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Galena

This page kindly sponsored by Bill Cordua
Formula:
PbS
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Lead-grey
Lustre:
Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
Named by Pliny the Elder in 77-79 from the Greek "galene" meaning lead ore
Galena Group.

Galena is the primary ore mineral of lead. Worked for its lead content as early as 3000 BC, it is found in ore veins with sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, etc. and in skarns, as well as in sedimentary rocks where it may replace carbonate beds or be deposited in pore spaces. The crystals are bright when fresh but often tarnish after exposure to air.

Classification of Galena

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.CD.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
D : With Sn, Pb, Hg, etc.
2.8.1.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.6.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
6 : Sulphides etc. of Sb and Pb
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Physical Properties of Galena

Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Lead-grey
Streak:
Lead-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=79 - 104 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001}
Parting:
{111}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
7.58 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.57 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Galena

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.936Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 209.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Cubes, octahedrons, cube-octahedron combinations and rarely dodecahedrons
Twinning:
Spinel {111}, Lamellar {114}

Crystallographic forms of Galena

Crystal Atlas:
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Galena no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York rocksalt structure. Crystal Structures 1:85-237.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Galena

Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
White
Comments:
Often will form triangular pits in poorly polished sections.

Chemical Properties of Galena

Formula:
PbS
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag,Cu,Fe,Bi

Relationship of Galena to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Clausthalite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AlabanditeMnS
AltaitePbTe
ClausthalitePbSe
Niningerite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Oldhamite(Ca,Mg)S
2.CD.05Herzenbergite(Sn,Pb)SnS2
2.CD.05Teallite(Pb,Sn)SnS2
2.CD.10AlabanditeMnS
2.CD.10AltaitePbTe
2.CD.10ClausthalitePbSe
2.CD.10Niningerite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
2.CD.10Oldhamite(Ca,Mg)S
2.CD.10Keilite(Fe2+,Mg)S
2.CD.15aCinnabarHgS
2.CD.15bHypercinnabarHgS
3.6.1Herzenbergite(Sn,Pb)SnS2
3.6.2Ottemannitebeta Sn2S3
3.6.3BerndtiteSnS2
3.6.4StistaiteSnSb
3.6.6ClausthalitePbSe
3.6.7AltaitePbTe
3.6.8Furutobeite(Cu,Ag)6PbS4
3.6.9AschamalmitePb6Bi2S9
3.6.10Betekhtinite(Cu,Fe)21Pb2S15
3.6.11Shadlunite(Pb,Cd)(Fe,Cu)8S8

Other Names for Galena

Name in Other Languages:
Basque:Galena
Bosnian (Latin Script):Galenit
Catalan:Galena
Czech:Galenit
Dutch:Galeniet
Esperanto:Galeno
Estonian:Galeniit
Finnish:Lyijyhohde
Galician:Galena
Hebrew:גלנה
Hungarian:Galenit
Italian:Galena
Japanese:方鉛鉱
Lithuanian:Galenitas
Low Saxon:Galenit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Blyglans
Polish:Galena
Portuguese:Galena
Romanian:Galenă
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Галенит
Simplified Chinese:方铅矿
Slovak:Galenit
Slovenian:Galenit
Swedish:Blyglans
Ukrainian:Галеніт

Pronounciation of Galena

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byFrom
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Other Information

Electrical:
Semiconductor - Used as a point contact diode in early radio wireless sets.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Principal ore of lead. Often contains silver and is a frequent ore of that metal as well.

References for Galena

Reference List:
Brown, J.S. (1936) Supergene sphalerite, galena, and willemite at Balmat, NY. Economic Geology: 31: 331-354.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 200-204.

Bedarida F.(1965) Osservazioni su fenomeni di sfaldatura in cristalli di galena. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 337-354.

Augustithis, S.S. and Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.

Franzini M., Troysi M., Cecchini A.(1984): La microdurezza della galena e le sue variazioni in funzione della temperatura. Rend. Soc. It. Min. Petr., 39, 717-723.

Canadian Mineralogist (1977): 15: 365-373.

Deore, S. and Navrotsky, A. (2006) Oxide melt solution calorimetry of sulfides: Enthalpy of formation of sphalerite, galena, greenockite, and hawleyite. American Mineralogist: 91: 400-403.

Internet Links for Galena

Specimens:
The following Galena specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Galena

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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