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Ettringite

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Formula:
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless; colourless ...
Hardness:2 - 2½
Member of:Ettringite Group
Name:After the type locality at Ettringen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.


Ettringite Group.

Although it is generally assumed that a solid solution series between ettringite and thaumasite exists, both species have different space groups and a possible discontinuity was identified, characterised by a gap in the a-dimension of the solid solution phases (Barnett et al., 2000).

The Al analogue of bentorite.

Well-known as a synthetic phase in concrete.
Has been discussed as a potential phase for immobilisation of toxic metals.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ettringite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Ettringite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/D.13-10
Strunz 9th edition ID:7.DG.15
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
Dana 8th edition ID:31.10.2.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.13

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Ettringite

Co-type Localities:Mayener Feld, Southern lava flow, Bellerberg volcano, Ettringen, Mayen, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
Ettringer Feld, Western lava flow, Bellerberg volcano, Ettringen, Mayen, Eifel, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
Year of Discovery:1874
Geological Setting of type material:In cavities of metamorphosed limestone inclusions in a leucite-nepheline-tephrite rock.

Physical Properties of Ettringite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:Turns white upon partial dehydration.
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Cleavage:Perfect
On {10_10}, perfect.
Density (measured):1.77 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.76 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ettringite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:P3 1c
Cell Parameters:a = 11.23Å, c = 21.44Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.909
Unit Cell Volume:V 2,341.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals small and prismatic [0001], commonly without terminal faces.

Optical Data of Ettringite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.491 nε = 1.470
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.021

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Comments:Becomes uniaxial positive on dehydration.

Chemical Properties of Ettringite

Formula:
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O
Essential elements:Al, Ca, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, H, O, S

Relationship of Ettringite to other Species

Member of:Ettringite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Buryatite
Ca
 
3
(Si,Fe,Al)(SO
 
4
)[B(OH)
 
4
]O(OH)
 
5
· 12H
 
2
O
Carraraite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Ge(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
Charlesite
Ca
 
6
(Al,Si)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH,O)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Hielscherite
Ca
 
3
Si(SO
 
4
)(SO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 11H
 
2
O
Imayoshiite
Ca
 
3
Al(CO
 
3
)[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Jouravskite
Ca
 
6
Mn
3+
2
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
Kottenheimite
Ca
 
3
Si(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
·12H
 
2
O
Micheelsenite
(Ca,Y)
 
3
Al(HPO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
Thaumasite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Si(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.DG.05Darapskite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(NO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite
(Na, K, Fe, SO
 
4
)
7.DG.10Humberstonite
Na
 
7
K
 
3
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DG.10Ungemachite
K
 
3
Na
 
8
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Charlesite
Ca
 
6
(Al,Si)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH,O)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Jouravskite
Ca
 
6
Mn
3+
2
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Thaumasite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Si(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Carraraite
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)[Ge(OH)
 
6
](CO
 
3
) · 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.15Buryatite
Ca
 
3
(Si,Fe,Al)(SO
 
4
)[B(OH)
 
4
]O(OH)
 
5
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.20Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
7.DG.20Korkinoite
Ca
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 9(H
 
2
O)
7.DG.25Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.DG.30Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
7.DG.35Chessexite
(Na,K)
 
4
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Zn)
 
3
Al
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
10
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 40H
 
2
O
7.DG.40Carlosruizite
K
 
6
(Na,K)
 
4
Na
 
6
Mg
 
10
(SeO
 
4
)
 
12
(IO
 
3
)
 
12
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.40Fuenzalidaite
K
 
6
(Na,K)
 
4
Na
 
6
Mg
 
10
(SO
 
4
)
 
12
(IO
 
3
)
 
12
· 12H
 
2
O
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite
(Ca,Mg)
 
3
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
[Si(OH)
 
6
] · 9H
 
2
O (?)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.1Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Ettringite

Synonyms:
Woodfordite
Other Languages:
German:Chalkomorphit
Ettringit
Russian:Эттрингит
Simplified Chinese:钙钒石
Spanish:Ettringita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in dilute acids. Partially decomposed by water, rendering an alkaline solution.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ettringite

Reference List:

- +
Vom Rath, G. (1873): Über ein neues Mineral (Chalkomorphit) auf einem Einschluß in der Lava von Niedermendig, Annalen der Chemie und Physik, Ergänzungsband VI, 376-378

Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40

Lehmann, J. (1874): Über den Ettringit, ein neues Mineral in Kalkeinschlüssen der Lava von Ettringen (Laacher Gebiet). N. Jb. Mineral. Geol. Paläont., 273-275.

