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Euclase

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Formula:
BeAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
System:MonoclinicColour:Colorless, white, pale ...
Hardness:
Name:From the greek for easy and fracture, due to good cleavage


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Classification of Euclase

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AE.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
E : Nesosilicates with additional anions (O,OH,F,H2O); cations in tetrahedral [4] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.2.1.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.6.2

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
6 : Aluminosilicates of Be
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Type Occurrence of Euclase

Type Locality:Ouro Preto, Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Year of Discovery:1792

Occurrences of Euclase

Geological Setting:Decomposition of beryl in pegmatites and alpine veins

Physical Properties of Euclase

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Somewhat pearly on cleavage
Colour:Colorless, white, pale green to deep yellowish green, greenish blue, pale blue to deep blue
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=1310
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Imperfect on {110} {001}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.99 - 3.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.115 g/cm3

Crystallography of Euclase

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Cell Parameters:a = 4.763(5) Å, b = 14.29(2) Å, c = 4.618(5) Å
β = 100.25°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.333 : 1 : 0.323
Unit Cell Volume:V 309.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Prismatic crystals
Crystal Atlas:
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Euclase no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Euclase no.69 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Euclase no.70 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Euclase

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.652 nβ = 1.655 nγ = 1.671
2V:Measured: 50° , Calculated: 48°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.019

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Shades of deep blue

Chemical Properties of Euclase

Formula:
BeAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Essential elements:Al, Be, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Be, H, O, Si
Common Impurities:Zn,F,Ca,Mg,Fe,Na

Relationship of Euclase to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AE.05Beryllite
Be
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
9.AE.15Sverigeite
NaMnMgSnBe
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
9.AE.20Hodgkinsonite
Mn
2+
 
Zn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AE.25Gerstmannite
MnMgZn(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AE.30Clinohedrite
CaZn(SiO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
9.AE.35Stringhamite
CaCu(SiO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
9.AE.40Katoptrite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
13
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
Sb
5+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
20
9.AE.45Yeatmanite
Zn
 
6
Mn
2+
9
Sb
5+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12
9.AE.50Sphaerobertrandite
Be
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.6.1Beryl
Be
 
3
Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
16.6.3Bavenite
Ca
 
4
Be
 
2
Al
 
2
Si
 
9
O
 
26
(OH)
 
2
16.6.4Aminoffite
Ca
 
2
(Be,Al)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(H
 
2
O,OH)
16.6.5Milarite
K
 
2
Ca
 
4
Al
 
2
Be
 
4
Si
 
24
O
 
60
· H
 
2
O
16.6.6Lovdarite
K
 
2
Na
 
6
Be
 
4
Si
 
14
O
 
36
•9H
 
2
O
16.6.7Surinamite
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
Al
 
4
BeSi
 
3
O
 
16
16.6.8Ferrotaaffeite-6N'3S
(Be,Zn,Mg)FeAl
 
4
O
 
8

Other Names for Euclase

Synonyms:
Euclasite
Other Languages:
German:Euklas
Euclasit
Russian:Эвклаз
Spanish:Euclasita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Euclase

Reference List:

- +
Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 72: 159-165.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 117: 16-36.

Internet Links for Euclase

Search Engines:
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  • Look for Euclase on Wikipedia
  • Look for Euclase on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Euclase details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Euclase specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • Specimens:The following Euclase specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Euclase

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Spargoville
    Sue Koepke collection
      • Mount Magnet Shire
        • Dalgaranga Station
    Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Goldberg group
          • Große Fleiß valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Gastein valley
          • Anlauf valley
    G. Niedermayr et al.: Carinthia II 194./114.:240-241 (2003)
        • Krimmler Ache valley
    Lapis 29(9):32-33 (2004)
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
            • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
              • Kolm-Saigurn
    Lapis 29(9):28 (2004)
            • Grieswies - Krumlkeeskopf area
    Lapis 29(9):28-29 (2004)
    Walter, F. (2009)
              • Grieswies
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Lapis 29(9):28 (2004)
            • Krumlbach valley
              • Kruml glacier
    A. Schermaier: Der Aufschluss 37(12):417-420 (1986)
    • Tyrol
      • East Tyrol
        • Virgen valley
          • Umbal valley
            • Roßhuf
    Lapis 29(9):33 (2004)
      • North Tyrol
        • Zillertal
          • Gerlos valley
            • Schönach valley
    Lapis 29(9):30 (2004)
          • Stillupgrund (Stillup valley)
    Lapis 29(9):30 (2004)
          • Zemmgrund
            • Alpenrose Inn
    R. Dallinger & J. Gufler (2006): Der größte Euklaskristall der Alpen - Neufund im Zillertal. Lapis 31 (3), 28-31. (in German); Lapis 29(9):31 (2004)
    Lapis 29(9):30-31 (2004)
            • Mörchner area
    Lapis 29(9):32 (2004)
    Lapis 29(9):31-32 (2004)
    Belgium
     
