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Gold

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Formula:
Au
System:IsometricColour:Rich yellow, paling to ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Copper Group
Name:Gold is one of the first minerals used by prehistoric cultures. The Latin name for this mineral was "aurum" and Jöns jakob Berzelius used Au to represent the element when he established the current system of chemical symbols. The Old English world "gold" first appeared in written form about 725 and may further have been derived from "gehl" or "jehl". May be derived from Anglo-Saxon "gold" = yellow. (Known to alchemists as Sol.)


Copper Group. Gold-Silver Series and Gold-Palladium Series.

A native element and precious metal, Gold has long been prized for its beauty, resistance to chemical attack and workability. As it is found as a native element, has a relatively low melting point (1063 degrees Celsius) and is malleable, it has been used by mankind for thousands of years.

Gold is used as a standard for international currency and is also widely used in jewelry, electronics (where its superb properties as a conductor help offset its tremendous cost), dentistry and in photographic processes.

Gold occurs in significant amounts in three main types of deposits: hydrothermal quartz veins and related deposits in metamorphic and igneous rocks; in volcanic-exhalative sulphide deposits; and in consolidated to unconsolidated placer deposits. It may also occur in contact metamorphic or hypothermal deposits (eg. Skarns), or epithermal deposits such as volcanic fumaroles. It is most commonly found as disseminated grains in Quartz veins with Pyrite and other sulphides, or as rounded grains, flakes or nuggets in placer deposits in recent to ancient stream and river deposits. Gold is often panned from such deposits by taking advantage of its high density to wash away the lighter sediments from a pan or sluice.

Nuggets are almost exclusively hypogene in origin, forming mostly in veins, but can be somewhat modified in form and chemistry by weathering, erosion and transport (Hough et al., 2007).

Classification of Gold

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.01-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th edition ID:1.1.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:1.1.1.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.5

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1720.html
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Occurrences of Gold

Geological Setting:1) Primary hydrothermal veins
2) Volcanic-exhalative sulphide deposits
3) Alluvial and eluvial

Physical Properties of Gold

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Rich yellow, paling to whitish-yellow with increasing silver; blue & green in transmitted light (only thinnest folia [gold leaf])
Streak:Shining yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN10=30 - 34 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Malleable
Cleavage:None Observed
None
Fracture:Hackly
Density (measured):15 - 19.3 g/cm3
Density (calculated):19.309 g/cm3
Comment:Calculated density at 0° C. Depends on silver content (pure gold is 19.3).

Crystallography of Gold

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 4.0786Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 67.85 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Usually crude to rounded octahedra, cubes and dodecahedra to 2 cm. Often elongated along [100] or [111] directions, forming herring bone and dendritic twins. Flattened {111} plates with triangular octahedral faces. Rarely as wires ([111] elongation); reticulated; dendritic; arborescent; filiform; spongy; also massive in rounded fragments, flattened grains and scales (gold dust).
Twinning:Common on (111) to give herring bone twins. Repeated on (111) to give stacks of spinel twins that form hexagonal wires.
Crystal Atlas:
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Gold no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.17 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Gold no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Cubic closest packed, ccp, structure. Crystal Structures 1:7-83.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.355 (100)
2.039 (52)
1.230 (36)
1.442 (32)
0.9357 (23)
0.8325 (23)
0.9120 (22)

Optical Data of Gold

Type:Isotropic
Type:Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=24.9%
420nmR=26.5%
440nmR=28.1%
460nmR=31.6%
480nmR=39.0%
500nmR=49.5%
520nmR=57.8%
540nmR=63.4%
580nmR=67.8%
600nmR=71.0%
620nmR=73.8%
640nmR=76.1%
660nmR=78.2%
680nmR=81.9%
700nmR=83.6%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 83.6%.
Colour in reflected light:Yellow to white with increasing silver, reddish with copper
Internal Reflections:none
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Gold

