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Ferrosilite

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Formula:
FeSiO3
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.60 - 4.00
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Originally a hypothetical mineral named by Henry Stevens Washington [1867-1934] in 1903. First used to name natural material in 1935 by Norman L. Bowen.
Dimorph of:
Enstatite-Ferrosilite Series

Note: The name has been used in the past to describe the monoclinic dimorph clinoferrosilite, with the orthorhombic dimorph having the name orthoferrosilite so be careful when reading older texts.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of FerrosiliteHide

Previous petrological nomenclature of clinopyroxenes from basaltic magmas. Note this is not the current usage of the name! (after Poldervaart & Hess, 1951)

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DA.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.2.2

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.19.2

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
19 : Silicates of Fe

Pronounciation of FerrosiliteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of FerrosiliteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Streak:
Pale gray brown
Hardness:
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
{210}
Parting:
{100}, {010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
3.60 - 4.00 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.00 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FerrosiliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.710 - 1.767 nβ = 1.723 - 1.770 nγ = 1.726 - 1.788
Birefringence:
0.016-0.021
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.016 - 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X pinkish brown, Z greenish brown

Chemical Properties of FerrosiliteHide

Formula:
FeSiO3
IMA Formula:
Fe2+2Si2O6
Common Impurities:
Ca,Na,K,Al,Co,Ni,Mn,Ti,Cr

Crystallography of FerrosiliteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbca
Cell Parameters:
a = 18.43 Å, b = 9.08 Å, c = 5.23 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.03 : 1 : 0.576
Unit Cell V:
875.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Usually in elongated grains; rare crystals are bladed to prismatic.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.45 (30)
4.61 (90)
3.23 (70)
3.00 (80)
2.91 (100)
2.59 (40)
2.52 (30)
1.781 (20)
Comments:
21-0721 (synthetic); 31-0635 (magnesian ferrosilite)

Synonyms of FerrosiliteHide

Other Language Names for FerrosiliteHide

Relationship of Ferrosilite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.
EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Fayalite6 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Fayalite on mindat.org.
Almandine6 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Almandine on mindat.org.
Ilmenite5 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Ilmenite on mindat.org.
Quartz4 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Anorthoclase3 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Anorthoclase on mindat.org.
Roedderite3 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Roedderite on mindat.org.
Augite2 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Augite on mindat.org.
Meteoritic Iron2 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Meteoritic Iron on mindat.org.
Wollastonite2 photos of Ferrosilite associated with Wollastonite on mindat.org.
Rutile1 photo of Ferrosilite associated with Rutile on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.
9.DA.05EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon.
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon.
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.10Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.15Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Omphacite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25JervisiteNaSc3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

65.1.2.1EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
65.1.2.3Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.19.1FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth.
14.19.3LaihuniteFe2+Fe3+2(SiO4)2Mon.
14.19.4Ferro-anthophyllite☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Orth.
14.19.5FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
14.19.6Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
14.19.7CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
14.19.8HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.

Fluorescence of FerrosiliteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Ferrosilite in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for FerrosiliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Washington, H.S. (1903) Prof. Paper U.S. Geol. Survey, n° 14, 90.
Washington, H.S. (1932) Min. Petr. Mitt. (Tschermak), vol. 43, 63 [M.A. 5-222].
Bowen, N.L. (1935) Ferrosilite as a natural mineral. American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 30: 481.
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.
Poldervaart, A. and Hess, H.H. (1951) Pyroxenes in the Crystallization of Basaltic Magma. The Journal of Geology 59, no. 5 (Sep. 1951): 472-489.
Bass, J.D. and Weidner, D.J. (1984) Elasticity of single-crystal orthoferrosilite. Journal of Geophysical Research: 89: 4359-4371.
Hugh-Jones, D.A., Sharp, T., Angel, R.J., and Woodland, A. (1996) The transition of orthoferrosilite to high-pressure C2/c clinoferrosilite at ambient temperature. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 1337-1345.
Tarantino, S.C., Domeneghetti, M.C., Carpenter, M.A., Shaw, C.J.S., and Tazzoli, V. (2002) Mixing properties of the enstatite-ferrosilite solid solution: I. A macroscopic perspective. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 525-536.
Tarantino, S.C., Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C., and Tazzoli, V. (2002) Mixing properties of the enstatite-ferrosilite solid solution: II A microscopic perspective. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 537-547.

