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Froodite

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Formula:
α-PdBi2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Grey
Hardness:
Name:
For the type locality.
This page provides mineralogical data about Froodite.

Classification of Froodite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.AC.45a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE
2.12.15.1

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.12.41

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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First Recorded Occurrence of Froodite

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Harvard University.
Year of Discovery:
1958

Physical Properties of Froodite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Comment:
Quite reflective giving a silvery white reflection
Colour:
Grey
Streak:
Black
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN25=84 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {100}
less perfect on {001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
1205 g/cm3 (Measured)    11.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Synthetic - 11.5

Crystallography of Froodite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Space Group Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.74Å, b = 4.29Å, c = 5.71Å
β = 102.52°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.97 : 1 : 1.331
Unit Cell Volume:
V 304.66 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Rounded grains
Twinning:
Sometimes

Optical Data of Froodite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Light and dark grays.
Colour in reflected light:
Creamy white

Chemical Properties of Froodite

Formula:
α-PdBi2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Te

Relationship of Froodite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
2.AC.05aAtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25
2.AC.05bVincentitePd3As
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
2.AC.10bMertieite-IIPd8(Sb,As)3
2.AC.10aStillwateritePd8As3
2.AC.15aIsomertieitePd11Sb2As2
2.AC.15bMertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4
2.AC.15aMiessiitePd11Te2Se2
2.AC.20bPalarstanidePd8(As,Sn)3
2.AC.20aStibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
2.AC.20cMenshikovitePd3Ni2As3
2.AC.25eMajakitePdNiAs
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenidePd2As
2.AC.25fPalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)
2.AC.25cPalladodymite(Pd,Rh)2As
2.AC.25bRhodarsenide(Rh,Pd)2As
2.AC.25dNaldrettitePd2Sb
2.AC.30UM1999-02-As:NiRh(Rh,Ni)7As4
2.AC.30PolkanoviteRh12As7
2.AC.35aGenkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3
2.AC.35bUngavaitePd4Sb3
2.AC.40PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)
2.AC.45cBorishanskiitePd1+x(As,Pb)2 , x = 0-0.2
2.AC.45bIridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2
3.12.2LauriteRuS2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4
3.12.20MicheneritePdBiTe
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2As
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAs
3.12.28PalarstanidePd8(As,Sn)3
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3
3.12.30VincentitePd3As
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8(Sb,As)3
3.12.40SobolevskitePd(Bi,Te)
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2
3.12.44CooperitePtS
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8
3.12.47MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTe
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsS
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3
3.12.55StumpflitePt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbS

Other Names for Froodite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Froodit
Simplified Chinese:单斜铋钯矿
斜铋钯矿
Spanish:Froodita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Froodite

Reference List:
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209.
CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912.

Internet Links for Froodite

Localities for Froodite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • New Westminster Mining Division
      • Hope
Manor, M.J., Scoates, J.S., Nixon,G.T., and Ames, D.E., 2014. Platinum-group mineralogy of the Giant Mascot Ni-CuPGE deposit, Hope, B.C. In: Geological Fieldwork 2013, British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2014-1, pp. 141-156.
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Ospwagan Lake & Paint Lake area
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
Can. Min. 45, 775; Grammatikopoulos, T.A., Hiebert, R.S., Barr, S.M. and Valeyev, O., (2006) Cu-Ni-PGM Mineralization In The Mechanic Settlement Pluton, Southern New Brunswick, Canada. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 31
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
      • Voisey´s Bay
Kelvin et al. Can. Min. 49, 1505
  • Ontario
    • Rainy River District
N. T. Pettigrew, K. H. Hattori, and J. A. Percival. (2000) Samuels Lake intrusion: a Late Archean Cu-Ni-PGE-bearing mafic-ultramafic complex in the western Quetico Subprovince, northwestern Ontario. GSC Current Research 2000 C20
    • Sudbury District
      • Blezard Township
; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Broder Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Creighton-Davies Township
Handbook of Mineralogy; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Denison Township
ontariominerals.com; Canadian Mineralogist (1973): 11: 903-912.
      • Drury Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ford, F.D., Wecholaz, C.R. & Lee, A. (2011) Predicting process outcomes for Sudbury platinum-group minerals using grade-recovery modeling from mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) data. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1627-1642.; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Springer (1989) Can. Min. 27, 311-313; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • MacLennan Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • McKim Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Snider Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
  • Yukon Territory
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Kluane District
Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Jinchang Prefecture
      • Jinchuan District
Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28; Yang, X.-Z., Ishihara, S., and Zhao, D.-H. (2006): Mineralogy and Petrology 86 (1/2), 109-128; Yang, Xuan-Zhu;Matsueda, Hiroharu;Yui, Shunzo;Dong, Xian-Yang (1992) : Chemical Compositions and Paragenesis of the Platinum-group Element Minerals in the Jinchuan Sulfide Deposit, Gansu Province, China. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy;Vol.XXIII, No.2
  • Yunnan Province
    • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
      • Jinping Co.
Wang, C., and Zhou, M.-F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41(8), 771-783
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Havlíčkův Brod (Německý Brod; Deutschbrod)
Vavřín, I.: Přehled mineralogie, geochemie a ložisek platinových kovů. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 132-140.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Koillismaa Complex
Kojonen, K. and Iljina, M. 2001. Platinum-Group Minerals in the Early Proterozoic Kuusijärvi Marginal Series, Koillismaa Layered Igneous Complex, Northeastern Finland. In A. Piestrzynski et al. (eds). Proceedings of the sixth Biennial SGA-SEG meeting, Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 653-656
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Nivala
K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Maksut
Prokopyev, I.R., Izokh, A.E., Borisenko, A.S., Naumov, E.A., and Seltmann, R. (2010): Presented at the 11th International Platinum Symposium, June 21-24, 2010.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
[Lapis 1993:4 p.13-20]
[AmMin 85:199]
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
          • Noril'sk
The Canadian Mineralogist; February 2009; v. 47; no. 1; p. 53-62
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
        • Chiney massif
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
    • Tuva Republic
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Lake Onega
        • Zaonezhie peninsula
          • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
American Mineralogist, Volume 83, pages 1118, 1998; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Northern Karelia
        • Oulanka plutonic complex
          • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
        • Monche-Tundra
Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
South Africa
 
  • Eastern Cape Province
    • Alfred Nzo District
      • Insizwa
Minerals of South Africa; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 19, pp. 607-618 (1981)
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
          • Rustenburg Town & Townlands Mine
Economic Geology (1990) 85:537-555
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Laufenburg
      • Kaisten
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway (Wigtownshire)
      • Newton Stewart
MinMag 68(2):395-411
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
      • Goodnews Bay
        • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol.36, pp. 869-886 (1998)
Wilson, G. C., Rucklidge, J. C., & Cermignani, C. (2002). COARSE-GRAINED CABRIITE FROM NORIL’SK, RUSSIA. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 473-479.
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