Formula:
Au
Essential elements:Au
All elements listed in formula:Au
CAS Registry number:7440-57-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Analytical Data:Gold forms A complete series with silver (electrum, about 20-50 % Ag, and probably limited series with other metals including palladium (porpezite 5-10% Pd), copper, bismuth, mercury, nickel, platinum and iridium. The series with copper is broken by the intermetallic compounds auricupride and tetra-auricupride.
      1      2      3      4     5 
Au   99.91  85.21  90.99  94.22 73.54
Ag    0.09  14.71   3.53   2.84 20.92
Cu                  5.32   0.11  4.27
Fe                  0.07             
Bi                         2.82      
Sn                               0.28
Pb                               0.20
Zn                               0.77
Total 100   99.92  99.91 100.09 99.98
density     16.90 17.587  18.22

1)Sponge gold, 
2)Ostryi Bugor, Nagol'nyi Kryazh, Ukraina
3)Borneo,
4)Shilovoisetsky Mine, Ural, Russia,
5)Electrum, West Africa
Empirical Formula:
Au
Common Impurities:Ag,Cu,Pd,Hg

Relationship of Gold to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Silver (see here)
Forms a series with Palladium (see here)
Member of:Copper Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AA.05Aluminium
Al
1.AA.05Copper
Cu
1.AA.05Electrum
(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05Lead
Pb
1.AA.05Nickel
Ni
1.AA.05Silver
Ag
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd
(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCu
Au
 
3
Cu
1.AA.10aAuricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.10bTetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.AA.10aCuproauride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.15Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.AA.15Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.AA.15Iodine
I
 
2
1.AA.15Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn
ZnAl
 
2
1.AA.20Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.AA.25Hunchunite
Au
 
2
Pb
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.1.1.2Silver
Ag
1.1.1.3Copper
Cu

Other Names for Gold

Synonyms:
Native GoldQoriSol
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Goud
Albanian:Ari
Amharic:ወርቅ
Arabic:ذهب
Armenian:Ոսկի
Asturian:Oru
Aymara:Quri
Azeri:Qızıl
Basque:Urre
Belarusian:Золата
Bengali:সোনা
Bishnupriya Manipuri:ঔরো
Bosnian (Latin Script):Zlato
Bulgarian:Злато
Catalan:Or
Cherokee:ᎠᏕᎸ ᏓᎶᏂᎨ
Chuvash:Ылтăн
Corsican:Oru
Croatian:Zlato
Czech:Zlato
Danish:Guld
Dutch:Goud
Erzya:Сырне
Esperanto:Oro
Estonian:Kuld
Finnish:Kulta
French:Or
Or natif
Friulian:Aur
Galician:Ouro
Gan:
Georgian:ოქრო
German:Gediegen Gold
Greek:Χρυσός
Guarani:Kuarepotiju
Gujarati:સોનું
Haitian:
Hakka:Kîm
Hebrew:זהב
Hindi:सोना
Hungarian:Arany
Icelandic:Gull
Ido:Oro
Indonesian:Emas
Irish Gaelic:Ór
Italian:Oro
Oro nativo
Japanese:自然金
Javanese:Emas
Kannada:ಚಿನ್ನ
Kapampangan:Gintu
Kazakh (Cyrillic Script):Алтын
Kongo:Wolo
Korean:
Kurdish (Latin Script):Zêr
Latin:Aurum
Latvian:Zelts
Limburgian:Goud
Lingala:Wólo
Lithuanian:Auksas
Lojban:solji
Low Saxon:Gold
Luxembourgish:Gold
Macedonian:Злато
Malay:Emas
Malayalam:സ്വര്‍ണ്ണം
Manx:Airh
Marathi:सोने
Min Nan:Au
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Алт
Nahuatl:Cōztic teōcuitlatl
Norman:Or
Norwegian (Bokmål):Gull
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Gull
Novial:Ore
Occitan:Aur
Persian:طلا
Polish:Złoto
Portuguese:Ouro
Quechua:Quri
Ripuarian:Jold
Romanian:Aur
Russian:Золото
Sanskrit:सुवर्णम्
Scottish Gaelic:Òr
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Злато
Serbo-Croatian:Zlato
Sicilian:Oru
Simplified Chinese:自然金
Slovak:Zlato
Slovenian:Zlato
Spanish:Oro
Oro nativo
Swahili:Dhahabu
Swedish:Guld
Gediget Guld
Tagalog:Ginto
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Зар
Tamil:தங்கம்
Telugu:బంగారం
Thai:ทองคำ
Turkish:Altın
Ukrainian:Золото
Urdu:سونا
Uzbek (Latin Script):Oltin
Venetian:Oro
Vietnamese:Vàng
Welsh:Aur
Yiddish:גאלד
Zazaki:Zern
Zhuang:Gim
Zulu:Igolide
Varieties:
Argentian Mercurian GoldArgentocuproauriteArgentocuproaurite-IArgentocuproaurite-IIBismuthian Gold
Cuprian GoldElectrumIridian GoldMercurian GoldNickeloan Gold
Palladian GoldPlatinian GoldPorpezitePyrrhochrysitRhodite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:none
Thermal Behaviour:Melting Point: 1062.4° ± 0.8°
Other Information:Completely soluble with Copper. Insoluble in acids except aqua regia, with incomplete separation if more than 20% of silver is present.

