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Gadolinite-(Y)

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Norway
© 2001 John H. Betts




Formula:
Y
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
System:MonoclinicColour:Black, greenish-black, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, GreasyHardness:6½ - 7
Member of:Gadolinite-Datolite Group
Name:
Named after J. Gadolin (1760-1852), discoverer of yttrium and the "-(Y)" suffix due to the dominance of yttrium in the composition.


Gadolinite-Datolite Group. The yttrium analogue of gadolinite-(Ce).
Difficult to distinguish from hingganite-(Y).

Classification of Gadolinite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.29-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AJ.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
J : Nesosilicates with BO3 triangles and/or B[4], Be[4] tetrahedra, cornersharing with SiO4
Dana 8th edition ID:54.2.1b.3

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.3.23

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
3 : Silicates of Be
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Type Occurrence of Gadolinite-(Y)

Type Locality:Ytterby, Resarö, Vaxholm, Uppland, Sweden

Occurrences of Gadolinite-(Y)

Geological Setting:Granites and alkalic granitic pegmatites

Physical Properties of Gadolinite-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black, greenish-black, brown
Streak:Grayish green
Hardness (Mohs):6½ - 7
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Splintery, Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.36 - 4.77 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.41 g/cm3

Crystallography of Gadolinite-(Y)

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 10Å, b = 7.565(2) Å, c = 4.768(1) Å
β = 90.31(2)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.322 : 1 : 0.63
Unit Cell Volume:V 360.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic, massive

Optical Data of Gadolinite-(Y)

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.770 nβ = 1.790 nγ = 1.820
2V:Measured: 85°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.050

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Gadolinite-(Y)

Formula:
Y
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10


Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
Simplified for copy/paste:Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Essential elements:Be, Fe, O, Si, Y
All elements listed in formula:Be, Fe, O, Si, Y

Relationship of Gadolinite-(Y) to other Species

Member of:Gadolinite-Datolite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Bakerite
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
Calcybeborosilite-(Y)
(Y,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)(B,Be)
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
Gadolinite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Y)
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Hingganite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Hingganite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Hingganite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,REE)
 
2
□Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Minasgeraisite-(Y)
CaBe
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
Common Associates:
ZirconFluoriteFergusoniteFergusoniteChevkinite Group
Allanite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AJ.05Grandidierite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.AJ.05Ominelite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.AJ.10Dumortierite
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(BO
 
3
)O
 
3
9.AJ.10Holtite
(Ta
 
0.6
 
0.4
)Al
 
6
BSi
 
3
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
2.25
9.AJ.10Magnesiodumortierite
(Mg,Ti,◻(Al,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
4
Si
 
3
O
 
18-y
(OH)
 
y
B y = 2-3
9.AJ.15Garrelsite
Ba
 
3
NaSi
 
2
B
 
7
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
9.AJ.20Bakerite
Ca
 
4
(H
 
5
B
 
5
Si
 
3
O
 
20
)
9.AJ.20Datolite
Ca(HBSiO
 
5
)
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Y)
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,REE)
 
2
□Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AJ.20Homilite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)B
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Melanocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
5
(Si,B)
 
3
O
 
12
(OH,F) · nH
 
2
O
9.AJ.20Minasgeraisite-(Y)
CaBe
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
9.AJ.20Calcybeborosilite-(Y)
(Y,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)(B,Be)
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
9.AJ.25Stillwellite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO
 
5
9.AJ.30Cappelenite-(Y)
Ba(Y,Ce)
 
6
Si
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
24
F
 
2
9.AJ.35Okanoganite-(Y)
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Y,Ce)
 
12
Si
 
6
B
 
2
O
 
27
F
 
14
9.AJ.35Vicanite-(Ce)
(Ca,Ce,La,Th)
 
15
As
5+
 
(As
3+
0.5
,Na
 
0.5
)Fe
3+
 
Si
 
6
B
 
4
O
 
40
F
 
7
9.AJ.35Hundholmenite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca,Na)
 
15
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(Ca
 
x
As
3+
1-x
)(Si,As
5+
 
)Si
 
6
B
 
3
(O,F)
 
48
9.AJ.35Proshchenkoite-(Y)
Ca(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)
 
15
Fe
2+
 
(P,Si)Si
 
6
B
 
3
O
 
34
F
 
14
9.AJ.40Jadarite
LiNaSiB
 
3
O
 
7
(OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.3.1Phenakite
Be
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.3.2Bertrandite
Be
 
4
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
2
14.3.3Beryllite
Be
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.3.4Liberite
Li
 
