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Ferrosilite

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Formula:
FeSiO3
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Originally a hypothetical mineral named by Henry Stevens Washington [1867-1934] in 1903. First used to name natural material in 1935 by Norman L. Bowen.
Dimorph of:

Classification of Ferrosilite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DA.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.2.2

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.19.2

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
19 : Silicates of Fe
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Physical Properties of Ferrosilite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Streak:
Pale gray brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
{210}
Parting:
{100}, {010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
3.60 - 4.00 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.00 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Ferrosilite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbca
Cell Parameters:
a = 18.43Å, b = 9.08Å, c = 5.23Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.03 : 1 : 0.576
Unit Cell Volume:
V 875.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Usually in elongated grain; rare crystals are bladed to prismatic.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.45 (30)
4.61 (90)
3.23 (70)
3.00 (80)
2.91 (100)
2.59 (40)
2.52 (30)
1.781 (20)
Comments:
21-0721 (synthetic); 31-0635 (magnesian ferrosilite)

Optical Data of Ferrosilite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.710 - 1.767 nβ = 1.723 - 1.770 nγ = 1.726 - 1.788
Birefringence:
0.016-0.021
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.016 - 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X pinkish brown, Z greenish brown

Chemical Properties of Ferrosilite

Formula:
FeSiO3
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ca,Na,K,Al,Co,Ni,Mn,Ti,Cr

Relationship of Ferrosilite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Enstatite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
EnstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
9.DA.05EnstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
9.DA.10Pigeonite(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.20Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
9.DA.25Jervisite(Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6
9.DA.25NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
14.19.1FayaliteFe22+SiO4
14.19.3LaihuniteFe2+Fe23+(SiO4)2
14.19.4Ferro-anthophyllite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.19.5FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)
14.19.6Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
14.19.7CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
14.19.8HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Ferrosilite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ferrosilite

Reference List:
Bowen, N.L. (1935) Ferrosilite as a natural mineral. American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 30: 481.

Bass, J.D., Weidner, D.J. (1984) Elasticity of single-crystal orthoferrosilite. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89: 4359-4371.

Hugh-Jones, D.A., Sharp, T., Angel, R.J., Woodland, A. (1996) The transition of orthoferrosilite to high-pressure C2/c clinoferrosilite at ambient temperature. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 1337-1345.

Tarantino, S.C., Domeneghetti, M.C., Carpenter, M.A., Shaw, C.J.S., Tazzoli, V. (2002) Mixing properties of the enstatite-ferrosilite solid solution: I. A macroscopic perspective. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 525-536.

Tarantino, S.C., Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., Tazzoli, V. (2002) Mixing properties of the enstatite-ferrosilite solid solution: II A microscopic perspective. Eurpean Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 537-547.

Internet Links for Ferrosilite

Localities for Ferrosilite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Algeria
 
  • Tamanghasset Province
    • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
L. Latouche : "L'orthoferrosilite et les roches associées de la région des Gour Oumeladen (N.E. Ahaggar, Algérie)", Bull. Minéral. , 1983, 106, pp. 329-339.
Bendaoud, A., Ouzegane, K., & Kienast, J. R. (2003). Textures and phase relationships in ferrous granulites from Tidjenouine (Hoggar, Algeria): fayalite–ferrossilite–quartz secondary assemblage. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 37(3), 241-255.
Angola
 
  • Huambo Province
    • Jolomba
Sighinolfi, G. P., Garuti, G., & Morais, E. (1990) The Jolomba, Angola, LL chondrite. Meteoritics, Vol. 25, p.410.
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Malmsbury
Sutton & Mills (2012)
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Taucher, J. & Hollerer, C. E. (1998): Minerale eines Si- und Al-reichen Xenoliths aus dem Basaltsteinbruch von Klöch, Nördlicher Bruch, (Steiermark, Österreich). Mitt. naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark 128, 21-42.
Cameroon
 