Moses (1893) American Journal of Science: 45: 489.

Brauns, R.A. (1922) Die Mineralien der niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete. 225pp., 4to, Stuttgart: 173.

Bannister, M.A. (1935): Ettringite from Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazin, 24, 324-329.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 589-590.

McConnell, Duncan & Joseph Murdoch (1962): Crystal chemistry of ettringite. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 59-64.

Carpenter, A.B. (1963): Oriented overgrowths of thaumasite on ettringite. Am. Mineral. 48, 1394–1396.

McCarthy, Gregory J.; Hassett, David J.; Bender, Jason A. (1992): Synthesis, crystal chemistry and stability of ettringite, a material with potential applications in hazardous waste immobilization. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 245, 129-140.

Barnett, S.J., Adam, C.D. & Jackson, A.R.W. (2000): Solid solutions between ettringite and thaumasite. Journal of Materials Science 35, 4109-4114.

Barnett, S.J., Adam, C.D. & Jackson, A.R.W. (2001): An XRPD profile fitting investigation of the solid solution between ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and carbonate ettringite, Ca6Al2(CO3)3(OH)12.26H2O. Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 13-17.

Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F. and Neubauer, J. (2006): Refined ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12•26H2O) structure for quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. Powder Diffr. 21, 4-11.

Moschner, G.; Lothenbach, B.; Winnefeld, F.; Ulrich, A.; Figi, R.; Kretzschmar, R. (2009): Solid solution between Al-ettringite and Fe-ettringite (Ca6[Al1-xFex(OH)6]2(SO4)3.26H2O). Cement and Concrete Research 39, 482-489.

Internet Links for Ettringite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ettringite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Ettringite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
          • Loja
    Löffler, E. & Kolitsch, U. (2011): Die Mineralien der Loja bei Persenbeug, Niederösterreich (II). Mineralien-Welt. 22 (4): 51-62
    • Styria
      • Bad Radkersburg
        • Klöch
    Postl, W. & Walter, F. (1983); R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs, 1993
      • Leoben
        • Galgenberg
    Annalen 1999, p.11-22
      • Stubalpe
        • Kleinfeistritz
          • Kothgraben (Kotgraben)
    C.Auer (2012)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
              • St Gertraudi
    Lapis 19 (7/8):69 (1994)
    Belgium
     
    • Limburg Province
      • Dilsen-Stokkem
    • Namur Province
      • Andenne
    No reference listed
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Clermont-Ferrand
          • Ceyrat
    Grünhagen H and Mergoil J (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy de Dôme). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 86: 149-157.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
        • Espalion
    Boutry C., Pelisson P., Pillard F. (1986), Les zéolites d'Espalion, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 3-7
    Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Bavarian Forest
          • Hauzenberg
            • Kropfmühl-Untergriesbach Graphite Mining District
              • Kropfmühl
    Habel, M. (2011): Neufunde aus dem östlichen Bayerischen Wald (VIII). Mineralien Welt. 22 (1),80-87
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Osnabrück
        • Georgsmarienhütte
    Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
        • Stolberg
    International Association of Collectors of Slag; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Hinterweiler
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
          • Üdersdorf
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Gerolstein
          • Roth
    Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
        • Hillesheim
    G. Blaß, F.J. Emmerich, H.W. Graf, Minerale der Vulkaneifel, DVD Version 2013/1.1
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
              • Northern Lava flow
    Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
              • Southern lava flow
    Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
    Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Simmons, W.B., Tillmanns, E., Fischer, R.X., (1984): Willhendersonite, a new zeolite isostructural with chabazite, Amer. Mineral. 69, 186-189
              • Western lava flow
    Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
        • Mendig
          • Bell
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
          • Niedermendig
    Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Niederzissen
          • Brenk
    Hentschel, G., Ettringit vom Schellkopf bei Brenk in der Eifel, Der Aufschluss, 19, 198-200, 1968
      • Lahn valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Braubach
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
          • Frücht
    Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Marienberg District
          • Lauta
    Hajek, W. (2010): Kristallwelten Marienberg. Weise Verlag, München.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 723-724.
    Italy
     