2
BeSiO
 
4
14.3.5Chkalovite
Na
 
2
BeSi
 
2
O
 
6
14.3.6Eudidymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
14.3.7Epididymite
Na
 
2
Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
· H
 
2
O
14.3.8Gugiaite
Ca
 
2
Be(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
14.3.9Jeffreyite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Be,Al)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
,HSi
 
2
O
 
7
)
14.3.10Semenovite-(Ce)
Na
 
8
Ca
 
2
FeBe
 
6
Ce
 
2
Si
 
14
O
 
40
(OH)
 
4
F
 
4
14.3.11Barylite
Be
 
2
Ba(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
14.3.12Hingganite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.3.13Hingganite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,REE)
 
2
□Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.3.14Hingganite-(Y)
(Y,REE,Ca)
 
2
(□,Fe
2+
 
)Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.3.15Minasgeraisite-(Y)
CaBe
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
14.3.16Sørensenite
Na
 
4
SnBe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
4
14.3.17Trimerite
CaMn
2+
2
Be
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
14.3.18Chiavennite
CaMnBe
 
2
Si
 
5
O
 
13
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.3.19Tvedalite
(Ca,Mn)
 
4
Be
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
17
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
14.3.20Harstigite
Ca
 
6
(Mn,Mg)Be
 
4
Si
 
6
(O,OH)
 
24
14.3.21Sverigeite
NaMnMgSnBe
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
14.3.22Joesmithite
{Pb}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.3.24Gadolinite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Y)
 
2
Fe
2+
 
Be
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
14.3.25Calciogadolinite-(Y)
(YCa)
 
2
Fe
3+
 
Be
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
2
O
 
2

Other Names for Gadolinite-(Y)

Synonyms:
YtterbiteYttrite
Other Languages:
German:Gadolinit-(Y)
Schwarzer Zeolith
Ytterbit
Yttrit
Russian:Гадолинит-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:硅铍钇矿
Spanish:Ytterbita
Yttrita
Swedish:Yttersten
Traditional Chinese:矽鈹釔礦
Varieties:
Calciogadolinite-(Y)

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gadolinite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Geijer (1788): Vom Hrn Berm Geijer in Stochkholm. Chemische Annalen [Crell's Annalen] für die Freunde der Naturlehre, Arzneygelahrtheit, Haushaltungskunst und Manufacturen. Erster Band 1788 [First Volume], p. 229-230.[First description]

Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Gadolinits, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 52-79

Petersson, W. (1890): Studier öfver gadolinit. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 12, 275-347

Miyawaki, R., Nakai, I., Nagashima, K. (1984): A refinement of the crystal structure of gadolinite. American Mineralogist, 69, 948-953. [gadolinite-(Y)]

DeMartin, F., Pilati, T., Diella, V., Gentile, P. & Gramaccioli, C. M. (1993): A crystal-chemical investigation of Alpine gadolinite. Canadian Mineralogist. 31, 127-136. [gadolinite-(Y)]

Camara, F., Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Ventura, G. D., Bellatreccia, F. (2008): The crystal chemistry of Li in gadolinite. American Mineralogist, 93, 996-1004.

Best Localities for Gadolinite-(Y)

Best of Species:Gadolinite-(Y)

Internet Links for Gadolinite-(Y)

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    Localities for Gadolinite-(Y)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Port Hedland Shire
        • Abydos (Pinga Creek; Abydos Station; Woodstock)
    Simpson, Edward S., 1928, Famous Mineral Localities: Wodgina, North West Australia, American Mineralogist, Volume 13, pages 457-468.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Gastein valley
          • Böckstein
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Untersulzbach valley
    collection of Martin Slama
    Stephan Wolfsried collection
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Zillertal
          • Zamser Grund (Zams valley)
            • Schrammacher
    M. Moro collection (SEM-EDS probed by UNIMI, 2006)
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Renfrew Co.
        • Lyndoch Township
    ontariominerals.com
      • Sudbury District
        • Scadding Township
    Can. Min. 45, 1415
    • Québec
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Nunavik
    BIRKETT, T.C., MILLER, R.R., ROBERTS, A.C., & MARIANO, A.N. (1992) Zirconium bearing minerals from the Strange Lake intrusive complex, Quebec Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 191-205.
    • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
    Miller (1996), Can.Min.: 34:349-371; Salvi & Williams-Jones (1995); Am.Min.: 80:1031-1040; Miller (1990), Newfoundland Dept. of Mines & Energy Geol. Sur. Report 90-1: 171-182.; A. Kerr and H. Rafuse (2012) Rare-earth element (REE) geochemistry of the Strange Lake deposits: Implications for resource estimation and metallogenic models. Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources Current Research 2012 pp39-60
    China
     
