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Euxenite-(Y)

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Formula:
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
Usually the sum (Nb+Ta) is close to Ti, in other words (Nb+Ta)/Ti ~ 1.
System:OrthorhombicColour:Black, greenish or ...
Hardness:5½ - 6½
Name:From the Greek εΰζευος, friendly to strangers, hospitale, in allusion to the many rare elements that it contains.
Dimorph of:Aeschynite-(Y)
Isostructural with:Tanteuxenite-(Y)


Minerals of the Euxenite (Y)-Polycrase-(Y) series are the most widespread niobates after columbite-(Fe) and pyrochlore.

Compare Nioboaeschynite-(Y).

Classification of Euxenite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.19-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DG.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
G : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:8.3.8.2

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
3 : AB2O6
Hey's CIM Ref.:18.4.5

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
4 : Niobates and tantalates containing both U and rare earths
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Type Occurrence of Euxenite-(Y)

Type Locality:Undisclosed pegmatite, Jølster, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway

Occurrences of Euxenite-(Y)

Geological Setting:Granitic pegmatites. Placer deposits.

Physical Properties of Euxenite-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic
Colour:Black, greenish or brownish tint at times
Comment:Brown to yellow brown in transmitted light.
Streak:Yellowish, grayish, reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN50=633 - 692 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.3 - 5.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.16 g/cm3

Crystallography of Euxenite-(Y)

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 5.5528(6) Å, b = 14.6432(20) Å, c = 5.1953(7) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.379 : 1 : 0.355
Unit Cell Volume:V 422.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Stout prismatic [001]. The faces are striated parallel to their intersection with {010} Often in parallel or subparallel and slightly radial aggregates of crystals. Massive.
Twinning:1. On {201}, common. The twins are flattened {010} and striated [001] 2. Possibly on {101}, rare. 3. Possibly on {013}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Euxenite-(Y) no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Euxenite-(Y) no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Euxenite-(Y)

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 2.06 - 2.24
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Euxenite-(Y)

Formula:
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6


Usually the sum (Nb+Ta) is close to Ti, in other words (Nb+Ta)/Ti ~ 1.
Simplified for copy/paste:(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)2O6
Idealised Formula:
YNbTiO
 
6
Essential elements:Nb, O, Y
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Ce, Nb, O, Ta, Th, Ti, U, Y

Relationship of Euxenite-(Y) to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Polycrase-(Y) (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DG.05Fersmite
(Ca,Y)(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DG.05Loranskite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)ZrTaO
 
6
(?)
4.DG.05Polycrase-(Y)
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Uranopolycrase
(U
4+
 
,Y)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Y)
YNbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DG.10Beta-Fergusonite-(Nd)
4.DG.15Foordite
(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.15Thoreaulite
(Sn
2+
 
,Pb)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.20Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
18.4.1Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
(U,Ca,Ce)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
(OH,F)
18.4.2Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.3Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.4Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.6Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
18.4.7Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
18.4.8Polycrase-(Y)
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
18.4.9Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.10Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)
18.4.11Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.12Samarskite-(Y)
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8

Other Names for Euxenite-(Y)

Synonyms:
EuxeniteGuimaraesite (of Gagarin & Cuomo)Lyndochite
Other Languages:
German:Euxenit
Russian:Эвксенит-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:黑稀金矿
钙钍黑稀金矿
Spanish:Euxenita

Other Information

Health Warning:May be radioactive.

References for Euxenite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Scheerer, Th. (1840): Ueber den Euxenit, eine neue Mineralspecies. Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C. Poggendorff), 50, 149-153.

Scheerer (1847), Ann. Phys.: 72: 566.

Ellsworth (1927), American Mineralogist: 12: 212.

Simpson (1928), Royal Society of Western Australia, Journal: 14: 45.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 787-792.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 152: 69-82.

Internet Links for Euxenite-(Y)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Localities for Euxenite-(Y)

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