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Fluorite

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Formula:
CaF
 
2
System:IsometricColour:Purple, lilac, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, DullHardness:4
Member of:Fluorite Group
Name:Named in 1797 by Carlo Antonio Galeani Napione from the Latin, fluere = "to flow" (for its use as a flux). The term fluorescence is derived from fluorite, which will often markedly exhibit this effect. The element fluorine also derives its name from fluorite, a major source for the element.


Fluorite Group.

Fluorite is found as a common gangue mineral in hydrothermal veins, especially those containing lead and zinc minerals. It is also found in some greisens, granites, pegmatites and high-temperature veins, and as a component of some marbles and other metamorphic rocks.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Fluorite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Fluorite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.08-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.AB.25

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
Dana 7th edition ID:9.2.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:9.2.1.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.4.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Fluorite

Co-type Localities:Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic
Breitenbrunn, Breitenbrunn District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1529

Occurrences of Fluorite

Geological Setting:Hydrothermal veins; cavities in sedimentary rocks; as a cementing material in sandstones; as hot springs deposits.

Physical Properties of Fluorite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:Dull when massive
Colour:Purple, lilac, golden-yellow, green, colourless, blue, pink, champagne, brown.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):4
Hardness Data:Mohs hardness reference species
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {111}, very easy.
Parting:Indistinct parting or cleavage on {011} at times.
Fracture:Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.175 - 3.56 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.181 g/cm3
Comment:Normal range 3.175-3.184, increasing density with rare earth substitution.

Crystallography of Fluorite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 5.4626Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 163.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Usually cubes, {001}; less often octahedrons, {111}; rarely dodecahedrons{011}. Also some hexoctahedrons and tetrahexahedrons. Combinations of these forms common, cube corners and edges are often modified. {001} usually smooth and lustrous, {111} rough and dull. Crystals distorted at times by unequal development of faces, as of {013}. Often markedly composite; minute cubes aggregated to form an octahedron at times, or as an overgrowth of crystals upon the corners of an earlier formed crystal of differing habit. Massive; compact; earthy, columnar (rare), or in globular aggregates; botryoidal (rare).
Twinning:On {111}, usually as interpenetrating cubes (e.g., Strzegom, Poland), but also as contact spinel twins (e.g. Naica, Mexico and Chumar Bakhoor, Pakistan).
Crystal Atlas:
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Fluorite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.66 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Epitaxi Comments:Siderite upon fluorite with siderite [0001] parallel to fluorite [111].

Pyrite upon fluorite with parallel axes.

Quartz upon fluorite.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.16(90)
1.932(100)
1.647(30)
1.366(10)
1.253(10)
1.115(20)
1.051(10)
0.684(10)

Optical Data of Fluorite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.433 - 1.448
Birefringence:None
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:None
Comments:Frequently exhibits very weak anomalous birefringence, especially in cleaved, cut or pressed crystals. The birefringence is usually distributed in lamellae parallel to [001].

Chemical Properties of Fluorite

Formula:
CaF
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:CaF2
Essential elements:Ca, F
All elements listed in formula:Ca, F
CAS Registry number:7789-75-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Analytical Data:Minute cavities filled with gas, water, or an organic liquid are often present. May contain free fluorine and calcium due to radioactive decay (Wölsendorf, Germany) that emits an odor of HF and ozone upon grinding.
Common Impurities:Y,Ce,Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Eu,Sm,O,ORG,Cl,TR

Relationship of Fluorite to other Species

Member of:Fluorite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
QuartzPyriteDolomiteCelestineCalcite
Baryte
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.AB.Fluorocronite
PbF
 
2
3.AB.05Tolbachite
CuCl
 
2
3.AB.10Coccinite
HgI
 
2
3.AB.15Sellaite
MgF
 
2
3.AB.20Chloromagnesite
MgCl
 
2
3.AB.20Lawrencite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ni)Cl
 
2
3.AB.20Scacchite
MnCl
 
2
3.AB.25Frankdicksonite
BaF
 
2
3.AB.25Strontiofluorite
SrF
 
2
3.AB.30Tveitite-(Y)
(Y, Na)
 
6
Ca
 
6
Ca
 
6
F
 
42
3.AB.35Gagarinite-(Y)
NaCaYF
 
6
3.AB.35Gagarinite-(Ce)
Na(REE
 
x
Ca
 
1-x
)(REE
 
y
Ca
 
1-y
)F
 
6
3.AB.35Polezhaevaite-(Ce)
NaSrCeF
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.4.1Sellaite
MgF
 
2
8.4.2Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
8.4.3Bischofite
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.4Korshunovskite
Mg
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.4.5Carnallite
KMgCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.6Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
8.4.8Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.4.9Antarcticite
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.10Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
8.4.11Rorisite
CaFCl
8.4.12Jarlite
Na(Sr,Na)
 
7
MgAl
 
6
F
 
32
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
2
8.4.13Calcjarlite
Na(Ca,Sr)
 
3
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.14Tikhonenkovite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.15Acuminite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.16Frankdicksonite
BaF
 
