Bergen Park area
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Maine
      • Washington Co.
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V 1, p.113
    • Michigan
      • Dickinson Co.
        • Hardwood - Foster City
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
            • Franklin Marble
    Rocks & Min.: 21:760-761.
    Betancourt, P.P. (The Picking Table, Vol. 27(2):2-10.
            • Franklin Mine
    FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Palache(1935):72.
    Dunn(1995):Pt3:454.
        • Hardyston Township
          • Rudeville
    Rocks & Min.: 21:416, 576-577.
        • Sparta Township
        • Vernon Township
          • McAfee
    Zodac, P. (1946b), Rocks & Min.: 21:416-417.
    • New York
      • Essex Co.
    USGS Open File report 2010-5220
          • Moriah Township
    GSA Abstracts with Programs 35(6):231 (2003)
        • Newcomb Township
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
      • Orange Co.
        • Town of Warwick
    American Mineralogist, 63, pp. 1023-1052 (1978)
            • Edenite Hill
    Van King
    George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
    Van King
          • Pine Island
    Rocks & Min.: 15: 162-164.; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
      • Putnam Co.
        • Philipstown Township
          • Anthony's Nose
    Marian Lupulescu analyses, New York State Museum
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003NE/finalprogram/abstract_51113.htm
        • Fowler
    Oberti, R., Cámara, F., Della Ventura, G., Iezzi, G., Benimoff, A.I.: American Mineralogist 91, 526-532 (2006)
    • North Carolina
      • Clay Co.
    Hadley,Jarvis B.,(1945) Preliminary Report On Corundum Deposits In The Buck Creek Peridotite, Clay County, North Carolina:U.s Department of the Interior, Bulletion 948-E
    Michael Streeter,2003,A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains; GEORGIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Volume 56 1998 Number 1
    Nathan Clay Collins (2011) Geochemical systematics Among Amphibolitic Rocks in the Central Blue Ridge Province of southwestern North Carolina:University of South Florida
      • Macon Co.
    Collins,Nathan Clay(2011) Geochemical Systematics among amphibolitic Rocks in the Central Blue Ridge Province of southwestern North Carolina:University of South Florida
    • Vermont
      • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
        • Lowell & Eden
    Levitan, Denise et al. (2009): Mineralogy of mine waste at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine, Belvidere Mountain, Vermont. American Mineralogist 94(7):1063-1066.
      • Rutland Co.
        • Shrewsbury
    Eby, G. N. and McHone, J. G. (1997) Plutonic and hypabyssal intrusions of the Early CretaceousCuttingsville Complex, Vermont.
      • Windsor Co.
    American Mineralogist 76:218-229, (1991).
    • Washington
      • Chelan Co.
        • Railroad Creek District
          • Railroad Creek
            • Holden Village
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.45,84
    Vietnam
     
    • Yenbai Province (Yen Bai Province)
      • Luc Yen
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
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