  • North-West Region
    • Nkambe
Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
Waard, D. de and Wheeler, E. P., 1971, Chemical and Petrologic Trends in Anorthositic and Asslociated Rocks of the Nain Massif, Labrador, Lithos v4, p. 367-380
Berg, J., Wheeler, E.P. (1976): Osumilite of deep-seated origin in the contact aureole of the anorthositic Nain complex, Labrador, American Mineralogist, Vol. 61, pp. 20-37
KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305.
www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca/gacmap/LAB2.html.
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • King´s Point
Miller, R. R., & Abdel-Rahman, A. M. (1995) The King's Point Complex, Newfoundland, and Its Potential for Rare-metal Mineralization. Geological Survey Report 95-1 pp159-175
  • Nunavut Territory
Can. Mineral. (1993) 31, 775-785
    • Baffin Island
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J., 1963, Rock-Forming Minerals, v 2 Chain Silicates, p 21.
  • Ontario
    • Parry Sound District
      • Georgian Bay
Grew E.S., Marsh J.H., Yates M.G., Lazic B., Armbruster T., Locock A., Bell S.W., Dyar M.D., Bernhardt H.J., Medenbach O. (2010) Menzerite-(Y), a new species, {(Y,REE)(Ca,Fe2+)2}[(Mg,Fe2+)(Fe3+,Al)](Si3)O12, from a felsic granulite, Parry Sound, Ontario, and a new garnet end-member, {Y2Ca}[Mg2](Si3)O12, - The Canadian Mineralogist, 48, p. 1171-1193.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Killala Lake Area
Sage (1987) OGS Study 46.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Olivier Langelier Collection
    • Outaouais
      • Pontiac RCM
        • Otter Lake
Daryl Macfarland
China
 
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Yingjun Liu, Jingrong Zhang, and Jun Chen (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(5), 8-14
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Fuzhou Prefecture
      • Chongren Co.
Yaohui Jiang, Hongfei Ling, Shaoyong Jiang, Honghai Fan, Weizhou Shen, and Pei Ni (2005): Journal of Petrology 46(6), 1-34.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
        • Baishiquan ore district
Fengmei Chai, Zhaochong Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Lianhui Dong, Zuoheng Zhang, Huishou Ye, Hua Wu, and Xinhua Mo (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(1), 1-12
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Seinäjoki
Mancini, F., Alviola, R., Marshall, B., Satoh, H., & Papunen, H. (2000). The manganese silicate rocks of the early Proterozoic Vittinki group, southwestern Finland: Metamorphic grade and genetic interpretations. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38(5), 1103-1124.
France
 
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Reynes
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 46-49.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Kruft
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
            • Wingertsberg
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
        • Niederzissen
          • Glees
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
      • Niederzissen
        • Hannebach
Blass, G., (2010): Die neuen Mineralienfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralienwelt, Vol. 05, 2010
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Die Wannenköpfe bei Ochtendung in der Vulkaneifel und ihre Mineralien, MW 6/1999
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Zemplén Mts (Tokaj Mts)
      • Tokaj
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Krishna District
Leelanandam, C, 1997, The Kondapalli Layered Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India : A Synoptic Overview, Gondwana Research, v. 1, Pages 95–114
  • Karnataka
    • Bangalore
Anantha Iyer, G.V. and Narayanan Kutty, T.R. (1975) Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2, #2, 125-141.
Anantha Iyer, G.V. and Narayanan Kutty, T.R. (1975) Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2, #2, 125-141.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Chennai (Madras)
Howie, Robert Andrew, 1955, The Geochemistry of the Charnockite Series of Madras, India, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, v 62, p 725.
    • Salem District
      • Namakkal
        • Nainamalai Adivaram
N. Subba Reddy, et al (1982) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences, 91, 55-63.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
Ciriotti, M.E. & Biagioni, C. (2011): Pot-pourri 2011: identificazioni di minerali di interesse. Micro, 3/2011, 125-133
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Shitouyouze
Matsueda, H. (1980) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 5, #4, 15-77.; Matsueda, H. (1980) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 5, #4, 15-77.
    • Kanto Region
      • Kanagawa Prefecture
Kuno, H., 1954, Study of Orthopyroxenes from Volcanic Rocks, American Mineralogist, v 39, p. 30.
        • Yamakita
Kuno, H., 1947, Hypersthene in a rock of amphibolite facies from Tanzawa Mountainland, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, Proceedings of the Japan Academy, v 23, p. 114.
        • Yugawara
Kuno, H., 1954, Study of Orthopyroxenes from Volcanic Rocks, American Mineralogist, v 39, p. 30.
    • Kinki Region
      • Wakayama Prefecture
        • Higashimuro-gun
          • Kushimoto
Analyses by Dr Shinichi Kuramoto and Dr Hideki Masago, JAMSTEC.
        • Shingu City
Analyses by Dr Shinichi Kuramoto and Dr Hideki Masago, JAMSTEC.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Mishima village
PXRD by John Attard, May 2014, on samples collected by Alfredo Petrov. EDS shows only Fe-Si-O.
PXRD by John Attard, May 2014, on samples collected by Alfredo Petrov. EDS shows only Fe-Si-O.
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
Rocky Mountain (53rd) and South-Central (35th) Sections, GSA, Joint Annual Meeting (April 29–May 2, 2001) Session No. 7--Booth# 38
Lithuania
 