2
8.4.17Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.18Bøgvadite
Na
 
2
SrBa
 
2
Al
 
4
F
 
20

Other Names for Fluorite

Synonyms:
AndrodamantBruiachiteCandChrome-FluoriteCrimson Night Stone
Derbyshire SparFluate of LimeFluorFluorbaryteFluores
Fluoride of CalciumFluorsparFluor SparFlusseKand
Liparite (of Glocker)Lithophosphorus SuhlensisMurrhina
Other Languages:
Arabic:فلورايت
Asturian:Fluorita
Basque:Fluorita
Belarusian:Флюарыт
Bosnian (Latin Script):Fluorit
Breton:Fluorit
Bulgarian:Флуорит
Catalan:Fluorita
Croatian:Fluorit
Czech:Fluorit
Dutch:Vloeispaat
Estonian:Fluoriit
Finnish:Fluoriitti
French:Fluorine
Chaux fluatée
Spath fusible
Spath vitreux
Galician:Fluorita
German:Fluorit
Bruiachit
Cam
Fluorbaryt
Fluss
Flusssaurer Kalk
Flußspat
Flussspat
Flußspath
Lysspat
Hebrew:פלואוריט
Hungarian:Fluorit
Italian:Fluorite
Fluorina
Spato fluore
Japanese:蛍石
Latin:Calx fluorata
Fluor mineralis Stolbergicus
Spatum vitreum
Latvian:Fluorīts
Lithuanian:Fluoritas
Low Saxon:Fluorit
Occitan:Fluorita
Polish:Fluoryt
Portuguese:Fluorita
Romanian:Fluorină
Russian:Флюорит
Simplified Chinese:萤石
软水紫晶
Slovak:Fluorit
Slovenian:Fluorit
Spanish:Fluorita
Bruiachita
Espato fluor
Fluspat
Swedish:Fluorit
Glas-Spat
Traditional Chinese:螢石
Ukrainian:Флюорит
Varieties:
Blue JohnChlorophaneFalse AmethystRatovkiteStink-Fluss
Strontian FluoriteYttroceriteYttrofluorite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Blue under LW-UV, due to erbium; other colors caused by different activators (white & cream - organic matter). Red (Mapimi, Mexico), pink (Doña Ana claims, AZ), white (Sterling Hill, NJ)
May also be phosphorescent.
Thermal Behaviour:Melting point 1360°C.
Other Information:May be thermoluminescent or triboluminescent.

Decomposed by H2SO4; slightly soluble in hot HCl. Slightly soluble in water (0.016 grams per liter at 18°.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Some specimens are light sensitive.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine
Industrial Uses:Flux in steel making; source of fluorine

References for Fluorite

Reference List:

- +
Exner (1873) Härte an Krystallflächen, Wien, 31, 34.

Pockels (1889) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 37: 144, 372.

Martens (1901) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 616.

Paschen (1901) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 4: 302.

Hintze (1912): 1(2B): 2384.

Bragg (1914) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 89: 468.

Goldschmidt (1918): 4: 8.

Steinmetz (1925) Zs. Kr. 61: 380.

Doelter (1930): 4(3): 228.

Goebel (1930) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna: 139: 373.

Holzgang (1930) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 10: 374.

Obernauer (1932) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 66: 89.

Iimori (1933) Science Papers Institute of Physics and Chemistry Res. Tokyo: 20: 189.

Matossi and Brix (1934) Zeitschrift für Physik, Brunswick, Berlin: 92: 303

Haberlandt and Schiener (1935) Zs. Kr.: 90: 193.

Tousey (1936) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 50: 1057.

Hoffmann (1937) Che, Erde: 11: 368.

Schaake (1937) Zs. Kr.: 98: 281.

Przibram (1938) Nature: 141: 970.

Bradistilov and Stranski (1940) Zs. Kr.: 103: 1.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 29-37.

Isetti, G. (1959): Ricerche sulla colorazione delle fluoriti; Nota I. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 19-29.

Rigault G., Ferraris G. (1961-1962): Ricerche sulla fluorite rosea del Monte Bianco. Atti Acc. Sci. Torino Classe Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. 96, 517. [on pink colour]

Ferraris, G. (1963): Ricerche sul colore della fluorite di Castelsilano (Catanzaro). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana. 19, 99-108. [http://rruff.info/rdsmi/V19/V19.html] [on green colour]

Barabanov, V.F. and Goncharov, G.N. (1967) Dependence of luminescence spectra of fluorite on its genesis. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 173: 132-135.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: eighth edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1819 pp.: 380.

Fluorite - The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis - English No. 9 126pp.

Ottens, B. (2010): Kugelfluorit aus indischen Basalten. Lapis, 35 (10), 13-19; 90 (in German). [on spherical fluorite]

Van der Meersche, E. (2014): Kristallformen von Fluorit - Crystal forms. Author’s publishing, 296 pp. (bilingual German-English).

Mindat.org articles about Fluorite

Article entries:
The relation between REE's and UK fluorite as proposed by K.C.DunhamPhilip Mostmans
Yaogangxian mine, China Minerals Hunting trip, 2009 Aug 26th to 31thXiaoJun Chen
Chinese Minerals hunting trip in Jiangxi province short report 2010 Jan 21-25thXiaoJun Chen
Chinese Minerals Hunting trip in GuiLin,Chenzhou,Ganzhou area 20100312XiaoJun Chen
Stoneco Auglaize quarry, Junction, Paulding Co., Ohio, USA recent findsEverett Harrington
An exceptional fluorite specimenJolyon & Katya Ralph
New Arizona fluoritesBob Jackson
Arizona fluorite updateBob Jackson

Best Localities for Fluorite

Best of Species:Fluorite

Internet Links for Fluorite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Fluorite on Webmineral
  • Look for Fluorite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Fluorite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Fluorite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Fluorite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Fluorite specimens
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • Search for Fluorite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
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  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Find Fluorite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Specimens:The following Fluorite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Fluorite

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