Reported as spongy alteration pseudomorphs after Calaverite (Cripple Creek).
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
External LinksSearch for toxicity information at the United States National Library of Medicine
Industrial Uses:Electrical conductor, transparent reflective coating, jewelry, dentistry, coinage, decorative coatings

References for Gold

Reference List:

- +
Wibel (1852) Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein, Hamburg . Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen: 2: 87.

Hatch, F.H. and J.A. Chalmers (1895) The Gold Mines of the Rand. London: Macmillan & Co.

Scupham, J.R. (1898) The Buried Rivers of California as a Source of Gold. Mines and Minerals - Nov., 1898.

Outerbridge Jr., Alexander E. (1899) Marvellous Increase in Production of Gold. AP Popular Science Monthly, March, 1899.

Stone, George H. (1900) Gold Placers in Glaciated Regions. Mines and Minerals (June, 1900).

Krusch (1903) Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin, hale a.S.: 11: 331 (Simpson analysis).

Spencer, Arthur C. (1904) The Geology of the Treadwell Ore Deposits, Douglas Island, Alaska. Transaction of the American Institute of Mining Engineers - Oct., 1904.

Douglass, Earl (1905) Source of the Placer Gold in Alder Gulch, Montana. Mines and Minerals - Feb, 1905.

Evans, Horace F. (1905) The Source of the Fraser River Gold. Mining World - Sept. 2, 1905.

Wilkinson, H.L. (1905) Deep Placer Deposits of Victoria. Engineering and Mining Journal - Dec. 30, 1905.

Hart, T.S. (1906) Victorian Auriferous Occurrences. Australian Mining Standard - July 25, Aug. 1, 1906. Serial. 2 parts.

Nenadkevwitsch (1907) Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Trav. Mus. géol.: 1: 81.

Gregory, John W. (1907) Gold Mining and Gold Production (Cantor Lecture). Journal of the Society of Arts - Sept. 13, 1907. Serial. lst part.

Tyrrell, J.B. (1907) Concentration of Gold in the Klondike. Economic Geology - June, 1907.

Garrison, F. Lynwood (1909) Nature of Mining and Scientific Press - May 29, 1909.

Samojloff (1909) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 46: 286.

Cochrane, N.D. (1910) Geological Features of Fiji. Australian Mining Standard - Aug. 3, 1910.

Day & Sosman (1910), American Journal of Science: 29: 93.