  • Paneyezys
Mason B., Jarosewich E. & Nelen J. A. (1979) The pyroxene-plagioclase achondrites. Smithson. Contrib. Earth Sci. 22: 27-45.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
Hiess, J., J. W. Cole and K. D. Spinks (2007) High-Alumina Basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Influence of the Crust and Crustal Structure. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 50:327-342
    • Northland
http://ganko.eps.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~enami/abstract/pme0201.pdf.
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Hadsel
      • Hadseløy
Devaraju, T.C. & Heier, K.S. (1974): Pre-Cambrian Rocks on Hadseløy, Lofoten-Vesterålen. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 312, 31-58
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J., 1963, Rock-Forming Minerals, v 2 Chain Silicates, p 21.
Poland
 
  • Pomorskie
    • Kaszuby metamorphic complex
      • Kościerzyna disctrict
        • Kościerzyna commune
Krzemińska E. & Bagiński B. 2003: THE KOŚCIERZYNA AND ŻARNOWIEC ENDERBITES ( N-POLAND) PETROGRAPHY, MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND P –T RESULTS. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 105-107
      • Puck district
        • Krokowa commune
Krzemińska E. & Bagiński B. 2003: THE KOŚCIERZYNA AND ŻARNOWIEC ENDERBITES ( N-POLAND) PETROGRAPHY, MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND P –T RESULTS. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 105-107
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu; Hîrtopanu, P. (2006) One Hundred Minerals For One Hundred Years (dedicated To The Centennial Of The Geological Institute Of Romania) Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p38
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Men’shikov, Y.P., Konopleva, N.G., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 732-745.
  • Povolzhsky Region
    • Saratov Oblast'
      • Pavlovka
Bunch, T. E. (1975) Petrography and petrology of basaltic achondrite polymict breccias /Howardites: Lunar Science Conference VI, Proceedings. Vol. 1: 469-492. (March 1975)
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
            • Lake Ishkul'
Am Min 90:1402-1412 (deposit item)
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Žarnovica Co.
      • Nová Baňa
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
Martin-Izard, A., Paniagua, A., Moreiras, D. (1995) Metasomatism at a granitic pegmatite-dunite contact in Galicia: the Franqueira occurrence of chrysoberyl (alexandrite), emerald, and phenakite. Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 775-792.
Sweden
 
  • Gästrikland
    • Ovanåker
  • Södermanland
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
The Moon
J. Frondel (2009), Lunar Mineralogy, Wiley Interscience
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Buchan Grampian
      • Strathdon
        • Glenbuchat
Henry, N. F. M., 1935, Some Data on the Iron Rich Hypersthenes, Mineralogical Magazine, v 24, p. 221.
    • North West Highlands
      • Lochalsh
        • Dornie
          • Keppoch
Paul Render
Muir, I. D., and Tilley, Cecil E., 1958, The Compositions of Co-existing Pyroxenes in Metamorphic Assemblages, Geological Magazine, v 95, p 403.
    • Strathclyde
www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/auming/pitchstone/pitchstones.htm.
USA
 
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Rubidoux
Larsen, Esper Signius and Draisin, W.M. (1948 [1950]), Composition of the minerals in the rocks of the Southern California batholith. International Geologic Congress, 18th. Session, Great Britain, 1948, Part 2, p. 66.
  • Maine
    • Piscataquis Co.
      • Big Moose Township
Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1964, Geology of the Greenville Quadrangle Maine, US Geological Survey Quadrangle Map GQ-350. Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1967, Geology and Petrology of the Greenville Quadrangle, Piscataquis and Somerset Counties, Maine, US Geological Survey Bulletin 1241-F, p F1-F60.
      • Big Squaw Township
Mineralogy of Maine, vol. 1 (King & Foord, 1994)
      • Little Moose Township
Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1964, Geology of the Greenville Quadrangle Maine, US Geological Survey Quadrangle Map GQ-350. Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1967, Geology and Petrology of the Greenville Quadrangle, Piscataquis and Somerset Counties, Maine, US Geological Survey Bulletin 1241-F, p F1-F60.
  • Montana
    • Madison Co.
      • Ruby Range
Hanbook of Mineralogy
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Bartlett
Rocks&Min. 76:256
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
NY State Museum spec. no. 15862
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
      • Hiddenite
Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay District
          • Franklin
EL-Shazley,A.K.,Loehn C.,and Tracy R.J.,(2011) P-T-t evolution of granulite facies metamorphism and partial melting in the Winding Stair Gap,Central Blue Ridge,North Carolina,USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology
  • Oregon
    • Klamath Co.
(Bill Wise, Northern California Mineralogical Association spring 2003 newsletter; Micro Probe 9(8), 2003).
  • Utah
    • Wayne Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
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