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Galaxite

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Formula:
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
System:IsometricColour:Red, brown
Hardness:
Member of:Spinel Group
Name:The type locality is near Galax, Alleghany Co., North Carolina, USA.


Spinel Group, Al series.

Classification of Galaxite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/B.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:7.2.1.2

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.19.5

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
19 : Oxides of Mn and Fe
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Type Occurrence of Galaxite

Type Locality:Bald Knob deposit (Primary ore body; Crouse Knob deposit), Bald Knob, Sparta, Alleghany Co., North Carolina, USA
Year of Discovery:1932

Physical Properties of Galaxite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Red, brown
Streak:Brownish red
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (calculated):4.03 g/cm3

Crystallography of Galaxite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fd3m
Cell Parameters:a = 8.271Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 565.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Massive.

Optical Data of Galaxite

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Galaxite

Formula:
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)2O4
Essential elements:Al, Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, O

Relationship of Galaxite to other Species

Member of:Spinel Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ceylonite
Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.BB.05Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
4.BB.05Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
4.BB.05Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hausmannite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
4.BB.10Iwakiite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.15Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,◻)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.20Tegengrenite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Sb
5+
0.5
(Mn
3+
 
,Si,Ti)
 
0.5
O
 
4
4.BB.25Xieite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.19.1Bixbyite
Mn
3+
2
O
 
3
7.19.2Janggunite
Mn
 
5-x
(Mn,Fe)
 
1+x
O
 
8
(OH)
 
6
7.19.3Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.19.4Vernadite
(Mn
4+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Ca,Na)(O,OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
7.19.6Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
7.19.7Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
7.19.8Zenzénite
Pb
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
4
Mn
 
3
O
 
13

Other Names for Galaxite

Synonyms:
Manganspinel
Other Languages:
German:Galaxit
Russian:Галаксит
Spanish:Galaxita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Galaxite

Reference List:

- +
Krenner (1907), Zs. Kr.: 43: 471.

Ross and Kerr (1932), American Mineralogist (1932): 17: 1-8, 15.

Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 689-697.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 31-42.

Internet Links for Galaxite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Galaxite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Find Galaxite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Localities for Galaxite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Ghana
     
    • Western Region
      • Tarkwa
    Mineralium Deposita Volume 34 Issue 3 (1999) pp 297-311
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Oshima peninsula
        • Kumaishi
    Kobayashi H (1977) Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 83, 537-542
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Aichi Prefecture
          • Kita-Shidara-gun
            • Shidara-cho
    Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.; Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
        • Fukui Prefecture
          • Mikata-kaminaka-gun
            • Wakasa-cho
    Kato, A. (2010) Mumeikai Group meeting, No. 30.
        • Gifu Prefecture
    Donald E. Lee (1955)
      • Chugoku Region
        • Yamaguchi Prefecture
          • Iwakuni City
    Lee, D. E. (1955)
          • Kudamatsu City
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
          • Kuga-gun
    H. Momoi (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 61.
    Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
      • Kanto Region
        • Gunma Prefecture
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
          • Midori City
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
        • Tochigi Prefecture
          • Kanuma City
    Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese); Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
    H. Yoshimura (1952)
      • Kinki Region
        • Kyoto Prefecture
          • Sohraku-gun
        • Shiga Prefecture
          • Ritto City
    Katsu Kaneko (1956) Symposium del Manganeso, XX Congreso Geologico Internacional, Mexico D.F.; Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Kuji City
            • Yamagata
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
          • Noda
    Katsu Kaneko (1956) Symposium del Manganeso, XX Congreso Geologico Internacional, Mexico D.F.
          • Shimohei-gun
            • Yamada
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Miyazaki Prefecture
        • Hinokage-cho
    Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
    Namibia
     
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    World of Stones #10.
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Sedel'nikovo
    Brusnitsyn A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural, - S.-Peterburg Univercity press, p. 200 (in Rus.).
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Kjell Gatedal
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
    Min.Mag.(1978) 42, 133-136
    Kjell Gatedal
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Engadin
        • Piz Corvatsch
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175-176.
      • Hinterrhein Valley
        • Rheinwald
          • Splügen
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 176.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Turtmann Valley
        • Pipjitälli
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
      • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
        • Matt Valley
          • Täsch Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 30-31
    Thailand
     
    • Kanchanaburi Province
      • Bo Phloi District
        • Bo Phloi
    RRUFF Specimen ID: R120116
    United Arab Emirates
     
    • Fujayrah Emirate (Fujairah)
      • Semail Ophiolite
    Gnos, E. and Peters, T. (1995) Tephroite-hausmannite-galaxite from a granulite-facies manganese rock of the United Arab Emirates. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 120: 372-377.
    USA
     
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Haddam
    Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
    • North Carolina
      • Alleghany Co.
        • Sparta
          • Bald Knob
    Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
      • Clay Co.
    Forsyth Gem and Mineral Club
    • Virginia
      • Carroll Co.
        • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
          • Gossan Lead District
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Pittsylvania Co.
        • James River-Roanoke River Mn-Fe-Ba District
    AmMin 87:690-698 (2002)
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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