    • Luxembourg Province
      • Stavelot Massif
        • Vielsalm
    A. Hanson, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 139-143.
    Brazil
     
    • Bahia
    Luiz Menezes
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce Valley
    Richard Dale collection
      • Iron Quadrangle
    [MinRec 20:230]
          • Rodrigo Silva district
            • Boa Vista
    Van King
    Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 168-370.
      • Jequitinhonha Valley
    Oleg Lopatkin specimen
        • Minas Novas
    No reference listed
      • São Sebastião do Maranhão
    AmMin 65:183-187 (1980)
    • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Carnaúba dos Dantas
          • Ermo
    http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/2002/Eeckhout_p1297-1306_02.pdf
        • Equador
    [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    Specimens sold by Richard Gaines in 1972-Rock Currier
    De Ascenção Guedes, R., Lebocey, J., Bayle, L.-D. & Chappero, P.-J. (2011): Munich 2011. Le Règne Minerál. 102, 10-29 [p. 20]
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Mandalay Division
      • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
        • Mogok Township
          • Mogok Valley
    Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Golden Mining Division
        • Radium Hot Springs
    Ray Hill.
      • Revelstoke Mining Division
        • Revelstoke
    DIXON,A., CEMPIREK, J. & GROAT, L.A. (2014) Mineralogy and geochemistry of pegmatites on Mount Begbie, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 52, 129-164.
    China
     
    • Fujian Province
      • Nanping Prefecture
        • Yanping District
          • Nanping pegmatite field (Xikeng pegmatite field)
    Can Rao, Ru Cheng Wang, and Huan Hu (2011): Paragenetic assemblages of beryllium silicates and phosphates from the Nanping No. 31 granitic pegmatite dyke, Fujian province, southestern China. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1175-1187
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Linwu Co.
          • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Huang et al. (1988): Hsianghualing rocks, mineral deposits and minerals. Beijing Sci. Techn. Publ. Bur. (Beijing), 255 pp.
        • Yizhang Co.
          • Yaogangxian W-Sn ore field
    Ottens, B. (2011): Mineralogical Record 42, 557-603
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
        • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
    Ottens, B. and G. Neumeier (2012) The Huanggang Mine, Inner Mongolia, China. Mineralogical Record 43:529-563
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Chongyi Co.
    Ottens, B. (2009): Lapis 34(10), 31-41
        • Dayu Co.
          • Xihuashan ore field
    Dr. Lueg collection; B. Ottens collection + Ottens, B. (2007): Chinesisches Tagebuch (IV): Wulfenite aus Xinjiang, Euklas us den Dayu-Bergen und neue Fluorite. LAPIS 32 (5), 34-39 (in German)
    Colombia
     
    • Boyacá Department
      • Guavió-Guatéque Mining District
        • Mun. de Chivor
    Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
      • Mun. de Pauna
    Fabre Minerals.
    • Cundinamarca Department
      • Guavió-Guatéque Mining District
    Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Lázně Kynžvart (Bad Königswart)
    Černý, P., Veselovský, F.: Pegmatit Bílý kámen (Weisser Stein) u Kynžvartu. Minerál, 2000, roč. 8, č. 1, s. 10-16.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg)
          • Maršíkov (Marchendorf)
    Toegel, V.: Mineralizace Be pegmatitu „Pod kořeny“ v Maršíkově. Minerál, 2011, roč. 19, č. 3, s. 207-213.
    Novák, M.: Maršíkov - Scheibengraben. In Exkurzní průvodce po mineralogických lokalitách na Sobotínsku. Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2002, Olomouc, s. 38-41.
    Finland
     
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Kemiö Island (Kimito Island)
    Ilkka Mikkola collection
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Tröstau
            • Leupoldsdorf
    Lapis, 10 (7/8), 15-26+81
    Lapis,10 (7/8), 40-48.
          • Weißenstadt
            • Großer Waldstein
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
            • Kirchenlamitz
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
            • Rudolfstein
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Vogtland
        • Bad Brambach
    Lapis 2002(11), 13-18
    Italy
     
