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Froodite

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Formula:
α-PdBi
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Grey
Hardness:
Name:For the type locality.
This page provides mineralogical data about Froodite.

Classification of Froodite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.21-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.AC.45a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
Dana 8th edition ID:2.12.15.1

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.12.41

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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Type Occurrence of Froodite

Type Locality:Frood Mine, McKim Township, Sudbury District, Ontario, Canada
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Harvard University.
Year of Discovery:1958

Physical Properties of Froodite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Grey
Streak:Black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN25=84 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {100}
less perfect on {001}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):1205 g/cm3
Density (calculated):11.42 g/cm3
Comment:Synthetic - 11.5

Crystallography of Froodite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m {B1 1 2/m} {C2/m} {C1 2/m 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 12.74Å, b = 4.29Å, c = 5.71Å
β = 102.52°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.97 : 1 : 1.331
Unit Cell Volume:V 304.66 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Rounded grains
Twinning:Sometimes

Optical Data of Froodite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Light and dark grays.
Colour in reflected light:Creamy white

Chemical Properties of Froodite

Formula:
α-PdBi
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:α-PdBi2
Essential elements:Bi, Pd
All elements listed in formula:Bi, Pd
Common Impurities:Te

Relationship of Froodite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.AC.05aAtheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
2.AC.05bVincentite
Pd
 
3
As
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinite
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
2.AC.10bMertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
2.AC.10aStillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
2.AC.15aIsomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
2.AC.15bMertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
2.AC.15aMiessiite
Pd
 
11
Te
 
2
Se
 
2
2.AC.20bPalarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
2.AC.20cMenshikovite
Pd
 
3
Ni
 
2
As
 
3
2.AC.25eMajakite
PdNiAs
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
2.AC.25cPalladodymite
(Pd,Rh)
 
2
As
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide
(Rh,Pd)
 
2
As
2.AC.25dNaldrettite
Pd
 
2
Sb
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh
(Rh,Ni)
 
7
As
 
4
2.AC.30Polkanovite
Rh
 
12
As
 
7
2.AC.35aGenkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
2.AC.35bUngavaite
Pd
 
4
Sb
 
3
2.AC.40Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
2.AC.45cBorishanskiite
Pd
 
1+x
(As,Pb)
 
2
, x = 0-0.2
2.AC.45bIridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.12.1Seinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
3.12.2Laurite
RuS
 
2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
3.12.5Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.7Rhodplumsite
Rh
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.9Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.10Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.11Cherepanovite
RhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite
(Pd,Cu)
 
16
(S,Te)
 
7
3.12.15Palladseite
Pd
 
17
Se
 
15
3.12.16Oosterboschite
(Pd,Cu)
 
7
Se
 
5
3.12.17Telluropalladinite
Pd
 
9
Te
 
4
3.12.18Temagamite
Pd
 
3
HgTe
 
3
3.12.19Sopcheite
Ag
 
4
Pd
 
3
Te
 
4
3.12.20Michenerite
PdBiTe
3.12.21Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite
(Pd,Ag)
 
3
(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.24Palladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
3.12.25Stillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
3.12.26Atheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
3.12.27Majakite
PdNiAs
3.12.28Palarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
3.12.29Arsenopalladinite
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
3.12.30Vincentite
Pd
 
3
As
3.12.31Palladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
3.12.32Stibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36Borovskite
Pd
 
3
SbTe
 
4
3.12.37Isomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
3.12.38Mertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
3.12.39Mertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
3.12.40Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
3.12.42Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
3.12.44Cooperite
PtS
3.12.45Braggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite
(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.12.47Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.48Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.49Maslovite
PtBiTe
3.12.50Sperrylite
PtAs
 
2
3.12.51Platarsite
(Pt,Rh,Ru)AsS
3.12.52Geversite
PtSb
 
2
3.12.53Daomanite
CuPtAsS
 
2
3.12.54Genkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
3.12.55Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56Insizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
3.12.57Erlichmanite
OsS
 
2
3.12.58Omeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.59Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.61Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.63Iridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.64Irarsite
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65Tolovkite
IrSbS

Other Names for Froodite

Other Languages:
German:Froodit
Simplified Chinese:单斜铋钯矿
斜铋钯矿
Spanish:Froodita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Froodite

Reference List:

- +
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209.
CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912.

