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Empressite

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Formula:
AgTe
System:OrthorhombicColour:light bronze
Lustre:MetallicHardness:3 - 3½
Name:For the type locality, the Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado.


Related to stützite.

Classification of Empressite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.05-90
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CB.80

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.25.

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.2.6

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
2 : Sulphides etc. of Ag
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Type Occurrence of Empressite

Type Locality:Empress Josephine Mine (Empress Josephine and Boss Mammoth Claims), Bonanza, Bonanza District (Kerber Creek District), Saguache Co., Colorado, USA
Year of Discovery:1914

Occurrences of Empressite

Geological Setting:Low temperature, gold poor, hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Empressite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:light bronze
Comment:Tarnishes darker bronze
Streak:grey-black to black
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN25=135 - 151 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):7.61 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.61 g/cm3

Crystallography of Empressite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 8.90Å, b = 20.07Å, c = 4.62Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.443 : 1 : 0.23
Unit Cell Volume:V 825.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:16
Morphology:Compact granular masses, rarely in crystals

Optical Data of Empressite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:strong - gray to yellowish white to grasyish blue
Bireflectance:moderate to strong
Colour in reflected light:greyish white
Pleochroism:Strong
Comments:Gray to creamy white

Chemical Properties of Empressite

Formula:
AgTe
Essential elements:Ag, Te
All elements listed in formula:Ag, Te
Common Impurities:Pb,Cu,Fe,S

Relationship of Empressite to other Species

Common Associates:
RickarditePyritePetziteHessite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CB.05aColoradoite
HgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyite
CdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabar
HgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
2.CB.05aSphalerite
ZnS
2.CB.05aStilleite
ZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemannite
HgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZn
Cu
 
2
Fe
 
3
Zn
 
5
S
 
10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite
(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
2.CB.10aEskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
2.CB.10aGallite
CuGaS
 
2
2.CB.10bHaycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
2.CB.10aLenaite
AgFeS
 
2
2.CB.10bMooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10bPutoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10aRoquesite
CuInS
 
2
2.CB.10bTalnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16
2.CB.10aLaforêtite
AgInS
 
2
2.CB.15aČernýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aFerrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aHocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aIdaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
2.CB.15aKesterite
Cu
 
2
(Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aKuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
2.CB.15bMohite
Cu
 
2
SnS
 
3
2.CB.15aPirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
2.CB.15aStannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15cStannoidite
Cu
+
6
Cu
2+
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
3
Sn
 
2
S
 
12
2.CB.15aVelikite
Cu
 
2
HgSnS
 
4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZn
Cu
 
8
(Fe,Zn)
 
3
Ge
 
2
S
 
12
(?)
2.CB.20Chatkalite
Cu
 
6
FeSn
 
2
S
 
8
2.CB.20Mawsonite
Cu
 
6
Fe
 
2
SnS
 
8
2.CB.30Colusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(As,Sn,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
2.CB.30Germanocolusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Ge,As)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Nekrasovite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Sn,As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Stibiocolusite
Cu
 
13
V
 
4
(Sb,Sn,As)
 
3
S
 
16
2.CB.30Ovamboite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu,Zn)
 
6
W
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Maikainite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu)
 
6
Mo
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.35aHemusite
Cu
 
6
SnMoS
 
8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekite
Cu
 
6
SnWS
 
8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35aRenierite
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
2.CB.35aVinciennite
Cu
+
7
Cu
2+
3
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Sn(As,Sb)S
 
16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaite
Cu
 
6
GeWS
 
8
2.CB.40Lautite
CuAsS
2.CB.45Cadmoselite
CdSe
2.CB.45Greenockite
CdS
2.CB.45Wurtzite
(Zn,Fe)S
2.CB.45Rambergite
MnS
2.CB.45Buseckite
(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.55bIsocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
2.CB.65Argentopyrite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.65Sternbergite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.70Sulvanite
Cu
 
3
VS
 
4
2.CB.75Vulcanite
CuTe
2.CB.85Muthmannite
AuAgTe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.2.1Acanthite
Ag
 
2
S
3.2.3Naumannite
Ag
 
2
Se
3.2.4Aguilarite
Ag
 
4
SeS
3.2.5Hessite
Ag
 
2
Te
3.2.7Stützite
Ag
 
5-x
Te
 
3
, x = 0.24-0.36
3.2.8Cervelleite
Ag
 
4
TeS
3.2.9Dervillite
Ag
 
2
AsS
 
2
3.2.10Stromeyerite
AgCuS
3.2.11Mckinstryite
Ag
 
5-x
Cu
 
3+x
S
 
4
3.2.12Jalpaite
Ag
 
3
CuS
 
2
3.2.13Eucairite
AgCuSe
3.2.14Cameronite
AgCu
 
7
Te
 
10
3.2.15Henryite
Ag
 
3
Cu
 
4
Te
 
4
3.2.16Sternbergite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.2.17Argentopyrite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.2.18Geffroyite
(Cu,Fe,Ag)
 
9
(Se,S)
 
8
3.2.19Argentopentlandite
Ag(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
8

Other Names for Empressite

Other Languages:
German:Empressit
Russian:Эмпрессит
Simplified Chinese: 粒碲银矿
Spanish:Empressita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Empressite

Reference List:

- +
Bradley (1914), American Journal of Science: 38: 163.