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Aurina Valley (Ahrnbach Valley)
          • Cadipietra (Steinhaus)
            • Keilbachspitz
    Lapis 29(9):32-33 (2004)
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
          • Vento Valley (Wind Valley)
    Lapis 29(9):33 (2004)
        • Vizze Valley (Pfitsch valley)
    Gartner, Ar., Gartner An. (2002): Burgum im schönen Pfitschtal. Tipografia Novaprint Cavalese, 126 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Gifu Prefecture
          • Nakatsugawa City
            • Shimono
    Takashi ISHIBASHI et al., "Euclase from Fukuoka mine, Nakatsugawa City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan", 2011 Joint Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences and The Geological Society of Japan
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Itasy Region
        • Soavinandriana District
    Moore, T. (2002) What's New in Minerals?. Tucson Show 2002. Mineralogical Record. 33: p. 273
    • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
      • Alaotra-Mangoro Region
    Arliguie M photo & specimen
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    v. Knorring, O., Sahama, Th.G. & Saari, E. 1964. A note on euclase from Muiane Mine, Alto Ligonha, Mozambique. Bulletin de la Commission géologique de Finlande 215, 143–145.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Spitzkopje Area
    Cairncross, B. (2005) Famous Mineral Localities: Klein Spitzkoppe, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 36(4) 317-335
    - Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, p. 288-290 (in German)
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Iveland
        • Eptevann
    Strand, T.(1953): Euclase from Iveland, occurring as an alteration product of beryl. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 31,1-5
    Peru
     
    • Ancash Department
      • Pallasca Province
    Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
    Portugal
     
    • Viseu District
      • Mangualde
        • Chãs de Tavares
    Pedro Alves collection
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Sayan Mts
          • Kuragin District
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Malyshevo
              • Izumrudnye Kopi area
                • Malyshevskoe deposit (Mariinskoe)
    Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
    Sri Lanka
     
    • Sabaragamuwa Province
      • Ratnapura District
    Sweden
     
    • Ångermanland
      • Kramfors
    Jonsson, E. & Langhof, J. (1997): Late-stage beryllium silicates from the Sels-Vitberget granitic pegmatite, Kramfors, Central Sweden. GFF 119:249 - 251
    • Södermanland
      • Nynäshamn
    Gustafsson, Lars & Otter, Bertil (1991): Mineralförekomster i Stockholmstrakten.Del 2. STEIN 18(4),4-12
    Gustavsson (Sic!), Lars: (1992): En beryllium paragenes från Stora Vika. Berg & Mineral. 2, nr 3, p.11
    • Västmanland
      • Köping
    Nysten,P. & Gustafsson, L.(2006): I jakt på sällsynta mineral. Geologiskt forum nr 49, 22-25; Martensson, C. (1960) Euklas und Bertrandit aus dem Feldspatpegmatit von Kolsva in Schweden. Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 94, 1248-1252.
    Switzerland
     
    • Ticino (Tessin)
      • Leventina
        • Central St Gotthard Massif
          • Prevat Valley
    Lapis 29(9):33-34 (2004)
      • Maggia Valley
        • Bavona Valley
          • Cavagnoli glacier area (Cavagnöö glacier)
    Lapis 29(9):34 (2004)
    Tanzania
     
    • Dar es Salaam Region
      • Morogoro Rural District
    Fine euclase specimen in the British Museum-Rock Currier
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Agnes District
          • Perranzabuloe
    Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • Devon
        • Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor)
    Ukraine
     
    • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
    Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Nome Borough
        • Port Clarence District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
          • Seward Peninsula
    Sinkankas, 1989. Emerald & Other Beryls.
    • Colorado
      • Chaffee Co.
    Van King specimen
      • Park Co.
        • Lake George
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Lake George (Badger Flats) Beryllium Area (Mountain Dale)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Trumbull
          • Long Hill
    Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
        • Albany
    King, V., 2009, Maine Feldspar, Families, and Feuds.
      • Sagadahoc Co.
    Don Swenson collection
    • Michigan
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
    • New Hampshire
      • Rockingham Co.
        • Raymond
    Francis, C. A. (1985): Minerals of the Chandler Mine, A Zoned Lithium Rich Pegmatite (Rocks and Minerals, 60:263-264) ; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
    • New Mexico
      • Sandoval Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • North Carolina
      • Polk Co.
    Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina; Kunz, G., 1885, Precious Stones, USBM, p. 741
    • Texas
      • Hudspeth Co.
        • Quitman Mts
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Virginia
      • Amelia Co.
        • Winterham
    Rocks & Min.: 8:143-144.
    • Wisconsin
      • Marathon Co.
        • Rib Mountain
    Cordura, W http://www.uwex.edu/wgnhs/Mineral%20Index/Minerals/euclase.htm
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland West
      • Karoi District (Urungwe; Hurungwe District)
    Journal of Gemmology 1998, Volume 26 No. 4, 209-218; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa; Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 98.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 98.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa
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