    • Fujian Province
      • Nanping Prefecture
        • Yanping District
    Yueqing Yang, Yunxiang Ni, Yongquan Guo, Nianming Qiu, Chenghu Chen, Chaofa Cai, Yaping Zhang, Jiabing Liu, and Yuexian Chen (1987): Mineral Deposits 6(3), 10-21
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Tongliao League (Tongliao Prefecture)
        • Jarud Banner (Zalute Co.)
          • Baerzhe complex
    Jingzhan Zhu, Guohui Zhang, Qingsong Du, and Jing He (2013): Northwestern Geology 46(4), 207-214
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Dayu Co.
    Rucheng Wang, Fontan, F., Xiaoming Chen, Huan Hu, Changshi Liu, Shijin Xu, and de Parseval, P. (2003): Canadian Mineralogist 41, 727-748.
        • Longnan Co.
    Zhiwei Bao and Zhenhua Zhao (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 519-535.; Yunhuai Lin and Shiyang Chen (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(3), 23-31
    Finland
     
    • Åland Islands
      • Brandö Island
    Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp (p.119)
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Kemiö Island (Kimito Island)
    HANNU MÄKITIE, HEINI ERVANNE (2007) Fe(II)/Fetot and U(IV)/Utot in pegmatite minerals from southern Finland. Granitic Pegmatites: The State of the Art – International Symposium. 06th – 12th May 2007, Porto, Portugal.
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Kangasala
    Vorma, A., Ojanperä, P., Hoffrén, V., Siivola, J. & Löfgren, A.(1966): On the rare earth minerals from the Pyörönmaa pegmatite in Kangasala, SW-Finland. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique Finlande 222. 241-274
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Luzenac
    [Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 1990, 4, p.3,8-12]
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Courmayeur
        • Les Grandes Jorasses Massif
          • Ferret Valley
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Latium
      • Viterbo Province
    Camara, F., Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Ventura, G. D., Bellatreccia, F. (2008): The crystal chemistry of Li in gadolinite. American Mineralogist, 93, 996-1004.
    [var: Calciogadolinite-(Y)] Van King
    • Lombardy
      • Varese Province
        • Ceresio Valley
    Guastoni A., Pezzotta F., Demartin F., 2004. Contributo alla mineralogia del granofiro di Cuasso al Monte: recenti determinazioni su esemplari del MSNM. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 28, 4: 194-202.
    Matteo Chineletto
    Enrico Bonacino
    Enrico Bonacina photo
    • Piedmont
      • Biella Province
        • Cervo Valley
    Piccoli, G. C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., & Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo F. Eusebio - Alba, 607 pag.
            • Balma
    Piccoli, G. C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., & Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo F. Eusebio - Alba, 607 pag.
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Baveno
          • Oltrefiume
            • Mount Camoscio
    Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
    [MinRec 14:157]
        • Formazza Valley
          • Formazza
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
            • Vallone del Vannino
    Mattioli, V. (1985): Un nuovo minerale alpino nell'Ossola (No). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1985, 129-134
        • Mergozzo
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Omegna
          • Agrano
    American Mineralogist (2005) 1442-1452.
        • Ossola Valley
          • Baceno
            • Devero Alp (Devero Valley; Val Devero)
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
          • Beura-Cardezza
    Calanchi, N. (1979): Brevi segnalazioni: Gadolinite di Beura (Val d'Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, III, 2, 49-50.
          • Divedro Valley
            • Varzo
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
          • Vigezzo Valley
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
            • Toceno
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 23 (1), 42-49.
          • Villadossola
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 157-170.
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • San Vito
          • Idda Mt.
    Astolfi M., Preite, D., Rizzo R., Stara P. (1999): Mineralien aus dem Granit von San Priamo, Sardinien
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Vizze Valley (Pfitsch Valley)
          • San Giacomo
    M. Moro collection (SEM-EDS probed by UNIMI, 2006)
      • Trento Province
        • Fiemme Valley
          • Predazzo
    Vecchi, F., Rocchetti, I. & Gentile, P. (2013): Die Mineralien des Granits von Predazzo, Provinz Trient, Italien. Mineralien-Welt, 24(6), 98-117 (in German).
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Campo nell'Elba
    Pezzotta F., Guastoni A. & Nestola F. (2010). Gadolinite-(Y). Prima segnalazione nelle pegmatiti elbane. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 3/2010, 176-180.
    Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Nestola F.,2010. Gadolinite-(Y), prima segnalazione nelle pegmatiti elbane. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana n.3/2010, 176-180
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu region
        • Nagano prefecture
    [var: Calciogadolinite-(Y)] Nagashima & Nagashima (1960) Nihon Kigenso Koubutsu, 184-189.
      • Kinki Region
        • Shiga Prefecture
          • Otsu City
    Nakatsugawa Mineral Museum (Gifu Prefecture, Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Miyazaki Prefecture
        • Nobeoka City
          • Kitagawa
    Kiyonori Michiba, Ritsuro Miyawaki, Tetsuo Minakawa, Yasuko Terad), Izumi Nakai, Satoshi Matsubara (2013) Crystal structure of hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce) from Kamihouri, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 108:326-334.
    Okada, T. (2011) Hellandite from Mt. Ookueyama, Kitagawa Town, Nobeoka City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Chigaku Kenkyu, 60 (1), 25-31.
    • Shikoku Island
      • Ehime Prefecture
        • Matsuyama City
    Alfredo Petrov specimen; Daisuke Nishio-hamane, Tetsuo Minakawa, Yukikazu Ohgoshi (2013) Takanawaite-(Y), a new mineral of the M-type polymorph with Y(Ta,Nb)O4 from Takanawa Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 108:335-344.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Tarbagatai Range
        • Akzhaylyautas Mts (Akzhailyautas Mts; Akjaylautas Mts; Akzhalautas Mts)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Malawi
     