Schaller (1914), Washington Academy of Science Journal: 4: 497.

Bradley (1915), American Journal of Science: 39: 223.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 260.

Thompson, R.M., M.A. Peacock, J.F. Rowland, and L.G. Berry (1951): Empressite and “stuetzite”. Am. Mineral., 36, 458-469.

Honea, R.M. (1964) Empressite and stuetzite redefined. American Mineralogist 49, 325-328.

Cabri, L.J. (1965) Discussion of “empressite and stuetzite redefined” by R.M. Honea. Am. Mineral., 50, 795-801.

Stumpfl, E.F. and J. Rucklidge (1968) New data on natural phases in the system Ag–Te. American Mineralogist 53, 1513–1522.

Criddle, A.J. and C.J. Stanley, Editors. (1993) Quantitative data file for ore minerals, 3rd ed. Chapman & Hall, London, 154.

Bindi, L., P.G. Spry, and C. Cipriani (2004) Empressite, AgTe, from the Empress-Josephine mine, Colorado, U.S.A.: composition, physical properties, and determinatioon of the crystal structure. American Mineralogist 89, 1043-1047.

Internet Links for Empressite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Empressite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Empressite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Armenia
     
    • Kotayk' Province
      • Hrazdan
    Kovalenker, V. A., Zalibekyan, M. A., Laputina, I. P., Malov, V. S., Sandomirskaya, S. M., Garas' ko, M. I., & Mkhitaryan, D. I. (1990). Sulfide-telluride mineralization of the Megradzor ore field, Armenia. International Geology Review, 32(7), 705-720.
    Bulgaria
     
    • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
      • Zlatitsa Obshtina
        • Zlatitsa
    K. Bogdanov, A. Filipov, R. Kehayov (2005): Au-Ag-Te-Se minerals in the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 43, 13-19.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Skeena Mining Division
        • Pitman
    R. M. Thompson (1954) Mineral occurrences in Western Canada. American Mineralogist 39:525-528
    • Ontario
      • Sudbury District
        • Levack Township
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 17, pp.275-285 (1979); Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • MacLennan Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Xinglong Co.
    Yingfu Zhao and Zengyao Lu (2004): Mineral Resources and Geology 18(3), 212-216
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Guiyang Co.
          • Huangshaping Pb-Zn-polymetallic ore field
    Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244; American Mineralogist 89, 1043-1047
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Yanbian Chaoxianzu Autonomous Prefecture
        • Helong Co.
    Huanchun Duan and Shirong Zhu (1997): Mineral Resources and Geology 11(3), 199-204
    Fiji
     
    • Viti Levu
      • Tavua Gold Field
        • Vatukoula
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Econ Geol (1987) 82:345-370
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Sodankylä
    mutanen Tapani 1997. Geology and ore petrology of Akanvaara nd Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa -satovaara layered complex, Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, bulletin 395. 233s.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Shizuoka Prefecture
          • Shimoda City
            • Rendaiji
    Takasu (1965) Kobutsu-Gaku Zasshi (Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan), 7, 350-355.; Int Geol Congr (2008) Oslo. MRD-09
    Norway
     
    • Nordland
      • Fauske
        • Sulitjelma
          • Sulitjelma Cu Mines
    Cook, N. J. (1996): Mineralogy of the sulphide deposits at Sulitjelma, northern Norway. Ore Geology Reviews 11: 303-308
    Poland
     
    • Podlaskie
      • Suwałki District
    Nejbert K. 2008: Mineralogy of sulphides in mafic rocks of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif, NE Poland. Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 32, p. 116
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Brad
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
      • Deva
    www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeongsangnam-do (Kyongsang-namdo)
    Econ Geol (1990) 85:1114-1132
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Arvika
        • Glava
    Cook, N. J.,Ciobanu, C.L.& Danushevskiy, L, (2007): LA-ICP-MS determination of gold in Bi-chalcogenides from four deposits in the Fennoscandian Shield. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53, 23-30; Bonev, I. K., Petrunov, R., Cook, N. J., & Ciobanu, C. L. (2005). Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Geochem. Mineral. Petrol.(Bulg. Acad. Sci.), 42, 1-22.
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Goms
        • Furka pass area
          • Furka
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 177.
    Turkey
     
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Ayvalık
    Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 212.; Williams, S. (1980). Schieffelinite, a new lead tellurate-sulphate from Tombstone, Arizona. Mineralogical Magazine, 43(330), 771-773.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Gold Hill District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    American Mineralogist (1949) 34:341-382
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
        • Magnolia District
    In the collection of Brent Thorne.
        • Sugarloaf District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Saguache Co.
        • Bonanza District (Kerber Creek District)
          • Bonanza
    Am Min 49 (1964), 325; American Mineralogist (1930) 15: 272-273
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Washington
      • Chelan Co.
        • Wenatchee District
          • Wenatchee
            • Squillchuck Creek
    Lasmanis, R. (1995): Mineral News: A Compendium of Wenatchee District Mineralogy, Chelan County, Washington, p.6-7
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
      • Angren Region
        • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Dmitriy I. Belakovskiy (2003): New Data on Minerals: 38: 101-112.; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
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