Internet Links for FerrosiliteHide

Localities for FerrosiliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Tamanghasset Province
    • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
L. Latouche : "L'orthoferrosilite et les roches associées de la région des Gour Oumeladen (N.E. Ahaggar, Algérie)", Bull. Minéral. , 1983, 106, pp. 329-339.
Bendaoud, A., Ouzegane, K., & Kienast, J. R. (2003). Textures and phase relationships in ferrous granulites from Tidjenouine (Hoggar, Algeria): fayalite–ferrossilite–quartz secondary assemblage. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 37(3), 241-255.
Angola
 
  • Huambo Province
    • Jolomba
Sighinolfi, G. P., Garuti, G., & Morais, E. (1990) The Jolomba, Angola, LL chondrite. Meteoritics, Vol. 25, p.410.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Graham, A.L. (1979). Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 56. Meteoritics 14 (1): 161-175. (March 1979).
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Macedon Ranges Shire
      • Malmsbury
Sutton & Mills (2012)
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Nepean
Simpson, E.S. (1948), Minerals of Western Australia, Vol 3, p 63
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Taucher, J. & Hollerer, C. E. (1998): Minerale eines Si- und Al-reichen Xenoliths aus dem Basaltsteinbruch von Klöch, Nördlicher Bruch, (Steiermark, Österreich). Mitt. naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark 128, 21-42.
Cameroon
 
  • North-West Region
    • Nkambe
Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
Waard, D. de and Wheeler, E. P., 1971, Chemical and Petrologic Trends in Anorthositic and Asslociated Rocks of the Nain Massif, Labrador, Lithos v4, p. 367-380
Berg, J., Wheeler, E.P. (1976): Osumilite of deep-seated origin in the contact aureole of the anorthositic Nain complex, Labrador, American Mineralogist, Vol. 61, pp. 20-37
KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305.
www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca/gacmap/LAB2.html.
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • King´s Point
Miller, R. R., & Abdel-Rahman, A. M. (1995) The King's Point Complex, Newfoundland, and Its Potential for Rare-metal Mineralization. Geological Survey Report 95-1 pp159-175
  • Nunavut
Can. Mineral. (1993) 31, 775-785
    • Baffin Island
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J., 1963, Rock-Forming Minerals, v 2 Chain Silicates, p 21.
  • Ontario
    • Parry Sound District
      • Georgian Bay
Grew E.S., Marsh J.H., Yates M.G., Lazic B., Armbruster T., Locock A., Bell S.W., Dyar M.D., Bernhardt H.J., Medenbach O. (2010) Menzerite-(Y), a new species, {(Y,REE)(Ca,Fe2+)2}[(Mg,Fe2+)(Fe3+,Al)](Si3)O12, from a felsic granulite, Parry Sound, Ontario, and a new garnet end-member, {Y2Ca}[Mg2](Si3)O12, - The Canadian Mineralogist, 48, p. 1171-1193.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Killala Lake Area
Sage (1987) OGS Study 46.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Olivier Langelier Collection
    • Outaouais
      • Pontiac RCM
        • Otter Lake
Daryl Macfarland
  • Saskatchewan
Steadman, J. A., & Spry, P. G. (2015). Metamorphosed Proterozoic Zn-Pb-Ag Mineralization in the Foster River Area, Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Economic Geology, 110(5), 1193-1214.
China
 