    • Zomba District
    American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    P.M.Kartashov data
          • Mount Ulyn Khuren
    [var: Calciogadolinite-(Y)] Kartashov P.M., Voloshin A.V., PakhomovskiiYa.A. On the zonal crystaline gadolinite from the alkaline granite pegmatites of Haldzan Buragtag (Mongolian Altai), - Zapiski VMO, 1993,N3,p. 65-79.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
    Müller, A., Kearsley, A., Spratt, J. and Seltmann, R. (2012): Petrogenetic implications of magmatic garnet in granitic pegmatites from Southern Norway. Canadian Mineralogist. 50,1095-1115
      • Iveland
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
        • Frikstad
    Revheim, O. (2004): Neue Funde von Gadolinit-(Y) und anderen Mineralien aus dem Steinbruch ”Slobrekka” bei Iveland, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 15 (2), 36-43
    Neumann, H. & Sverdrup, T.L.(1960): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No. 8. Davidite from Tuftan, Iveland. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 40: 277-288
    Olav Revheim photo & specimen
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Müller, A., Kearsley, A., Spratt, J. and Seltmann, R. (2012): Petrogenetic implications of magmatic garnet in granitic pegmatites from Southern Norway. Canadian Mineralogist. 50,1095-1115
      • Tvedestrand
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    • Nordland
      • Hamarøy
        • Finnøy
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
      • Tysfjord
        • Drag
    Tomas Husdal data
    Nilssen, B. (1973): Gadolinite from Hundholmen, Tysfjord, North Norway. Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway no 55. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 53, 343-348
    • Østfold
      • Råde
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
      • Våler
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    • Telemark
      • Drangedal
        • Tørdal
    Bergstøl, S. & Juve, G. (1988). Scandian ixiolite, pyrochlore and bazzite in granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Telemark, Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology, 38:229-243
    Kristiansen, R. (1998): Høydalen Litium-pegmatitt-Tørdal i Telemark. STEIN 25 (4), 21-30
    • Vest-Agder
      • Flekkefjord
        • Hidra (Hitterø)
          • Hæstad
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123 [p.89]
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
      • Lyngdal
        • Austad (Austa)
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
    Pakistan
     
    • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
      • Peshawar
        • Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri
    Herb Obodda
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Świdnica District
    Chabros E., Dzierżanowski P., Kozłowski P. 2002: Post-magmatic rare-earth-element mineralisation in the granitoid Strzegom Massif, SW Poland. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 20, 71-73
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Polar Yakutia
          • Cherskii range system
            • Selennyakh range
              • Tommot river
    no reference; Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
    P.M. Karashov data
      • Tuva Republic
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Sangilen Upland
    Kapustin Yu.L. (1989) Cerite and ternebohmite from fenites of alkaline massifs of Tuva, - Zapiski VMO, 118(4), p. 47-56 (in Rus.)
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Keivy Mountains
    A.V. Voloshin analytical data
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    A.V. Voloshin, Ya.A. Pakhomovskii Minerals and mineralformation evolution in amazonite pegmatites of Kola peninsula, - Leningrad, Nauka, 1986, pp.168.
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Southern Siberia
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
    Savel'eva V.B. Karmanov N.S. (2008) Rare earth's minerals of alkaline metasomatites of Main Sayan Fault zone, - Zapiski RMO, N2, pp.14-35 (in Rus.).; Savel’eva, V.B., and Karmanov, N.S. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 681-696.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Ilmen Mts
            • Ilmen Natural Reserve
              • Lake Ishkul'
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
      • ZF Mgcawu District
    Minerals of South Africa
    South Korea
     