Lincoln, Francis C. (1911) Types of Canadian Gold Deposits. Economic Geology: 6: 247.

Thomas, Jr., Charles S. (1911) The Bugbear of Gold. Mining and Scientific Press - May 13, 1911.

Chernik (1912) Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Trav. Mus. géol.: 6: 78.

Lakes, Arthur (1912) Geology of the Breckenridge Placers. Mines and Minerals - Feb, 1912.

Nenadkevwitsch (1914) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 53: 609.

Ungemach (1916) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 39: 5.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: Volume 4: 75.

Doelter, C. (1922) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3 [2]: 187.

McKeehan (1922) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 20: 424.

Uglow, W.L. and Johnston, W.A. (1923)Origin of the Placer Gold of the Barkerville Area, Cariboo District, British Columbia, Canada. Economic Geology, vol. 18(8), Sept. 1923: 541-561.

Holgersson and Sedström (1924) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 75: 143.

Weiss (1925) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 108: 643 (artificial Au-Ag alloys).

Strukturber. (1913-1926): 504 (Au-Cu series).

Ballard, S.M. (1928) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Rocky Bar Quadrangle. Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology - Pamphlet, no. 26, 41 pp.

Ferraz, L.C. (1929) Compendio dos Mineraes do Brazil en forma Diccionario 645pp., Rio de Janeiro: 326.

Freise, F.W. (1931) Transportation of Gold by Organic Underground Solutions. Economic Geology: 26, 421-431.

Kellogg, A.E. (1931) Origin of Flour Gold in Black Sands. Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona: 14(20)(March 15th): 3-4 and 49-50.

Schneiderhöhn, Hans and Ramdohr, P. (1931) Lehrbuch der Erzmikroskopie. 2 volumes: vol. 2, 714 pp.: 64.

Strukturberichte (1928-1932): 615 (Au-Cu series).

Drier and Walker (1933) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 16: 294.

Holloway, H.L. (1933) Alluvial Gold. Mining Magazine: 49(2) (Aug): 82-85.

Lindgren, W. (1933) Mineral Deposits. ); fourth edition, 930pp. New York.

Owen and Yates (1933), Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 15: 472 (On spectroscopically pure gold).

Treskinsky, S. (1933) Desert Placers. Mining Magazine: 49(4) (Oct 1933): 219-223 [Description of type of placer deposit occurring in Persia].

Vegard and Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.

Bürg, G. (1935) Die sekundaeren Umlagerungen und Anreicherungen des des Goldes in den Goldseifen. Zeitschrift für Praktische Geologie: 43(9) (Sept 1935): 134-139.

Fisher, M.S. (1935) Origins and Composition of Alluvial Gold, With Special Reference to Morobe Goldfield, New Guinea. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Bulletin 365, 366, 367, 369 and 370 Feb 1935, 46 p supp plates, (discussion) Mar p. 1-27 Apr p. 23-4, June p. 31-2 and (author's reply) July p. 5-14.

Heyerhoff, H.A. (1935) Do Gold Nuggets Grow or Are They Born that Way? Mining and Metallurgy: 16(no. 340, Apr 1935): 195.

Jurriaanse (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 90: 322 (Bi solubility in Au).

Fisher, M.S. (1936) Origin and Composition of Alluvial Gold, with Special Reference to Morobe Goldfield, New Guinea. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy - Bulletin 378, Mar 1936 p. 27-31.

Crampton, F.A. (1937) Occurrence of Gold in Stream Placers. Mining Journal (Phoenix, Arizona): 20(16): 3-4 and 33-34.

Emmons, W.H. (1937) Gold Deposits of the World. New York: McGraw Hill.

Van AUBEL, R. (1937) Sur l'origine de l'or et des pepites alluvionnaires. Chronique des Mines Coloniales: 6(64): 238-262.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 89-95.

Hoffman, A. (1947) Free Gold, Story of Canadian Mining Rinehart and Co. New York and Toronto, 420 p.

