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Galena

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Formula:
PbS
System:IsometricColour:Lead-grey
Lustre:Metallic, DullHardness:
Member of:Galena Group
Name:Named by Pliny the Elder in 77-79 from the Greek "galene" meaning lead ore


Galena Group.

Galena is the primary ore mineral of lead. Worked for its lead content as early as 3000 BC, it is found in ore veins with sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, etc. and in skarns, as well as in sedimentary rocks where it may replace carbonate beds or be deposited in pore spaces. The crystals are bright when fresh but often tarnish after exposure to air.

Classification of Galena

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.15-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CD.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
D : With Sn, Pb, Hg, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.1.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.6.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
6 : Sulphides etc. of Sb and Pb
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Physical Properties of Galena

Lustre:Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Lead-grey
Streak:Lead-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=79 - 104 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
{001}
Parting:{111}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):7.58 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.57 g/cm3

Crystallography of Galena

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 5.936Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 209.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Cubes, octahedrons, cube-octahedron combinations and rarely dodecahedrons
Twinning:Spinel {111}, Lamellar {114}
Crystal Atlas:
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Galena no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York rocksalt structure. Crystal Structures 1:85-237.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Galena

Type:Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:White
Comments:Often will form triangular pits in poorly polished sections.

Chemical Properties of Galena

Formula:
PbS
Essential elements:Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:Pb, S
Common Impurities:Ag,Cu,Fe,Bi

Relationship of Galena to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Clausthalite (see here)
Member of:Galena Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alabandite
Mn
2+
 
S
Altaite
PbTe
Clausthalite
PbSe
Niningerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)S
Oldhamite
(Ca,Mg)S
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CD.05Herzenbergite
(Sn,Pb)SnS
 
2
2.CD.05Teallite
(Pb,Sn)SnS
 
2
2.CD.10Alabandite
Mn
2+
 
S
2.CD.10Altaite
PbTe
2.CD.10Clausthalite
PbSe
2.CD.10Niningerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)S
2.CD.10Oldhamite
(Ca,Mg)S
2.CD.10Keilite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)S
2.CD.15aCinnabar
HgS
2.CD.15bHypercinnabar
HgS
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.6.1Herzenbergite
(Sn,Pb)SnS
 
2
3.6.2Ottemannite
beta Sn
 
2
S
 
3
3.6.3Berndtite
SnS
 
2
3.6.4Stistaite
SnSb
3.6.6Clausthalite
PbSe
3.6.7Altaite
PbTe
3.6.8Furutobeite
(Cu,Ag)
 
6
PbS
 
4
3.6.9Aschamalmite
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
2
S
 
9
3.6.10Betekhtinite
Pb
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
21
S
 
15
3.6.11Shadlunite
(Pb,Cd)(Fe,Cu)
 
8
S
 
8

Other Names for Galena

Synonyms:
AcerillaBlue Lead OreCarne de vacaGaleniteLead Glance
Lead-oreLead sulphideLead sulphuretParakobellitePotter's Ore
Other Languages:
Basque:Galena
Bosnian (Latin Script):Galenit
Catalan:Galena
Czech:Galenit
Dutch:Galeniet
Esperanto:Galeno
Estonian:Galeniit
Finnish:Lyijyhohde
French:Galène
Allquifoux
Galician:Galena
German:Galenit
Bleiglanz
Bleischweif
Bleyschweif
Parakobellit
Steinmannit
Hebrew:גלנה
Hungarian:Galenit
Italian:Galena
Japanese:方鉛鉱
Lithuanian:Galenitas
Low Saxon:Galenit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Blyglans
Polish:Galena
Portuguese:Galena
Romanian:Galenă
Russian:Галенит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Галенит
Simplified Chinese:方铅矿
Slovak:Galenit
Slovenian:Galenit
Spanish:Galena
Galenita
Parakobellita
Swedish:Blyglans
Ukrainian:Галеніт
Varieties:
Argentiferous GalenaAuriferous GalenaBismuthiferous GalenaGalène tricotéeGestrickter Bleiglanz
Johnstonite (of Haidinger)PlumbeineSelenian GalenaStrickblendeU-Galena

Pronounciation of Galena

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byFrom
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None.
Electrical:Semiconductor - Used as a point contact diode in early radio wireless sets.
Health Warning:Contains lead - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when breaking. Do not lick.
Industrial Uses:Principal ore of lead. Often contains silver and is a frequent ore of that metal as well.

References for Galena

Reference List:

- +
Brown, J.S. (1936) Supergene sphalerite, galena, and willemite at Balmat, NY. Economic Geology: 31: 331-354.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 200-204.

Bedarida F.(1965) Osservazioni su fenomeni di sfaldatura in cristalli di galena. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 337-354.

Augustithis, S.S. and Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.

Franzini M., Troysi M., Cecchini A.(1984): La microdurezza della galena e le sue variazioni in funzione della temperatura. Rend. Soc. It. Min. Petr., 39, 717-723.

Canadian Mineralogist (1977): 15: 365-373.

Deore, S. and Navrotsky, A. (2006) Oxide melt solution calorimetry of sulfides: Enthalpy of formation of sphalerite, galena, greenockite, and hawleyite. American Mineralogist: 91: 400-403.

Mindat.org articles about Galena

Article entries:
Rochester Lead Mine, Ulster County, New YorkDaniel Russell
Doughiska Road CutBarry Flannery
Exploration of the Hollowed GalenasJessica Simonoff
Photos of Fake Skeletal GalenaAmir C. Akhavan

Best Localities for Galena

Best of Species:Galena

Internet Links for Galena

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Galena on Wikipedia
  • Look for Galena on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Galena details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
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  • Galena specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Galena specimens
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Find Galena on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Specimens:The following Galena specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Galena

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