    • Chungcheongbukdo (Chungchong-pukto)
      • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
        • Joongwon-gun
          • Mt. Eorae
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Spain
     
    • Madrid
    Garcia G., Gonzalez C., Bueno A. (2004) - Cadalso de los Vidrios (Madrid), Bocamina, n° 14, pp: 12-46.
    Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Falun
    Kjellman et al. (1999) Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 832-833.
    Hintze, C.: Handbuch der Mineralogie
    Zittel, K. (1860): Mittheilungen ..., Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, Jahrgang 1860, 788 ff
    Zittel, K. (1860): Mittheilungen ..., Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, Jahrgang 1860, 788 ff
      • Gagnef
        • Mockfjärd
    • Lappland
      • Jokkmokk
        • Varjisträsk
    • Uppland
      • Vaxholm
        • Resarö
    Am Min 59 (1974), 700
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Persberg district
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2002) microprobe + PXRD
    • Västmanland
      • Norberg
    Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007): The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, South-Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 45, 1073-1114
    Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007): The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, South-Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 45, 1073-1114
        • Röberg ore field
    Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007): The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, South-Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 45, 1073-1114
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Vorderrhein Valley
        • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
          • Nalps Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
    • Ticino (Tessin)
      • Leventina
        • Bedretto Valley
          • Ronco
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
          • Valleggia Valley
    Dollinger, J., Mullis, J., Stern, W. (1999): Spezielle Nadelquarzfunde aus dem Val Bedretto (Ti). Schweizer Strahler, 11, 545–564
      • Lugano lake
        • Carona
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Chummibort
    Cuchet, S., van der Burgt, A. und Meisser, N. (2005): Chummibort, eine neue Fundstelle für Arsenmineralien im Binntal. Schweizer Strahler, Nr. 2, 19-29. (in German/French)
    See references at locality description - cuchet et al. 2014, Schweizer Strahler. I am co-author - M. Crumbach
        • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
    van der Burgt, A. & Cuchet, S. (2005): Neu: Gadolinit, Aeschynit und Synchisit vom Fleschsee, Binntal (Schweiz). Lapis 30 (4), 19-27, 50. (in German)
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
        • Saflisch Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175.
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
      • Gissar Range
    P.M. Kartashov data
      • Kuraminskii Range
        • Shaidan Massif
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
          • Luib
    S.Rust collection
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Mohave Co.
        • Aquarius Mts (Aquarius Range; Peacock Range)
          • Hackberry District
            • Hackberry
    Rocks & Min.: 21:505.
          • Wallapai District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 134, 227; Thomas, B.E. (1953), Geol. of the Chloride quadrangle, AZ, Geol. Soc. of America Bull.: 64:391-420.
      • Pima Co.
        • Rincon Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 227, 427; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Chaffee Co.
        • Buena Vista
    Rocks & Min.: 64: 471.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    No reference listed
        • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
      • Douglas Co.
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 13, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
      • El Paso Co.
    Hanson, S.L. and Zito, G. (2013) Mineralogy of Miarolitic Pegmatites in the Stove Mountain Area, Colorado. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 14-15.
      • Fremont Co.
        • Cotopaxi District
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 15, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
      • Jefferson Co.
        • South Platte Pegmatite District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Cobban et al.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Park Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Idaho
      • Lemhi Co.
        • Blackbird District
          • Blackbird mine complex
    Slack, J.F. (2007), In: O'Neill, J.M. (ed.): Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004–2007. USGS Open-File Report 07-1280, pp. 21-28
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Bethlehem
    Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
    Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
    • Texas
      • Llano Co.
        • Bluffton
    Yale Peabody Museum; Hidden, W. E. and J. B. Mackintosh 1889. A description of several yttria and thoria minerals from Llano County, Texas. American Journal of Science 3rd ser. 38:474– 486.
    • Washington
      • Okanogan Co.
        • Golden Horn Batholith
    Micro Probe Volume VI Number 8; Rocks and Minerals, 66:6, p. 454; American Mineralogist, V.73, p.1191-1194
    • Wisconsin
      • Waupaca Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 79:6 pp409-411
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