Gorbunov, E.Z. (1959) K voprosu o dal'nosti perenosa rossypnogo zolota ot korennykh istochnikov. Sovetskaya Geologiya: 2(6) (June 1959): 98-105. Transportation of gold during formation of placers].

Gorbunov, E.Z. (1963) Osobennosti razvitiya gidroseti i voprosy rossypnoi zolotonostnosti na Severo-Vostoke SSSR. Sovetskaya Geologiya n 4 Apr 1963 p 73-84 [Evolution features of hydrographic networks and problems of occurrence of gold, tin, and tungsten placers in northeast of the former Soviet Union].

Ivensen, Yu.P., Stepanov, A.A., and Chaikovskii, V.K. (1963) K probleme zolotonosnykh konglomeratov. Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr n 2 Feb 1963 p. 1-7
[Problem of gold-bearing conglomerates].

Sher, S.D. (1965) O sootnoshenii masshtabov korennoi i rossypnoi zolotonosnosti v razlichnykh zolotonosnykh provintsiyakh zemnogo shara. Sovetskaya Geologiya n 3 Mar 1965 p. 3-9 [Relationship between magnitude of primary gold deposits and gold placers in various gold-bearing provinces of world].

Hammett, A.B.J. (1966) The History of Gold. Kerrville: Braswell Printing.

Ferguson, S.A. et al (1973) Gold Deposits of Ontario (2 volumes); Ontario Division of Mines Circular 13.

Boyle (1979), The geochemistry of gold and its deposits.

Bache (1982): Les gisements d'or dans le monde.

Fleet, M.E. and Mumin, A.H. (1997): Gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and marcasite and arsenopyrite from Carlin trend gold deposits and laboratory synthesis. American Mineralogist: 82: 182-193.

Deksissa, D.J. and Koeberl, C. (2002) Geochemistry and petrography of gold-quartz-tourmaline veins of the Okote area, southern Ethiopia: implications for gold exploration. Mineralogy and Petrology: 75: 101-122.

Extra Lapis (English), No. 5 - Gold (2003).

Reich, M. Kesler, S.E., Utsunomiya, S., Palenik, C.S., Chryssoulis, S., and Ewing, R.C. (2005): Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 69: 2781-2796.

Frank Reith, Stephen L. Rogers, D. C. McPhail, Daryl Webb (2006): Biomineralization of Gold: Biofilms on Bacterioform Gold. Science 313, no. 5784, 233-236.

Hough, R. M., Butt, C. R. M., Reddy, S. M. & Verrall, M. (2007): Gold nuggets: supergene or hypogene? Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 54, 959-964.

Hough, R. M. et al. (2008): Naturally occurring gold nanoparticles and nanoplates. Geology 36, 571-574.

Hough, R. M., Butt, C. R. M. & Fischer-Bühner, J. (2009): The crystallography, metallography and composition of gold. Elements 5, 297-302.

Majzlan, J., Chovan, M., Andráš, P., Newville, M. & Wiedenbeck, M. (2010): The nanoparticulate nature of invisible gold in arsenopyrite from Pezinok (Slovakia). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 1-9.

R.M. Hough, R.R.P. Noble, M. Reich (2011): Natural gold nanoparticles. Ore Geology Reviews 42, 55-61.

Mindat.org articles about Gold

Article entries:
Bully Bueno Mine 1873Dwight Bennett
2009 June Minerals Hunting trip for Native Gold in ShanDong province,ChinaXiaoJun Chen
History of Cordova MinesBranko Balaz
Goldpanning in Low Tatra mts.Slavomír Šimko
Center of Iran's Mineral resource potentialsFarid Mohammadi

Best Localities for Gold

Best of Species:Gold

Internet Links for Gold

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
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  • Sell unwanted or scrap gold. Get cash for gold at www.getcashforyourgold.co.uk
  • Specimens:The following Gold specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Gold

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