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Franklinite

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Formula:
Zn2+Fe23+O4
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Black
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1819 by Pierre Berthier in honor of Benjamin Franklin [January 17, 1706 Massachusetts Bay Colony - April 17, 1790 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA], American statesman, and the locality of Franklin Furnace (now Franklin Borough), New Jersey, which was named in his honor, as well. Benjamin Franklin was the first important USA scientist who investigated electricity and was an inventor of bifocal lenses for eye glasses, the fuel efficient Franklin Stove, lightening rods, the carriage odometer, and the glass harmonica (musical instrument).Hes was co-founder of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Philosophical Society as well as serving as Governor of Pennsylvania. He established the model for volunteer fire fighting services. He was the first postmaster of the USA and devised an efficient postal delivery system. He was an important early abolitionist. As a genuine polymath, he was an author and philosopher, newspaper editor, but he is primarily celebrated as a politician and ambassador and credited as a Founding Father of the United States of America.

Classification of Franklinite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.2.4

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.5.10

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Franklinite

Year of Discovery:
1819

Occurrences of Franklinite

Geological Setting:
High temperature metamorphism of Fe, Zn, Mn-rich marine carbonates.

Physical Properties of Franklinite

Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=852 - 882 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Very brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Fair parting on {111}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
5.07 - 5.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.163 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Franklinite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.45(2) Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 603.35 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Otahedral crystals common; dodecahedral less common; cubic rare.
Twinning:
Twinning on {111}

Optical Data of Franklinite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.36(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
White to gray
Internal Reflections:
Red

Chemical Properties of Franklinite

Formula:
Zn2+Fe23+O4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
The variation in composition ratio of Zn:Fe results in a variable degree of magnetism. 
Common Impurities:
Mn,Ti,Al,M,Ca

Relationship of Franklinite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Ceylonite
ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
CoulsoniteFe2+V23+O4
CuprospinelCu2+Fe23+O4
Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4
GahniteZnAl2O4
Galaxite(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4
HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
MagnesiochromiteMg(Cr,Al,Fe)2O4
MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4
MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Manganochromite(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)2O4
Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4
Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
SpinelMgAl2O4
TrevoriteNi2+Fe23+O4
UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
Vuorelainenite(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)2O4
ZincochromiteZnCr2O4
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V23+O4
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4
4.BB.05Galaxite(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05Manganochromite(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMg(Cr,Al,Fe)2O4
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4
4.BB.05Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
4.BB.05Vuorelainenite(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)2O4
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
4.BB.10IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.15MaghemiteFe23+O3
4.BB.15TitanomaghemiteFe3+(Fe3+,Ti4+,Fe2+,◻)2O4
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mg,Mn2+)2Sb5+0.5(Mn3+,Si,Ti)0.5O4
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4
7.5.1Zincite(Zn,Mn2+,Fe2+)O
7.5.2SweetiteZn(OH)2
7.5.3AshoveriteZn(OH)2
7.5.4WülfingiteZn(OH)2
7.5.5GahniteZnAl2O4
7.5.6HetaeroliteZnMn2O4
7.5.7HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
7.5.8Chalcophanite(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
7.5.9WoodruffiteZn(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10·3½H2O
7.5.11MonteponiteCdO
7.5.12MontroyditeHgO

Other Names for Franklinite

Other Information

Magnetism:
Diamagnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Franklinite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1928): 13: 171-173.

Palache, C. (1935), The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 45.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 698-707.

O'Neill, H.St.C. (1992) Temperature dependence of the cation distribution in zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) from powder XRD structural refinements. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 571-580.

Lucchesi, S., Russo, U., and Della Giusta, A. (1999) Cation distribution in natural Zn-spinels: franklinite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 501-511.

Internet Links for Franklinite

Specimens:
The following Franklinite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Franklinite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
www.crocoite.com (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
  • Western Australia
    • Mukinbudin Shire
Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia, 1999
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W. & Bernhard, F. (2011
China
 
  • Guangdong Province
    • Meizhou Prefecture
      • Mei Co.
Jinyan Yao (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(4), 5-11
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Yichun Prefecture
      • Shanggao Co.
Junliang Li (2009): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 24(2), 142-145
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Ireland
 
  • Co. Kerry
    • Killarney
      • Lough Leane
Ixer, R.A. 2004. Catalogue of Petrographic Descriptions for Rock and Ore Samples, Ross Island Mine. In: O'Brien, W. ed. Ross Island - Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 768pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Atasu
Kayupova, M. M. (1963): Mineralogy of the Dzhumart iron-manganese deposit. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya, 1963 (6), 57-80.
    • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Panczner (1987): 77-395.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Ojo Caliente
      • La Blanca
Parker, R. (2010). Geology And Mineral Resources Of The Bilbao Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposit, State Of Zacatecas, Mexico. Private Company Report for Xtierra Inc.
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Kratovo-Zletovo ore District
RMZ - Materials and Geoenvironment Vol 52 No. 3 pp 535-548 (2006)
  • Veles
Schweiz. mineral. petrogr. Mitt. (1994) 74, 321-328; Jancev, S. (2001): Peculiar antimony-bearing minerals of the spinel group in metamorphic rocks from near Nezilovo village, Macedonia. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 73-78.
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Bermanec et al, 1996
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Vitim Plateau
          • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
            • Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
          • Rasvumchorr Mt
P.M. Kartashov data
Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Mikhailova, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 599-606.
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
Minerals of South Africa
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Can. Min. (2001) 39 (6), 1675-1683; Nysten, P. (2003): Yeatmanite and magnussonite from the Garpenberg Norra mine, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. Can. Mineral., 41, 201-206; American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 251–255, 2003
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Kjell Gatedal
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • Lanivet
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Aleutians East Borough
      • Alaska Peninsula District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bear Valley Mining District
Leavens & Patton: Axis 4 (1)13p (2008)
      • Chemehuevi Mts
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Colorado
    • Gilpin Co.
      • Central City District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Fairview District
        • Fairview Silver mine
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Bergen Co.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 76.
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
Van King
Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
USGS Prof Paper 180(Palache, C.)(1930).
Van King; Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Van King
Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt4:498.
Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):47.
Common knowledge of occurrence.
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
  • New Mexico
    • Hidalgo Co.
      • Steins Pass District
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed, 1996
Zambia
 
  • Lusaka Province
    • Lusaka
Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
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