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Enargite

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Formula:
Cu3AsS4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Greyish-black to black, ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3
Name:
From the Greek έναργής for "distinct," referring to its cleavage.
Dimorph of:
Typically found as dark-grey to black massive material; crystals usually thick tabular, but may also be prismatic.

May contain minor Sb. The most Sb-rich enargite was found to have the composition Cu3As0.8Sb0.2S4 (Pósfai & Buseck, 1998).


Chemically similar to tennantite which, however, has no cleavage.

Classification of Enargite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.KA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
K : Sulfarsenates, Sulfantimonates
A : Sulfarsenates with (As,Sb)S4 tetrahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
3.2.1.1
3.2.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
2 : ø = 4
6.3.1

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
3 : Sulpharsenates and sulphantimonates
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Type Occurrence of Enargite

Year of Discovery:
1850

Occurrences of Enargite

Geological Setting:
A mineral of moderate temperature vein and replacement deposits.

Physical Properties of Enargite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Greyish-black to black, grey/rose-brown in reflected light.
Streak:
Black.
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}, imperfect on {100} and {010}, indistinct {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.4 - 4.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.40 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Enargite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Pmn21
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.407(1) Å, b = 6.436(1) Å, c = 6.154(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.151 : 1 : 0.956
Unit Cell Volume:
V 293.37 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals tabular on {001}, or prismatic. May be striated parallel to "c." Also found as massive material, may be granular.
Twinning:
Common on {320}, sometimes as star-shaped cyclic trillings.

Crystallographic forms of Enargite

Crystal Atlas:
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Enargite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Enargite - Tabular {001}
Enargite - {110}, {001}, modified
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.22(40)
3.21(80)
3.07(90)
2.84(80)
1.85(60)
1.73(100)
1.59(50)
1.26(40)

Optical Data of Enargite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong dark violet red or olive green
Colour in reflected light:
Grey to light pink brown
Internal Reflections:
Deep red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Enargite

Formula:
Cu3AsS4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Sb,Fe,Pb,Zn,Ag,Ge

Relationship of Enargite to other Species

2.KA.05Petrukite(Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)3(Sn,In)S4
2.KA.10BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
2.KA.10FamatiniteCu3SbS4
2.KA.10LuzoniteCu3AsS4
2.KA.10PermingeatiteCu3SbSe4
2.KA.10BarquilliteCu2CdGeS4
2.KA.15FangiteTl3AsS4

Other Names for Enargite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Occasionally found in large enough volumes to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for Enargite

Reference List:
Breithaupt (1850), Ann. Phys.: 80: 383.

Field (1859), American Journal of Science: 27: 52.

Sandberger (1874), Jb. Min.: 960.

Sandberger (1875). Jb. Min.: 382.

Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 5: xxvi.

Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 6: 49, 124.

Pauling and Weinbaum (1934).

Graton and Bowditch (1936), Economic Geology: 31: 696.

Harcourt (1937), American Mineralogist: 22: 517.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 389-392.

Tanelli G. (1970) - Ricerche sui minerali del gruppo dell'enargite (enargite, stibioenargite, luzonite, famatinite, stibioluzonite). Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 561-583.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, Vandall T. King (1997, Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 155.

Mémoires du Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières: 54: 99-124.

Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. (1998): Stacking disorder and polytypism in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 365-372.

Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. (1998): Relationships between microstructure and composition in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 373–382. [http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ammin/toc/Articles_Free/1998/Posfai_p373-382_98.pdf]

Deyell, C.L. and Hedenquist, J.W. (2011): Trace element geochemistry of enargite in the Mankayan district, Philippines. Economic Geology 106, 1465-1478.

Internet Links for Enargite

Specimens:
The following Enargite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Enargite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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