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Yizhang Co.
        • Dongpo ore field
Yingjun Liu, Jingrong Zhang, and Jun Chen (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(5), 8-14
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Fuzhou Prefecture
      • Chongren Co.
Yaohui Jiang, Hongfei Ling, Shaoyong Jiang, Honghai Fan, Weizhou Shen, and Pei Ni (2005): Journal of Petrology 46(6), 1-34.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
        • Baishiquan ore district
Fengmei Chai, Zhaochong Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Lianhui Dong, Zuoheng Zhang, Huishou Ye, Hua Wu, and Xinhua Mo (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(1), 1-12
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Seinäjoki
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, pp. 221-226.; Mancini, F., Alviola, R., Marshall, B., Satoh, H., and Papunen, H. (2000) The manganese silicate rocks of the early Proterozoic Vittinki group, southwestern Finland: Metamorphic grade and genetic interpretations. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38(5), 1103-1124.
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Reynes
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 46-49.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender/Marl, D. & Krimmelbein/Altena, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Kruft
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
            • Wingertsberg
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
        • Niederzissen
          • Glees
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
      • Niederzissen
        • Hannebach
Blass, G., (2010): Die neuen Mineralienfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralienwelt, Vol. 05, 2010
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Die Wannenköpfe bei Ochtendung in der Vulkaneifel und ihre Mineralien, MW 6/1999
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Zemplén Mts (Tokaj Mts)
      • Tokaj
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Krishna District
Leelanandam, C, 1997, The Kondapalli Layered Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India : A Synoptic Overview, Gondwana Research, v. 1, Pages 95–114
  • Karnataka
    • Bangalore
Anantha Iyer, G.V. and Narayanan Kutty, T.R. (1975) Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2, #2, 125-141.
Anantha Iyer, G.V. and Narayanan Kutty, T.R. (1975) Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2, #2, 125-141.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Chennai (Madras)
Howie, Robert Andrew, 1955, The Geochemistry of the Charnockite Series of Madras, India, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, v 62, p 725.
    • Salem District
      • Namakkal
        • Nainamalai Adivaram
N. Subba Reddy, et al (1982) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences, 91, 55-63.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
Ciriotti, M.E. & Biagioni, C. (2011): Pot-pourri 2011: identificazioni di minerali di interesse. Micro, 3/2011, 125-133
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Shitouyouze
Matsueda, H. (1980) Journal of the Mining College, Akita University, Ser. A, Mining Geology, 5, #4, 15-77.
    • Kanto Region
      • Kanagawa Prefecture
Kuno, H., 1954, Study of Orthopyroxenes from Volcanic Rocks, American Mineralogist, v 39, p. 30.
        • Yamakita
Kuno, H., 1947, Hypersthene in a rock of amphibolite facies from Tanzawa Mountainland, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, Proceedings of the Japan Academy, v 23, p. 114.
        • Yugawara
Kuno, H., 1954, Study of Orthopyroxenes from Volcanic Rocks, American Mineralogist, v 39, p. 30.
    • Kinki Region
      • Wakayama Prefecture
        • Higashimuro-gun
          • Kushimoto
Analyses by Dr Shinichi Kuramoto and Dr Hideki Masago, JAMSTEC.
        • Shingu City
Analyses by Dr Shinichi Kuramoto and Dr Hideki Masago, JAMSTEC.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Mishima village
PXRD by John Attard, May 2014, on samples collected by Alfredo Petrov. EDS shows only Fe-Si-O.
PXRD by John Attard, May 2014, on samples collected by Alfredo Petrov. EDS shows only Fe-Si-O.
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
Rocky Mountain (53rd) and South-Central (35th) Sections, GSA, Joint Annual Meeting (April 29–May 2, 2001) Session No. 7--Booth# 38
Lithuania
 
  • Panevėžys County
Mason B., Jarosewich E. & Nelen J. A. (1979) The pyroxene-plagioclase achondrites. Smithson. Contrib. Earth Sci. 22: 27-45.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
Hiess, J., J. W. Cole and K. D. Spinks (2007) High-Alumina Basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Influence of the Crust and Crustal Structure. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 50:327-342
    • Northland
http://ganko.eps.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~enami/abstract/pme0201.pdf.
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Hadsel
      • Hadseløy
Devaraju, T.C. & Heier, K.S. (1974): Pre-Cambrian Rocks on Hadseløy, Lofoten-Vesterålen. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 312, 31-58
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J., 1963, Rock-Forming Minerals, v 2 Chain Silicates, p 21.
Poland
 
