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Gaylussite

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
Formula:
Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, yellowish, ...
Hardness:
Name:
For French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850).
This page provides mineralogical data about Gaylussite.

Classification of Gaylussite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.CB.35

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
15.2.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
2 : AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p > 1:1
11.1.14

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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http://www.mindat.org/min-1662.html
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Type Occurrence of Gaylussite

Year of Discovery:
1826
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Lacustrine clay sediments in an alkali lake.

Occurrences of Gaylussite

Geological Setting:
Soda lakes.

Physical Properties of Gaylussite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, yellowish, greyish, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
Uncoloured to greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Very brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {110} perfect; {001} rather difficult.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.991 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.991 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Gaylussite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Space Group Setting:
C2/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.589Å, b = 7.780Å, c = 11.207Å
β = 102.5°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.49 : 1 : 1.44
Unit Cell Volume:
V 986.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals frequently elongated [100]; also flattened, wedge-shaped, with dominant {110}, and {011}. Surfaces commonly rough, with {011} striated {111}.

Crystallographic forms of Gaylussite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Gaylussite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gaylussite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Gaylussite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.444 nβ = 1.516 nγ = 1.523
2V:
Measured: 34° , Calculated: 34°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.079
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong r < v

Chemical Properties of Gaylussite

Formula:
Na2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Gaylussite to other Species

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
5.CB.10NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2O
5.CB.25IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2O
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2O
11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3
11.1.2NatriteNa2CO3
11.1.3NahcoliteNaHCO3
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
11.1.6TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.7NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.17BütschliiteK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3

Other Names for Gaylussite

Other Information

Other Information:
Effloresces slowly in dry air. Soluble in acids with effervescence. Slightly soluble in water. Dehydrated powder decomposed by water into sodium carbonate solution and calcium carbonate residue. Alters readily to calcite.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Dehydrates with efforvescence in dry air.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gaylussite

Reference List:
Boussingault (1826) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 31: 270 (as Gay-Lussite).

Phillips (1827) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 263.

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 673 (as Natrocalcit).

Hartmann (1843) Minéralogie: 2: 271.

Des Cloizeaux (1858) Annales des mines: 14: 400.

Arzruni (1881) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 6: 30.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 301.

de Schulten (1896) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 123: 1023.

Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. series: 2: 123-135; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897).

Bütschli (1907) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 75: 556.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2796.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 29.

Niinomy (1930) Economic Geology: 25: 758.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: Am. Min.: 36: 358-361.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 234-235.

Fang, J.H., P.D. Robinson, J.F. Cerven & L.A. Wolf (1967), Computer program for refining cell parameters from Wiessenberg photographs and its application to indexing the powder pattern of Gaylussite: Am. Min.: 52: 1570-1572.

Monroe, E.A. (1967), Unit cell and space group of Gaylussite, CaCO3•Na2CO3•5H2O: Zeits. Krist: 124: 459.

Internet Links for Gaylussite

Localities for Gaylussite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Salta
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Central Africa
 
Manfred Mader collection (see photo)
Chad
 
    • Kanem Region (Khanem)
Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist.(1972) 95, 372-382
China
 
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202; Jiping Wang, Jianming Zhou, Xiulian Ma, and Qingtang Yang (1999): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 19(3), 315-319
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Shuanghu Co.
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(3), 221-226; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Wen Qi and Mianping Zheng (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(2), 133-140; Mianping Zheng, Heran Yuan, Junying Liu, Yanhe Li, Zhibang Ma, and Qing Sun (2007): Acta Geologica Sinica 81(12), 1608-1617
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Wulumuqi Prefecture (Ürümqi Prefecture; Ürümchi Prefecture)
      • Midong District
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
          • Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal)
            • Rovnost Mine (Werner Mine)
Plášil J., Hloušek J., Škoda R. (2013): Chalkonatronit, Na2Cu(CO3)2(H2O)3, ze žíly sv. Ducha, Jáchymov (Česká republika) [Chalconatronite, Na2Cu(CO3)2(H2O)3, from the „sv. Duch“ vein, Jáchymov (Czech Republic)]. Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha) 21, 228-233.
Egypt
 
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Manciano
R. Meli (1999): I minerali delle discariche e delle scorie del Fosso del Tafone (Grosseto). - Riv. Min. Ital., 23 3: 187-191.
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Brizzi G., Ciselli I, Santucci A. (1988) - Cetineite ed altre novità dalle Cetine di Cotorniano - Riv. Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 3, pp.73-82
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
Bill Wall specimens (collected 1970s)
Mexico
 
  • Yucatán
    • northwest coastline of the Yucatán peninsula
      • Puerto Chicxulub
        • Chicxulub impact structure
L. Zürcher and D.A. Kring, Meteoritic and Planetary Science, 1 July 2004, V 39, N° 7, pp. 1199-1221.
Mongolia
 
  • Gobi Desert
    • Eastern Gobi Desert
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
      • Dolný Harmanec
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Madrid
    • Ciempozuelos
- González del Tánago, Ch. and González del Tánago, J. (2002). Minerales y minas de Madrid
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 179.
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Manega, Paul C. & Bieda, Sophie (1987): Modern sediments of Lake Natron, Tanzania. Sciences Geologiques, Bulletin 40, 83-95.
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 232; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207.
      • Owens Valley
        • Olancha
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 5; Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1963), Authigenic silicate minerals in three desert lakes of eastern California (abstract): Program New York Meeting, Geological Society of America: 76A; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 151, 197; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 374.
    • Kern Co.
      • China Lake [town]
        • China Lake
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 16; Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1963), Authigenic silicate minerals in three desert lakes of eastern California (abstract): Program New York Meeting, Geological Society of America: 76A; Moiola, Richard J. & Richard L. Hay (1964), Zeolite zones in Pleistocene and recent sediments of China Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section Meeting, Berkeley, California: 47, April 1963; […Geological Society of America Special Paper 76: 215 (1964)]: 47; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 151, 287.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 233, 235; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197, 280, 289, 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 208.
    • Mono Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235; Russell, Israel Cook (1889), Quaternary history of Mono Valley, California: USGS 8th. Annual Report: 297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Owlshead Mts
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 198.
Hanks, Henry Garber (1892), Gaylussite (new variety), San Bernardino County, California): Mining & Science Press: 64: 222; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235, 633.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Dixie Marsh
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Ragtown
        • Carson Sink
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
    • Nye Co.
NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Oregon
    • Lake Co.
Am.Min.54:1034
  • Washington
    • Grant Co.
      • Moses Lake
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
  • Wyoming
    • Natrona Co.
      • Sweetwater Valley
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River Basin
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 233, 279.; Farrington, O. C. (1900) New mineral occurrences. Field Columbian Mus. Pub. 44, Geol,. Ser. l, (7),221-231
Am Min 26:646-650
Venezuela (TL)
 
  • Mérida
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
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