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Elbaite

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Formula:
Na(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
System:TrigonalColour:Green, red to pink, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:
Member of:Tourmaline Group
Name:Named after the type locality, the island of Elba, Italy

Classification of Elbaite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/E.19-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.CK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th edition ID:61.3.1.10
Dana 8th edition ID:61.3.1.8

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.5.5

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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Type Occurrence of Elbaite

Type Locality:Fonte del Prete, San Piero in Campo, Campo nell'Elba, Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy
Year of Discovery:1913

Occurrences of Elbaite

Geological Setting:Lithium-rich granitic pegmatites, metamorphic rocks and high temperature hydrothermal veins.

Physical Properties of Elbaite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Green, red to pink, blue, orange, yellow, colourless
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
on {1120} and {1011}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.9 - 3.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.069 g/cm3

Crystallography of Elbaite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:R3m
Cell Parameters:a = 15.86(6) Å, c = 7.11(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.448
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,548.84 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology:Prismatic to acicular
Twinning:Rare on {1011}{4041}
Structure
  Reference
Bosi F Agrosi G Lucchesi S Melchiorre G Scandale E (2005) Mn-tourmaline from island of Elba (Italy): Crystal chemistry. Sample: Elb2rim. American Mineralogist 90:1661-1668.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Elbaite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.633 - 1.651 nε = 1.615 - 1.630
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.018 - 0.021

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:O- Pink, pale green, pale to deep blue
E- Colourless, yellow, olive-green, purplish

Chemical Properties of Elbaite

Formula:
Na(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Essential elements:Al, B, H, Li, Na, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, B, H, Li, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Fe,Mn,Cu,Ti,Ca,F

Relationship of Elbaite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Dravite (see here)
Forms a series with Schorl (see here)
Forms a series with Liddicoatite (see here)
Member of:Tourmaline Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Adachiite
CaFe
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si
 
5
AlO
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Chromo-alumino-povondraite
Na(Cr
 
3
)(Al
 
4
Mg
 
2
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Darrellhenryite
Na(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
18
(OH)
 
3
O
Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
Fluor-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-elbaite
Na(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-tsilaisite
Na(Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Fluor-uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
Foitite
(□,Na)(Fe
2+
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
OH
Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Luinaite-(OH)
Na(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Magnesiofoitite
(□,Na)(Mg
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Maruyamaite
K(MgAl
 
2
)(Al
 
5
Mg)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(OH)
 
3
O
Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
Oxy-chromium-dravite
Na(Cr)
 
3
(Cr
 
4
Mg
 
2
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Oxy-dravite
Na(MgAl
 
2
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Oxy-rossmanite
☐(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Oxy-schorl
Na(Fe
2+
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Oxy-vanadium-dravite
Na(V)
 
3
(V
 
4
Mg
 
2
)Si
 
6
O
 
18
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Povondraite
NaFe
3+
3
(Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
4
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Rossmanite
☐(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
Tsilaisite
Na(Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMg
K, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)
(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F,OH)
Uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F/OH)
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-dravite
Na(V)
 
3
(Cr
 
4
Mg
 
2
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Vanadio-oxy-dravite
NaV
 
3
(Al
 
4
Mg
 
2
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.CK.Fluor-schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
9.CK.05Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
9.CK.05Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Foitite
(□,Na)(Fe
2+
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
OH
9.CK.05Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Povondraite
NaFe
3+
3
(Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
4
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
9.CK.05Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Magnesiofoitite
(□,Na)(Mg
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Rossmanite
☐(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-dravite
Na(V)
 
3
(V
 
4
Mg
 
2
)Si
 
6
O
 
18
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
9.CK.05Oxy-dravite
Na(MgAl
 
2
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
9.CK.05Oxy-rossmanite
☐(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraite
Na(Cr
 
3
)(Al
 
4
Mg
 
2
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
9.CK.05Fluor-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
9.CK.05Fluor-uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)
Na
 
26
Ce
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
6
(SO
 
3
)
9.CK.15Scawtite
Ca
 
7
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
CO
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)
Na
 
14
Mn
2+
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
Ce
 
6
(Zr,Th)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine
CaMnThSi
 
4
O
 
11
(OH)F · 6H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.5.1Manandonite
Li
 
2
Al
 
4
(Si
 
2
AlB)O
 
10
(OH)
 
8
17.5.2Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
17.5.3Searlesite
Na(H
 
2
BSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
17.5.4Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
17.5.6Kalborsite
K
 
6
Al
 
4
BSi
 
6
O
 
20
(OH)
 
4
Cl
17.5.7Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
17.5.8Poudretteite
KNa
 
2
B
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
30
17.5.9Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.10Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
17.5.11Danburite
CaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
17.5.12Howlite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
SiO
 
9
(OH)
 
5
17.5.13Bakerite
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
17.5.14Oyelite
Ca
 
10
Si
 
8
B
 
2
O
 
29
· 12.5H
 
2
O
17.5.15Kornerupine
Mg
 
3
Al
 
6
(Si,Al,B)
 
5
O
 
21
(OH)
17.5.16Harkerite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
Al(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
17.5.17Serendibite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
[O
 
2
|(Si,Al,B)
 
6
O
 
18
]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO
 
5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)
(Ca,Ce)
 
4
(Ce,Y)
 
2
(Ti
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Al)[B
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
,BO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH,0)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Y,Ce)
 
