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Ferrihydrite

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Formula:
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
System:TrigonalColour:dark brown, yellow-brown
Name:For the chemical composition (hydrated ferric iron oxide).


A poorly crystalline nanomineral built up of about 20% (FeO4) and 80% (FeO6) polyhedra. It forms by rapid oxidation and hydrolysis, and exists in varying degrees of structure disorder; the two extremes are the so-called 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrites (distinguished by their X-ray powder diffraction patterns). It is a metastable nanomineral precursor to other minerals, e.g. hematite.

Two structure models have been proposed: the "f-phase" model and the "akdalaite" model; the first one seems to be correct (Paktunc et al., 2013).


Classification of Ferrihydrite

IMA status:Approved 1971
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.09-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FE.35

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.2.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.20.9

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Ferrihydrite

Co-type Localities:Belousovskii Mine, Altai Mts (Rudnyi Altai), Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast'), Kazakhstan
Ridder Mine (Leninogorsk Mine), Altai Mts (Rudnyi Altai), Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast'), Kazakhstan
Year of Discovery:1971

Physical Properties of Ferrihydrite

Colour:dark brown, yellow-brown
Streak:yellow-brown

Crystallography of Ferrihydrite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Cell Parameters:a = 2.96Å, c = 9.4Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 3.176
Unit Cell Volume:V 71.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Chemical Properties of Ferrihydrite

Formula:
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe3+5O3(OH)9
Essential elements:Fe, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, O

Relationship of Ferrihydrite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FE.05Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Brucite
Mg(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Portlandite
Ca(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
4.FE.05Theophrastite
Ni(OH)
 
2
4.FE.10Bayerite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Doyleite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Gibbsite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.10Nordstrandite
Al(OH)
 
3
4.FE.15Böhmite
AlO(OH)
4.FE.15Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.20Grimaldiite
CrO(OH)
4.FE.20Heterogenite
CoO(OH)
4.FE.25Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.25Lithiophorite
(Al,Li)MnO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
4.FE.30Quenselite
PbMnO
 
2
(OH)
4.FE.40Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FE.40Vernadite
(Mn
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ca,Na)(O,OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
4.FE.45Quetzalcoatlite
Zn
 
6
Cu
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· Ag
 
x
Pb
 
y
Cl
 
x+2y
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.20.1Wüstite
FeO
7.20.2Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.3Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
7.20.4Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
7.20.5Goethite
α-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.6Akaganeite
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH,Cl)
7.20.7Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.8Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.10Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
7.20.11Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.12Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
7.20.13Srebrodolskite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
O
 
5
7.20.14Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
7.20.15Brownmillerite
Ca
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5

Other Names for Ferrihydrite

Synonyms:
IMA1971-015
Other Languages:
German:Ferrihydrit
Simplified Chinese:水铁矿
六方针铁矿
Spanish:Ferrihydrita
Varieties:
Melanosiderite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ferrihydrite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist: 60: 485-486.

American Mineralogist: 75: 437.

American Mineralogist: 79: 767.

Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR (1973): (4): 23-33.

Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 111-124.

Canadian Mineralogist: 28: 185-207.

Paktunc, D., Manceau, A., Dutrizac, J. (2013): Incorporation of Ge in ferrihydrite: Implications for the structure of ferrihydrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 848-858.

Internet Links for Ferrihydrite

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  • Ferrihydrite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Ferrihydrite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Tamanghasset Province
    Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
    Antarctica
     
    • Western Antarctica
    Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
    Arctic Ocean
     
    Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
      • Snake Pit hydrothermal field
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): LGeology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Mount Marshall Shire
        • Bencubbin
    D. J. Barber & R. Hutchinson (1991). The Bencubbin stony-iron meteorite breccia - Electron petrography, shock-history and affinities of a 'carbonaceous chondrite' clast. Meteoritics 26, 83-95.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
              • Geyer - Silberberg District
                • Silberberg
    Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Iron Quadrangle
        • Nova Lima
    Spier, C.A., Barros de Oliveira, S.M., Rosière, C.A., and Ardisson, J.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 229-254.
      • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
        • Poços de Caldas
    Waber (1991)
    China
     