    • Basilicata
      • Potenza Province
        • Melfi
          • Vulture Mount
    Stoppa, F., Jones, A.P., and Sharygin, V.V. (2009): Central European Journal of Geosciences 1(2), 131-151
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
          • Monte Somma
            • Ercolano
              • San Vito
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
    Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
        • Rome
    Luigi Mattei specimen
          • Valleranello
      • Viterbo Province
        • Montalto di Castro
          • Pietra Massa Locality
    Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Piombino
    Franzini & Perchiazzi, 1992. I minerali delle scorie ferrifere di Baratti (Livorno). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie A: 43-77
    • Umbria
      • Perugia Province
        • Spoleto
    Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza Province
        • Cornedo Vicentino
          • Spagnago
    Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Laghi
    Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
        • Tretto di Schio
          • Val Munari
            • Contrade Maglio-Pornaro
    - Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
    Matsuyama, F. (2001)
    Jordan
     
    • Amman
      • Hashem region
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim formation
    Rob Lavinsky; Rob Lavinsky
    Ella V. Sokol, Olga L. Gaskova, Svetlana N. Kokh, Olga A. Kozmenko, Yuri V. Seryotkin, Yevgeny Vapnik, and Michail N. Murashko (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist, 96, 659-674.
    Romania
     
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_05/pdf/szakalls1.pdf]
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
        • Verkhnechegemskaya caldera (Verkhni Chegem caldera; Upper Chegem caldera)
    A. E. Zadov data
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Black Rock
    Rob Lavinsky photo
        • Hotazel
    Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
        • Kuruman
          • N'Chwaning Mines
    No reference listed
    Minerals of South Africa + Hochleitner, R. (1986). Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. LAPIS 11 (10), 19-24
    Spain
     
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Ciudad Real
    Calvo, M., Calvo Sevillano, G., Viñals, J. y Sanz, A. (2010). Presencia de ettringita y thaumasita en vacuolas de los basaltos del Campo de Calatrava (Ciudad Real). Macla, 11, 53-54.
          • Bolaños de Calatrava
    JRGL collection
    Tuvalu
     
    • Funafuti Island
    Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 411-414.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Lanner
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Cumbria
        • City of Carlisle District
          • Tindale (Tindale Fell)
    Braithwaite, R.S.W., Lamb, R.P.H. and Nattrass, A.L. (2006): Secondary species associated with weathering of industrial residues at Tindale Fell Spelter Works, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society 9, 61-64.
      • Derbyshire
        • Ashover
          • Milltown
    Rust, S. Seltene Mineralien aus dem Steinbruch Milltown bei Ashover LAPIS Mineralienmagazin 1994, 12, p.13-17, 58; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993) The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13:16-55
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Larne
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.; Mineralogical Magazine 1942 26 : 190-196
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
        • Ardnamurchan
    Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 1-15.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 217; Butler, B.S., et al (1938b), Geology and ore deposits of the Tombstone district, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 143.
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
          • Crestmore quarries
            • Sky Blue Hill
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert A. Chalmers (1960), Ettringite (“woodfordite”) from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist: 45: 1275-1278; Mineralogical Magazine (1962): 33: 59-64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 180; Berry, Leonard G. (1963a), The unit cell of ettringite: American Mineralogist: 48: 939; Carpenter, A.B. (1963), Oriented Overgrowths of thaumasite on ettringite: American Mineralogist: 48: 1394-1395; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265.
    • Vermont
      • Windham Co.
        • Putney
    Rocks & Min. vol. 71, (1996)
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Highland Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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