12
Si
 
6
B
 
2
O
 
27
F
 
14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Y,Th)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,La,Fe)
 
5
(Si,B,Al)
 
3
(O,OH,F)
 
13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)
Ba(Y,Ce)
 
6
Si
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
24
F
 
2
17.5.25Dumortierite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(BO
 
3
)O
 
3
17.5.26Holtite
(Ta
 
0.6
 
0.4
)Al
 
6
BSi
 
3
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
2.25
17.5.27Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)
Ca
 
2
MgAl
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.30Uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F/OH)
17.5.31Garrelsite
Ba
 
3
NaSi
 
2
B
 
7
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
17.5.32Tienshanite
KNa
 
3
Na
 
6
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
6
Mn
 
6
(Ti
4+
 
,Nb)
 
6
B
 
12
Si
 
36
O
 
114
(O,OH,F)
 
11
17.5.33Leucosphenite
BaNa
 
4
Ti
 
2
B
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
30
17.5.34Taramellite
Ba
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.35Titantaramellite
Ba
 
4
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
)O
 
2
Cl
 
x
17.5.36Nagashimalite
Ba
 
4
(V,Ti)
 
4
B
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
27
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
17.5.37Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.38Wawayandaite
Ca
 
6
Mn
 
2
BBe
 
9
Si
 
6
O
 
23
(OH,Cl)
 
15
17.5.39Werdingite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
14
Si
 
4
B
 
4
O
 
37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)
Ca
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite
(CaMn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
(OH)
17.5.44Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
17.5.46Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
BSi
 
4
O
 
15
OH
17.5.48Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
17.5.49Grandidierite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
17.5.50Hyalotekite
(Pb,Ba,K)
 
4
(Ca,Y)
 
2
(B,Be)
 
2
(Si,B)
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)
(Ca,REE)
 
4
Y
 
2
Al(Be,Li)
 
2-x
B
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
61.3.1.1Foitite
(□,Na)(Fe
2+
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
OH
61.3.1.2Magnesiofoitite
(□,Na)(Mg
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.3Rossmanite
☐(LiAl
 
2
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.4Liddicoatite
Ca(Li
 
2
Al)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.5Uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(F/OH)
61.3.1.5Fluor-uvite
Ca(Mg
 
3
)MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
F
61.3.1.6Feruvite
Ca(Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
MgAl
 
5
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.7Fluor-buergerite
Na(Fe
3+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
F
61.3.1.8Povondraite
NaFe
3+
3
(Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
4
)(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O
61.3.1.9Olenite
Na(Al
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.11Dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.12Schorl
Na(Fe
2+
3
)Al
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.13Chromium-dravite
Na(Mg
 
3
)Cr
3+
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(OH)
61.3.1.14Oxy-vanadium-dravite
Na(V)
 
3
(V
 
4
Mg
 
2
)Si
 
6
O
 
18
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
O

Other Names for Elbaite

Synonyms:
Elbaite (of Vernadsky)Lithia Tourmaline
Other Languages:
German:Elbait
Japanese:リシア電気石
Russian:Эльбаит
Simplified Chinese:锂电气石
Spanish:Elbaita
Varieties:
Brazilian EmeraldBrazilian SapphireChromian ElbaiteCuprian ElbaiteSiberite

Other Information

Electrical:Pyroelectric, piezoelectric
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Gemstone

References for Elbaite

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Untersuchung des Rubellites aus Mähren, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Fünfter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 86-90

Bradley, J.E.S. & O. Bradley (1955) Observations on the colouring of pink and green zoned tourmaline. Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 26-38.

Barsanov, G.P. and Yakovleva, M.E. (1966) Elbaite and certain rare varieties of tourmaline. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 17: 3-25.

Manning, P.G. (1969) An optical absorption study of the origin of colour and pleochroism in pink and brown tourmalines. Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 678-690.

Donnay, Gabrielle & R. Barton (1972) Refinement of the crystal structure of elbaite and the mechanism of tourmaline solid solution: Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt.: 18: 273-286.

Gorskaya, M.G., Frank-Kamenetskaya, O.V., Rozhdestvenskaya, I.V., and Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A. (1982) Refinement of the crystal structure of Al-rich elbaite, and some aspects of the crystal chemistry of tourmalines. Soviet Physics: Crystallography: 27: 63-66.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Agrosì, G., Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S., Melchiorre, G., and Scandale, E. (2006) Mn-tourmaline crystals from island of Elba (Italy): Growth history and growth marks. American Mineralogist: 91: 944-952.

Ertl., A. (2008) About the nomenclature and the type locality of elbaite. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 154, 35-44. [http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/oemg/bd_154/154_035-044.pdf

Mindat.org articles about Elbaite

Article entries:
Geology of the Anita (Magee) Tourmaline Mine by Richard B. Saul 1958Scott L. Ritchie
TGMS 2008 - The Tourmaline Queen MineJolyon & Katya Ralph
Fipp 2008 Brazil Gem ShowEdgar Poubel de Matos Fernandes
Pegmatites: How to Locate a New Mineral Rich LocalityGary Powell
Weird Times at Black Mountain Quarry, Rumford, MaineDouglas Watts
The 'Loopy People' of Mt. Apatite, MaineDouglas Watts

Best Localities for Elbaite

Best of Species:Elbaite

Internet Links for Elbaite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Elbaite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Specimens:The following Elbaite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Elbaite

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