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Alunogen

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Formula:
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:Colorless in crystals, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, SilkyHardness:1½ - 2
Name:From the Latin "alum" and the Greek γεννώ ("genno"), "to create".


A hydrated aluminium sulfate.

Classification of Alunogen

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.08-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CB.45

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:29.8.6.1
Dana 8th edition ID:29.8.6.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
8 : A2(XO4)3·H2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.6.7

25 : Sulphates
6 : Sulphates of Al and Tl
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Occurrences of Alunogen

Geological Setting:Forms by reaction of sulfates from decomposing sulfides with aluminous minerals in shales and slates; in gossan or altered wall rock of pyritic deposits in arid regions; in coal seams;
in relatively low-temperature fumaroles.

Physical Properties of Alunogen

Lustre:Vitreous, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colorless in crystals, aggregates white, or pale yellow or red from impurities.
Comment:colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2

Crystallography of Alunogen

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Morphology:Crystals rare, small; prismatic [001] or {010} with a hexagonal outline about [010]; very complex, with about 60 forms noted. Commonly as delicate fibrous masses or crusts; effloresences; massive, fibrous to 5mm.

Twinning:On {010}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Alunogen

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.473 nβ = 1.474 nγ = 1.480
2V:Measured: 31° to 69°, Calculated: 46°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.007

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Alunogen

Formula:
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Al2(SO4)3·17H2O
Essential elements:Al, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, H, O, S

Relationship of Alunogen to other Species

Common Associates:
PyriteMarcasiteHalotrichitePickeringiteEpsomite
EpsomiteMelanteriteGypsum
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CB.05Dwornikite
(Ni,Fe)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Gunningite
ZnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Kieserite
MgSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szmikite
MnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szomolnokite
FeSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Cobaltkieserite
CoSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.07Sanderite
MgSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.10Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Aplowite
(Co,Mn,Ni)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Boyleite
(Zn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Ilesite
(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Rozenite
FeSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Starkeyite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Drobecite
CdSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Cranswickite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Bianchite
(Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite
(Mn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Ferrohexahydrite
FeSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Hexahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite
(Co,Ni,Mn)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.30Retgersite
NiSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Bieberite
CoSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Mallardite
MnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Melanterite
FeSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite
(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Alpersite
(Mg,Cu)[SO
 
4
] · 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Epsomite
MgSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Goslarite
ZnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Morenosite
NiSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CB.50Aluminocoquimbite
FeAl(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Coquimbite
Fe
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase
(H
 
5
O
 
2
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.60Kornelite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.65Quenstedtite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CB.70Lausenite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
·6H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Römerite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.80Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Apjohnite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Redingtonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite
(Co,Mg,Ni)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.90Meridianiite
MgSO
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.6.1Rostite
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.2Jurbanite
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.3Khademite
Al(SO
 
4
)F · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.4Meta-aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.6.5Aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.6.6Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.8Felsőbányaite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 4H
 
2
O
25.6.9Basaluminite
25.6.10Hydrobasaluminite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 12-36H
 
2
O
25.6.11Zaherite
Al
 
12
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
26
· 20H
 
2
O
25.6.12Tamarugite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.6.13Mendozite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
25.6.14Alum-(Na)
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.15Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.16Kalinite
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O Not confirmed
25.6.17Alum-(K)
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.18Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.19Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.20Tschermigite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O

Other Names for Alunogen

Synonyms:
AlunogeniteDaviteHalotrichite (of Hausmann)Halotrichit (of Hausmann)Katharite
KatheriteKeramohalite (of Glocker)KeramostypteriteSaldaniteSolfatarite
Stypterite
Other Languages:
French:Alunogène
Hydrotrisulfate d'alumine
German:Alunogenit
Davit
Katharit
Katherit
Keramostypterit
Schwefelsaure Thonerde
Stipterit
Stypterit
Italian:Alunogeno
Russian:Алуноген
Simplified Chinese:毛矾石
Spanish:Alunogenita
Davita
Katharita
Katherita
Keramostypterita
Stypterita
Varieties:
Phosphoralunogen

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in water. Taste alumlike, acid and sharp.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Scotia mine,..., Cumberland Co., Nova Scotia, CanadaWater soluble.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Alunogen

Reference List:

- +
Beudant, F.S. (1824), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, 8vo, Paris: 449 (as Hydrotrisulfate d'alumine).

Mill (1828) Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and Art, London: 25: 382 (as Davite).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 488 (as Alunogène).

Shepard C.U. (1835) Treatise on Mineralogy. First edition: vols. 2, 3: 188 (as Solfatarite).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 689 (as Keramohalite).

Huot, J.J. (1841) Manuel de Minéralogie. 2 volumes, Paris: 2: 451 (as Saldanite).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 297 (as Stypterit).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts: 2: 1174 (as Halotrichit).

Rammelsberg, C.F. (1875) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. second edition: 269 (as Haarsalz).

Jirkovsky (1928) cited in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 106.

Larsen, Esper Signius & George Steiger (1928), Dehydration and optical studies of alunogen, nontronite, and griffithite: American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 15: 1-19.

Lausen (1928) American Mineralogist: 13: 208.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4404.

Petrov (1933) Trav. Inst. Pétrog. Ac. Sc. U.R.S.S., no. 3: 89.

Zavaritsky (1935) Trans. Centr. Geol. & Prosp. Inst., Leningrad, no. 35.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 21: 164-178.

Gordon (1942) Academy of Science of Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 101

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 537-540.

Internet Links for Alunogen

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