Internet Links for Froodite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Froodite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Froodite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Froodite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Thompson Nickel Belt
        • Ospwagan Lake & Paint Lake area
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    • New Brunswick
      • Kings Co.
        • Cardwell Parish
    Can. Min. 45, 775; Grammatikopoulos, T.A., Hiebert, R.S., Barr, S.M. and Valeyev, O., (2006) Cu-Ni-PGM Mineralization In The Mechanic Settlement Pluton, Southern New Brunswick, Canada. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 31
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
        • Voisey´s Bay
    Kelvin et al. Can. Min. 49, 1505
    • Ontario
      • Rainy River District
    N. T. Pettigrew, K. H. Hattori, and J. A. Percival. (2000) Samuels Lake intrusion: a Late Archean Cu-Ni-PGE-bearing mafic-ultramafic complex in the western Quetico Subprovince, northwestern Ontario. GSC Current Research 2000 C20
      • Sudbury District
        • Blezard Township
    ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Broder Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Creighton-Davies Township
    Handbook of Mineralogy; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Denison Township
    ontariominerals.com; Canadian Mineralogist (1973): 11: 903-912.
        • Drury Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ford, F.D., Wecholaz, C.R. & Lee, A. (2011) Predicting process outcomes for Sudbury platinum-group minerals using grade-recovery modeling from mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) data. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1627-1642.; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Springer (1989) Can. Min. 27, 311-313; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • MacLennan Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • McKim Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Snider Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    • Yukon Territory
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Jinchang Prefecture
        • Jinchuan District
    Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28; Yang, X.-Z., Ishihara, S., and Zhao, D.-H. (2006): Mineralogy and Petrology 86 (1/2), 109-128; Yang, Xuan-Zhu;Matsueda, Hiroharu;Yui, Shunzo;Dong, Xian-Yang (1992) : Chemical Compositions and Paragenesis of the Platinum-group Element Minerals in the Jinchuan Sulfide Deposit, Gansu Province, China. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy;Vol.XXIII, No.2
    • Yunnan Province
      • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
        • Jinping Co.
    Wang, C., and Zhou, M.-F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41(8), 771-783
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Havlíčkův Brod (Německý Brod; Deutschbrod)
    Vavřín, I.: Přehled mineralogie, geochemie a ložisek platinových kovů. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 132-140.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Koillismaa Complex
    Kojonen, K. and Iljina, M. 2001. Platinum-Group Minerals in the Early Proterozoic Kuusijärvi Marginal Series, Koillismaa Layered Igneous Complex, Northeastern Finland. In A. Piestrzynski et al. (eds). Proceedings of the sixth Biennial SGA-SEG meeting, Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 653-656
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Nivala
    K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Maksut
    Prokopyev, I.R., Izokh, A.E., Borisenko, A.S., Naumov, E.A., and Seltmann, R. (2010): Presented at the 11th International Platinum Symposium, June 21-24, 2010.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
    [Lapis 1993:4 p.13-20]
    [AmMin 85:199]
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
            • Noril'sk
    The Canadian Mineralogist; February 2009; v. 47; no. 1; p. 53-62
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Chiney massif
    Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Tuva Republic
        • Sayan Mts
          • Eastern Sayan
    Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Lake Onega
          • Zaonezhie peninsula
            • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
    American Mineralogist, Volume 83, pages 1118, 1998; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Northern Karelia
          • Oulanka plutonic complex
            • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
    Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
          • Monche-Tundra
    Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    South Africa
     
    • Eastern Cape Province
      • Alfred Nzo District
        • Insizwa
    Minerals of South Africa; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 19, pp. 607-618 (1981)
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Waterberg District
          • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
    Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
      • Phalaborwa
        • Loolekop
    Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
          • Rustenburg Town & Townlands Mine
    Economic Geology (1990) 85:537-555
    Switzerland
     
    • Aargau
      • Laufenburg
        • Kaisten
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Wigtownshire)
        • Newton Stewart
    MinMag 68(2):395-411
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
          • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Minnesota
      • St. Louis Co.
        • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol.36, pp. 869-886 (1998)
    Wilson, G. C., Rucklidge, J. C., & Cermignani, C. (2002). COARSE-GRAINED CABRIITE FROM NORIL’SK, RUSSIA. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 473-479.
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