    • Guizhou Province
      • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Xingren Co.
    Zhiwei Bao (2001): PhD Thesis, University of Québec, Canda.
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Hejing Co. (Xejing Co.)
          • Baluntai
    Zhian Qin (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(4), 69-75
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
    Egypt
     
    • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
      • Abu Hommos
        • Nakhla
    Treiman, A. H. & Gooding, J. L. (1991) Iddingsite in the Nakhla meteorite: TEM study of mineralogy and texture of pre-terrestrial (Martian?) alterations. Meteoritics, vol. 26, p. 402.
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
      • Tohmajärvi
    Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
    France
     
    • Centre
      • Loir-et-Cher
    L. P. Keller & Peter R. Buseck (1990). Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 54, p. 1155-1163. (April 1990).
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Lozère
        • Pont-de-Montvert
          • Vialas
    No reference listed
    • Limousin
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
    Gautier, J, Grosbois, C., Courtin-Nomade, A., Floc'h, J. P. and Martin, F. (2006): Transformation of natural As-associated ferrihydrite downstream of a remediated mining site. Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 187-195.
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Tarn-et-Garonne
        • Orgueil
    Kazushige Tomeoka & Peter R. Buseck (1988). Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, #6, 1627-1640. (June 1988).
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
    Nieding, E. (1990): Rezente Mineralbildungen in Schlacken der Schmiedestollenhalde in Wittichen/Schwarzwald. Aufschluss, 41, 361-364.
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
        • Goslar
          • Grane Reservoir
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Bredstedt
        • Joldelund
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Syros Island (Syra)
            • Gria Spilia
    Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    India
     
    • Tamil Nadu
    Berlin, J., Jones, R. H. & Brearley, A. J. (2007) A Closer Look at Chondrules and Matrix in Kakangari: Evidence for Wide-Spread Reduction and Sulfurization, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. LPI Contribution #1338, p. 2395. (March 2007)
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Ferrara Province
    www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5103.pdf.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Sestri Levante
    Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.; E. Dinelli, N. Morandi & F. Tateo (1998): Fine-grained weathering products in waste disposal from two sulphide mines in the northern Apennines, Italy. Clay Minerals 33,423-433.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Nansei Archipelago
        • Kagoshima Prefecture
          • Mishima village
    Kazue, T. (2000) Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 511-520
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Altai Mts (Rudnyi Altai)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pacific Ocean
     
    • Bismarck Sea
    Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
    • East Pacific Rise
      • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
    Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
    Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Kaczawskie Mts
        • Radzimowice
          • Stara Góra
            • Stara Góra deposit
    1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
      • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
    Siuda, R.: Wieściszowice. Otoczak, 2004, nr. 31, p. 58-65.
    • Małopolskie
      • Tarnów
        • Ciężkowice
    Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
    Red Sea
     
    Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Slovakia
     
    • Bratislava Region
      • Pezinok Co.
    Majzlan J., Chovan M., Lalinska B., Milovská S., Jurkovič Ľ., 2006: The sstructure and ageing of As-rich ferrihydrite from Pezinok, Slovakia. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.70
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • A Coruña (La Coruña)
        • Santiago de Compostela
          • Aríns
    Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
    Tonga
     
    Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
    Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
      • Cheleken Peninsula
    Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
        • Geneva District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Kansas
      • Decatur Co.
    Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials 4038.pdf http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/chondrite/pdf/4038.pdf
    • Massachusetts
      • Franklin Co.
        • Rowe
    Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
    • North Carolina
      • Ashe Co.
        • Ore Knob
    Borden,Robert C. and Behrooz,Mchnroosh (2008) Ore Knob Mine Tailings Pile-Hydrologic and Geochemical Characterization
    • Pennsylvania
      • Centre Co.
        • State College
          • Skytop
    U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
      • Delaware Co.
        • Middletown Township
          • Lima
    [var: Melanosiderite] S.G. Gordon, "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania", 1922, p. 190
      • Lancaster Co.
    William B. White – Cave sediments and paleoclimate. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 69, no. 1, p. 76–93.
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