  • Pomorskie
    • Kaszuby metamorphic complex
      • Kościerzyna district
        • Kościerzyna commune
Krzemińska E. & Bagiński B. 2003: THE KOŚCIERZYNA AND ŻARNOWIEC ENDERBITES ( N-POLAND) PETROGRAPHY, MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND P –T RESULTS. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 105-107
      • Puck district
        • Krokowa commune
Krzemińska E. & Bagiński B. 2003: THE KOŚCIERZYNA AND ŻARNOWIEC ENDERBITES ( N-POLAND) PETROGRAPHY, MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND P –T RESULTS. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 105-107
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu; Hîrtopanu, P. (2006) One Hundred Minerals For One Hundred Years (dedicated To The Centennial Of The Geological Institute Of Romania) Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p38
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Ayan-Maya district
        • Aldan shield
          • Konder alkaline-ultrabasic massif (Konder placers; Konder mine; Kondyor)
Barkov, A.Y., Shvedov, G.I., Polonyankin, A.A., Martin, R.F. (2016): New and unusual Pd-Tl-bearing mineralization in the Anomal'nyi deposit, Kondyor concentrically zoned complex, northern Khabarovskiy kray, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12836 (2016)
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Men’shikov, Y.P., Konopleva, N.G., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 732-745.
  • Povolzhsky Region
    • Saratov Oblast'
      • Pavlovka
Bunch, T. E. (1975) Petrography and petrology of basaltic achondrite polymict breccias /Howardites: Lunar Science Conference VI, Proceedings. Vol. 1: 469-492. (March 1975)
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
            • Lake Ishkul'
Am Min 90:1402-1412 (deposit item)
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Žarnovica Co.
      • Nová Baňa
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
Martin-Izard, A., Paniagua, A., Moreiras, D. (1995) Metasomatism at a granitic pegmatite-dunite contact in Galicia: the Franqueira occurrence of chrysoberyl (alexandrite), emerald, and phenakite. Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 775-792.
Sweden
 
  • Gästrikland
    • Ovanåker
  • Hälsingland
    • Ljusdal
      • Los
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.
  • Södermanland
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
Sundius, N. (1932) Uber den sogenannten Eisenanthophyllit der Eulysite. Årsbok, Sveriges Geol. Undersökning, vol. 26, no. 2 [M.A. 6-118].; Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Buchan Grampian
      • Strathdon
        • Glenbuchat
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, p. 221-226.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, 99-105.
    • North West Highlands
      • Glenelg
        • Ratagain Intrusion
Henry, N.F.M. (1935) Some data on the iron-rich hypersthenes. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 24, n° 151, 221-226.; Poldervaart, A. (1947) The relationship of orthopyroxene to pigeonite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 28, n° 198, p. 168, anal. 18.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, 99-105.
      • Lochalsh
        • Dornie
          • Keppoch
Paul Render
Muir, I. D., and Tilley, Cecil E., 1958, The Compositions of Co-existing Pyroxenes in Metamorphic Assemblages, Geological Magazine, v 95, p 403.
    • Strathclyde
www.abdn.ac.uk/geology/profiles/auming/pitchstone/pitchstones.htm.
USA
 
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Riverside
Larsen, Esper Signius and Draisin, W.M. (1948 [1950]), Composition of the minerals in the rocks of the Southern California batholith. International Geologic Congress, 18th. Session, Great Britain, 1948, Part 2, p. 66.
  • Maine
    • Piscataquis Co.
      • Big Moose Township
Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1964, Geology of the Greenville Quadrangle Maine, US Geological Survey Quadrangle Map GQ-350. Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1967, Geology and Petrology of the Greenville Quadrangle, Piscataquis and Somerset Counties, Maine, US Geological Survey Bulletin 1241-F, p F1-F60.
      • Big Squaw Township
Mineralogy of Maine, vol. 1 (King & Foord, 1994)
      • Little Moose Township
Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1964, Geology of the Greenville Quadrangle Maine, US Geological Survey Quadrangle Map GQ-350. Espenshade, G. H. and Boudette, E. L., 1967, Geology and Petrology of the Greenville Quadrangle, Piscataquis and Somerset Counties, Maine, US Geological Survey Bulletin 1241-F, p F1-F60.
  • Montana
    • Madison Co.
      • Ruby Range
Hanbook of Mineralogy
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Bartlett
Rocks&Min. 76:256
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
NY State Museum spec. no. 15862
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
      • Hiddenite
Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay District
          • Franklin
EL-Shazley,A.K.,Loehn C.,and Tracy R.J.,(2011) P-T-t evolution of granulite facies metamorphism and partial melting in the Winding Stair Gap,Central Blue Ridge,North Carolina,USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology
  • Oregon
    • Klamath Co.
(Bill Wise, Northern California Mineralogical Association spring 2003 newsletter; Micro Probe 9(8), 2003).
  • Utah
    • Wayne Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy
The Moon
J. Frondel (2009), Lunar Mineralogy, Wiley Interscience
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