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Gaylussite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, yellowish, ...
Hardness:
Name:
For French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850).
This page provides mineralogical data about Gaylussite.

Classification of Gaylussite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/D.02-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.CB.35

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
Dana 8th edition ID:15.2.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
2 : AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p > 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.1.14

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Type Occurrence of Gaylussite

Type Locality:Lagunilla, Mérida, Venezuela
Year of Discovery:1826
Geological Setting of type material:Lacustrine clay sediments in an alkali lake.

Occurrences of Gaylussite

Geological Setting:Soda lakes.

Physical Properties of Gaylussite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, yellowish, greyish, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:Uncoloured to greyish white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Very brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {110} perfect; {001} rather difficult.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.991 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.991 g/cm3

Crystallography of Gaylussite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/c
Cell Parameters:a = 11.589Å, b = 7.780Å, c = 11.207Å
β = 102.5°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.49 : 1 : 1.44
Unit Cell Volume:V 986.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals frequently elongated [100]; also flattened, wedge-shaped, with dominant {110}, and {011}. Surfaces commonly rough, with {011} striated {111}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Gaylussite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gaylussite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Gaylussite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.444 nβ = 1.516 nγ = 1.523
2V:Measured: 34° , Calculated: 34°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.079

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:relatively strong r < v

Chemical Properties of Gaylussite

Formula:
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2Ca(CO3)2·5H2O
Essential elements:C, Ca, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, H, Na, O

Relationship of Gaylussite to other Species

Common Associates:
TronaThermonatritePirssoniteNatronCalcite
Borax
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.CB.05Thermonatrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.CB.10Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
5.CB.15Trona
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
5.CB.20Monohydrocalcite
CaCO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.CB.25Ikaite
CaCO
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
5.CB.30Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
5.CB.40Chalconatronite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
5.CB.45Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
5.CB.50Tuliokite
Na
 
6
BaTh(CO
 
3
)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.1.1Zabuyelite
Li
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.2Natrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.3Nahcolite
NaHCO
 
3
11.1.4Wegscheiderite
Na
 
5
H
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
11.1.5Thermonatrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
11.1.6Trona
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.7Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
11.1.8Kalicinite
KHCO
 
3
11.1.9Shortite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
11.1.10Nyerereite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12Zemkorite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.13Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.15Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
11.1.16Fairchildite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.17Bütschliite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.18Teschemacherite
(NH
 
4
)HCO
 
3

Other Names for Gaylussite

Synonyms:
GaylussaciteGay-Lussite
Other Languages:
German:Gaylussacit
Gaylussit
Natrocalcit
Latin:Natrium-calciumcarbonat-Pentahydrat
Russian:Гейлюссит
Spanish:Gaylussacita
Gaylussita

Other Information

Other Information:Effloresces slowly in dry air. Soluble in acids with effervescence. Slightly soluble in water. Dehydrated powder decomposed by water into sodium carbonate solution and calcium carbonate residue. Alters readily to calcite.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Dehydrates with efforvescence in dry air.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gaylussite

Reference List:

- +
Boussingault (1826) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 31: 270 (as Gay-Lussite).

Phillips (1827) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 263.

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 673 (as Natrocalcit).

Hartmann (1843) Minéralogie: 2: 271.

Des Cloizeaux (1858) Annales des mines: 14: 400.

Arzruni (1881) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 6: 30.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 301.

de Schulten (1896) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 123: 1023.

Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. series: 2: 123-135; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897).

Bütschli (1907) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 75: 556.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2796.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 29.

Niinomy (1930) Economic Geology: 25: 758.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: Am. Min.: 36: 358-361.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 234-235.

Fang, J.H., P.D. Robinson, J.F. Cerven & L.A. Wolf (1967), Computer program for refining cell parameters from Wiessenberg photographs and its application to indexing the powder pattern of Gaylussite: Am. Min.: 52: 1570-1572.

Monroe, E.A. (1967), Unit cell and space group of Gaylussite, CaCO3•Na2CO3•5H2O: Zeits. Krist: 124: 459.

Internet Links for Gaylussite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Gaylussite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Gaylussite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Gaylussite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Gaylussite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Gaylussite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Salta
    Central Africa
     
    Manfred Mader collection (see photo)
    Chad
     
      • Kanem Region (Khanem)
    Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist.(1972) 95, 372-382
    China
     
    Jiping Wang, Jianming Zhou, Xiulian Ma, and Qingtang Yang (1999): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 19(3), 315-319
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
        • Zhongba Co.
    Zheng Mianping and Liu Wengao (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(3), 221-226.
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Manciano
    R. Meli (1999): I minerali delle discariche e delle scorie del Fosso del Tafone (Grosseto). - Riv. Min. Ital., 23 3: 187-191.
      • Siena Province
        • Chiusdino
    Brizzi G., Ciselli I, Santucci A. (1988) - Cetineite ed altre novità dalle Cetine di Cotorniano - Riv. Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 3, pp.73-82
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
    Bill Wall specimens (collected 1970s)
    Mexico
     
    • Yucatán
      • northwest coastline of the Yucatán peninsula
        • Puerto Chicxulub
          • Chicxulub impact structure
    L. Zürcher and D.A. Kring, Meteoritic and Planetary Science, 1 July 2004, V 39, N° 7, pp. 1199-1221.
    Mongolia
     
    • Gobi Desert
      • Eastern Gobi Desert
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
        • Dolný Harmanec
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Pretoria
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Madrid
      • Ciempozuelos
    - González del Tánago, Ch. and González del Tánago, J. (2002). Minerales y minas de Madrid
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 179.
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Manega, Paul C. & Bieda, Sophie (1987): Modern sediments of Lake Natron, Tanzania. Sciences Geologiques, Bulletin 40, 83-95.
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
          • Bondarenkovo Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 232; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207.
        • Owens Valley
          • Olancha
    Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 5; Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1963), Authigenic silicate minerals in three desert lakes of eastern California (abstract): Program New York Meeting, Geological Society of America: 76A; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 151, 197; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 374.
      • Kern Co.
        • China Lake [town]
          • China Lake
    Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 16; Hay, Richard Le Roy & Richard J. Moiola (1963), Authigenic silicate minerals in three desert lakes of eastern California (abstract): Program New York Meeting, Geological Society of America: 76A; Moiola, Richard J. & Richard L. Hay (1964), Zeolite zones in Pleistocene and recent sediments of China Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section Meeting, Berkeley, California: 47, April 1963; […Geological Society of America Special Paper 76: 215 (1964)]: 47; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 71, 151, 287.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 233, 235; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197, 280, 289, 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 208.
      • Mono Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235; Russell, Israel Cook (1889), Quaternary history of Mono Valley, California: USGS 8th. Annual Report: 297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Owlshead Mts
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 198.
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1892), Gaylussite (new variety), San Bernardino County, California): Mining & Science Press: 64: 222; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 197; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235, 633.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Dixie Marsh
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Ragtown
          • Carson Sink
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
      • Nye Co.
    NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Oregon
      • Lake Co.
    Am.Min.54:1034
    • Washington
      • Grant Co.
        • Moses Lake
    Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
    Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
    www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
    • Wyoming
      • Natrona Co.
        • Sweetwater Valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
      • Sweetwater Co.
        • Green River Basin
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 233, 279.; Farrington, O. C. (1900) New mineral occurrences. Field Columbian Mus. Pub. 44, Geol,. Ser. l, (7),221-231
    Am Min 26:646-650
    Venezuela
     
    • Mérida
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 235.
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