Mindat Logo

Enargite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
Cu
 
3
AsS
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Greyish-black to black, ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:3
Name:From the Greek έναργής for "distinct," referring to its cleavage.
Dimorph of:Luzonite


Typically found as dark-grey to black massive material; crystals usually thick tabular, but may also be prismatic.

May contain minor Sb. The most Sb-rich enargite was found to have the composition Cu3As0.8Sb0.2S4 (Pósfai & Buseck, 1998).


Chemically similar to tennantite which, however, has no cleavage.

Classification of Enargite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.14-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.KA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
K : Sulfarsenates, Sulfantimonates
A : Sulfarsenates with (As,Sb)S4 tetrahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:3.2.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:3.2.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
2 : ø = 4
Hey's CIM Ref.:6.3.1

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
3 : Sulpharsenates and sulphantimonates
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1380.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Enargite

Type Locality:San Francisco vein, Morococha District, Yauli Province, Junín Department, Peru
Year of Discovery:1850

Occurrences of Enargite

Geological Setting:A mineral of moderate temperature vein and replacement deposits.

Physical Properties of Enargite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Greyish-black to black, grey/rose-brown in reflected light.
Streak:Black.
Hardness (Mohs):3
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {110}, imperfect on {100} and {010}, indistinct {001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.4 - 4.5 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.40 g/cm3

Crystallography of Enargite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:Pmn21
Cell Parameters:a = 7.407(1) Å, b = 6.436(1) Å, c = 6.154(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.151 : 1 : 0.956
Unit Cell Volume:V 293.37 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals tabular on {001}, or prismatic. May be striated parallel to "c." Also found as massive material, may be granular.
Twinning:Common on {320}, sometimes as star-shaped cyclic trillings.
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Enargite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Enargite - Tabular {001}
Enargite - {110}, {001}, modified

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.22(40)
3.21(80)
3.07(90)
2.84(80)
1.85(60)
1.73(100)
1.59(50)
1.26(40)

Optical Data of Enargite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong dark violet red or olive green
Colour in reflected light:Grey to light pink brown
Internal Reflections:Deep red
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Enargite

Formula:
Cu
 
3
AsS
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu3AsS4
Essential elements:As, Cu, S
All elements listed in formula:As, Cu, S
Common Impurities:Sb,Fe,Pb,Zn,Ag,Ge

Relationship of Enargite to other Species

Common Associates:
TetrahedriteTennantiteSphaleriteQuartzPyrite
GalenaCovelliteChalcociteBorniteBaryte
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.KA.05Petrukite
(Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)
 
3
(Sn,In)S
 
4
2.KA.10Briartite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)GeS
 
4
2.KA.10Famatinite
Cu
 
3
SbS
 
4
2.KA.10Luzonite
Cu
 
3
AsS
 
4
2.KA.10Permingeatite
Cu
 
3
SbSe
 
4
2.KA.10Barquillite
Cu
 
2
CdGeS
 
4
2.KA.15Fangite
Tl
 
3
AsS
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
6.3.2Luzonite
Cu
 
3
AsS
 
4
6.3.3Famatinite
Cu
 
3
SbS
 
4

Other Names for Enargite

Synonyms:
Clarite (of Sandberger)GarbyiteGuayacanite
Other Languages:
German:Clarit
Enargit
Garbyit
Guayacanit
Japanese:硫砒銅鉱
Russian:Энаргит
Simplified Chinese:硫砷铜矿
Spanish:Clarita
Enargita
Garbyita
Guayacanita
Traditional Chinese:硫砷鋼礦
Varieties:
Argentian EnargiteStannoenargite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Occasionally found in large enough volumes to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for Enargite

Reference List:

- +
Breithaupt (1850), Ann. Phys.: 80: 383.

Field (1859), American Journal of Science: 27: 52.

Sandberger (1874), Jb. Min.: 960.

Sandberger (1875). Jb. Min.: 382.

Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 5: xxvi.

Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 6: 49, 124.

Pauling and Weinbaum (1934).

Graton and Bowditch (1936), Economic Geology: 31: 696.

Harcourt (1937), American Mineralogist: 22: 517.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 389-392.

Tanelli G. (1970) - Ricerche sui minerali del gruppo dell'enargite (enargite, stibioenargite, luzonite, famatinite, stibioluzonite). Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 561-583.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, Vandall T. King (1997, Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 155.

Mémoires du Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières: 54: 99-124.

Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. (1998): Stacking disorder and polytypism in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 365-372.

Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. (1998): Relationships between microstructure and composition in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 373–382. [http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ammin/toc/Articles_Free/1998/Posfai_p373-382_98.pdf]

Deyell, C.L. and Hedenquist, J.W. (2011): Trace element geochemistry of enargite in the Mankayan district, Philippines. Economic Geology 106, 1465-1478.

Internet Links for Enargite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Enargite on Google
  • Look for Enargite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Enargite on Webmineral
  • Look for Enargite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Enargite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Enargite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Enargite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
  • Enargite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Enargite specimens
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • Find Enargite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Search for Enargite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Specimens:The following Enargite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Enargite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: August 8, 2014 03:00:04
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds