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Franklinite

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Formula:
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
System:IsometricColour:Black
Hardness:5½ - 6
Member of:Spinel Group
Name:Named in 1819 by Pierre Berthier in honor of Benjamin Franklin [January 17, 1706 Massachusetts Bay Colony - April 17, 1790 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA], American statesman, and the locality of Franklin Furnace (now Franklin Borough), New Jersey, which was named in his honor, as well. Benjamin Franklin was the first important USA scientist who investigated electricity and was an inventor of bifocal lenses for eye glasses, the fuel efficient Franklin Stove, lightening rods, the carriage odometer, and the glass harmonica (musical instrument).Hes was co-founder of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Philosophical Society as well as serving as Governor of Pennsylvania. He established the model for volunteer fire fighting services. He was the first postmaster of the USA and devised an efficient postal delivery system. He was an important early abolitionist. As a genuine polymath, he was an author and philosopher, newspaper editor, but he is primarily celebrated as a politician and ambassador and credited as a Founding Father of the United States of America.


Spinel Group, Fe series

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Classification of Franklinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/B.02-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:7.2.2.4

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.5.10

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Franklinite

Co-type Localities:Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Trotter Mine (Lehigh Mine), Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Sterling Mine, Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Year of Discovery:1819

Occurrences of Franklinite

Geological Setting:High temperature metamorphism of Fe, Zn, Mn-rich marine carbonates.

Physical Properties of Franklinite

Lustre:Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black
Streak:Reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=852 - 882 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Very brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Parting:Fair parting on {111}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.07 - 5.22 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.163 g/cm3

Crystallography of Franklinite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fd3m {F41/d 3 2/m}
Cell Parameters:a = 8.45(2) Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 603.35 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Otahedral crystals common; dodecahedral less common; cubic rare.
Twinning:Twinning on {111}

Optical Data of Franklinite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 2.36(2)
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:White to gray
Internal Reflections:Red

Chemical Properties of Franklinite

Formula:
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Essential elements:Fe, O, Zn
All elements listed in formula:Fe, O, Zn
Analytical Data:
The variation in composition ratio of Zn:Fe results in a variable degree of magnetism. 
Common Impurities:Mn,Ti,Al,M,Ca

Relationship of Franklinite to other Species

Member of:Spinel Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ceylonite
Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
Galaxite
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.BB.05Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Galaxite
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
4.BB.05Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
4.BB.05Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hausmannite
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
4.BB.10Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.15Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,◻)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.20Tegengrenite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Sb
5+
0.5
(Mn
3+
 
,Si,Ti)
 
0.5
O
 
4
4.BB.25Xieite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.5.1Zincite
(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)O
7.5.2Sweetite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.3Ashoverite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.4Wülfingite
Zn(OH)
 
2
7.5.5Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.6Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.5.7Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.5.8Chalcophanite
(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn
 
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.5.9Woodruffite
Zn(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
5
O
 
10
·3½H
 
2
O
7.5.11Monteponite
CdO
7.5.12Montroydite
HgO

Other Names for Franklinite

Synonyms:
FranckliniteIsophaneMagnofrankliniteZinkoferrite
Other Languages:
French:Ferrite de Zinc
German:Fracklinit
Franklinit
Zinkoferrit
Russian:Франклинит
Simplified Chinese:锌铁尖晶石
锌铁矿
Spanish:Fracklinita
Franklinita
Zinkoferrita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None.
Magnetism:Diamagnetic
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Sterling Mine,..., Sussex Co., New Jersey, USANone
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Franklinite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1928): 13: 171-173.

Palache, C. (1935), The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 45.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 698-707.

O'Neill, H.St.C. (1992) Temperature dependence of the cation distribution in zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) from powder XRD structural refinements. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 571-580.

Lucchesi, S., Russo, U., and Della Giusta, A. (1999) Cation distribution in natural Zn-spinels: franklinite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 501-511.

Internet Links for Franklinite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Franklinite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Franklinite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Franklinite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Find Franklinite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
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  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Franklinite specimens
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Specimens:The following Franklinite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Franklinite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    www.crocoite.com (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
    • Western Australia
      • Mukinbudin Shire
    Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia, 1999
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Bad Gleichenberg
        • Wilhelmsdorf
    Postl, W. & Bernhard, F. (2011
    China
     
    • Guangdong Province
      • Meizhou Prefecture
        • Mei Co.
    Jinyan Yao (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(4), 5-11
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Yichun Prefecture
        • Shanggao Co.
    Junliang Li (2009): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 24(2), 142-145
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Kerry
      • Killarney
        • Lough Leane
    Ixer, R.A. 2004. Catalogue of Petrographic Descriptions for Rock and Ore Samples, Ross Island Mine. In: O'Brien, W. ed. Ross Island - Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 768pp.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Atasu
    Kayupova, M. M. (1963): Mineralogy of the Dzhumart iron-manganese deposit. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya, 1963 (6), 57-80.
      • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
    Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • East Camp
    Panczner (1987): 77-395.
    • Zacatecas
      • Mun. de Ojo Caliente
        • La Blanca
    Parker, R. (2010). Geology And Mineral Resources Of The Bilbao Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposit, State Of Zacatecas, Mexico. Private Company Report for Xtierra Inc.
    Republic of Macedonia
     
    • Kratovo-Zletovo ore District
    RMZ - Materials and Geoenvironment Vol 52 No. 3 pp 535-548 (2006)
    • Veles
    Schweiz. mineral. petrogr. Mitt. (1994) 74, 321-328; Jancev, S. (2001): Peculiar antimony-bearing minerals of the spinel group in metamorphic rocks from near Nezilovo village, Macedonia. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 73-78.
    Romania
     
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lake Baikal area
            • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Vitim Plateau
            • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
              • Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence
    P.M. Kartashov data
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
            • Rasvumchorr Mt
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Mikhailova, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 599-606.
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Ehlanzeni District
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Hedemora
        • Garpenberg
    Can. Min. (2001) 39 (6), 1675-1683; Nysten, P. (2003): Yeatmanite and magnussonite from the Garpenberg Norra mine, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. Can. Mineral., 41, 201-206; American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 251–255, 2003
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
    • Västmanland
      • Hällefors
        • Grythyttan
    Kjell Gatedal
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Austell District
          • Lanivet
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Aleutians East Borough
        • Alaska Peninsula District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Bear Valley Mining District
    Leavens & Patton: Axis 4 (1)13p (2008)
        • Chemehuevi Mts
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Colorado
      • Gilpin Co.
        • Central City District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Fairview District
          • Fairview Silver mine
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Bergen Co.
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 76.
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
    Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
    Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
    Van King
    Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
    USGS Prof Paper 180(Palache, C.)(1930).
    Van King; Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
    Van King
    Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt4:498.
    Palache(1935):47.
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Palache(1935):47.
    Common knowledge of occurrence.
    Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
    • New Mexico
      • Hidalgo Co.
        • Steins Pass District
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed, 1996
    Zambia
     
    • Lusaka Province
      • Lusaka
    Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
    Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
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