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Graphite

This page kindly sponsored by Asbury Graphite Mills, Inc
Formula:
C
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Iron black to steel-grey
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
1 - 2
Name:
Named plumbago in 1739 by Magnus von Bromell, but in a different sense than previous authors such as Agricola and Conrad Gesner. Also called molybdaena, but molybdaena was shown to represent two species, molybdenite and graphite - as known today, in 1781 by Carl Welhelm Scheele. Named graphite in 1789 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner from the Greek "graphein", "to write".
Polymorph of:
Graphite usually occurs in flakes in metamorphosed rocks rich in carbon, but it can also be found in veins and in pegmatites. Where large deposits are found it is mined and used as an industrial lubricant and for 'lead' in pencils. The crystallinity depends on the temperature of formation and the grade of metamorphism.

Classification of Graphite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.CB.05a

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
B : Carbon-silicon family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.5.2
1.3.6.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.25

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1740.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Physical Properties of Graphite

Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Iron black to steel-grey
Streak:
Black to steel gray
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 2
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN10=7 - 11 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
2.09 - 2.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Graphite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Graphite-2HGraphite-3R
CC
Hexagonal Trigonal 
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
P63/mmc R3m
  
a = 2.463Å, c = 6.714Å
a = 2.456Å, c = 10.044Å
a:c = 1 : 2.726a:c = 1 : 4.09
V 35.27 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 52.47 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
46

Crystallographic forms of Graphite

Crystal Atlas:
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Graphite - Dipyramidal {101}
Graphite - Tabular {001}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York. Crystal Structures 1:7-83.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.354 (100)
2.131 (3)
2.031 (14)
1.800 (3)
1.677 (5)
1.543 (4)
1.231 (3)
1.155 (5)
Comments:
Calculated from crystal structre.

Optical Data of Graphite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
Anisotropism:
Extreme
Colour in reflected light:
Iron black to steel gray
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
Deep blue in transmitted light.

Chemical Properties of Graphite

Formula:
C
All elements listed in formula:
CAS Registry number:
7782-42-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Graphite to other Species

1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Graphite

Name in Other Languages:
Basque:Grafito
Belarusian:Графіт
Bosnian (Latin Script):Grafit
Bulgarian:Графит
Catalan:Grafit
Croatian:Grafit
Czech:Grafit
Danish:Grafit
Dutch:Grafiet
Esperanto:Grafito
Estonian:Grafiit
Finnish:Grafiitti
Galician:Grafito
Hebrew:גרפיט
Hungarian:Grafit
Icelandic:Grafít
Indonesian:Grafit
Italian:Grafite
Korean:흑연
Latin:Graphitum
Latvian:Grafīts
Lithuanian:Grafitas
Lojban:Pistabno
Lombard:Grafiit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Grafitt
Persian:گرافیت
Polish:Grafit
Portuguese:Grafite
Russian:Графит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Графит
Simplified Chinese:石墨
Slovak:Grafit
Slovenian:Grafit
Swedish:Grafit
Turkish:Grafit
Ukrainian:Графіт
Vietnamese:Than chì

Other Information

Other Information:
Greasy feel
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Graphite

Reference List:
Cirkel, F. (1907) Graphite: its properties, occurrence, refining and uses: Department of Mines, Mines Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 307pp.

Alling, H.L. (1917) The Adirondack graphite deposits, New York State Museum Bulletin 199: 7-150.

Spence, H.S. (1920) Graphite Mines, Branch Report No. 511: Canada Department of Mines, Ottawa: 202pp. + photos.

Wesselowski, Wassiliew (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 89: 494.

Palache, C. (1941) Contributions to the mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New
Jersey: Morphology of graphite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and arsenic: American Mineralogist: 26(12): 709-717.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 152-154.

Cameron, E.N., Weis, P.L. (1960) Strategic graphite - a survey. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1082-E: 201-321.

Taylor, R., Gilchris, K., Poston, L.J. (1968) Thermal conductivity of polycrystalline graphite. Carbon: 6: 537-544.

Kwiecinska, B. (1980) Mineralogy of Natural Graphites: Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich. Polska Akademia Nauk: 67: Jun-87.

Weis, P.L. (1980) Graphite skeleton crystals - A newly recognized morphology of crystalline carbon in metasedimentary rocks. Geology: 8: 296-297.

Shafranovskii, G.I. (1981) New graphite twins: Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo. Mineralogicheskogo Obschestva: 110(6): 716-720.

Shafranovskii, G.I. (1982) Crystallomorphology of graphite from the Ilmen Mountains; Mineralogical Research of Endogenic Deposits of the Urals: Academy Nauk CCCP- Uralskii Nauchnuri Tsentr: 44-53.

Shafranovskii, G.I. (1982) Graphite [growth] twins and triads: Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 4(1): 74-81.

Shafranovskii, G.I. (1983) Classical and non-classical twinning in graphite: Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obschestva: 112(5): 577-581.

Gohla, K.-H. (1984) Graphit aus Kropfmuhl: Magma: 4: 26-51.

Jedwab, J., Boulègue, J. (1984) Graphite crystals in hydrothermal vents. Nature: 310: 41-43.

Weinelt, W. (1984) Die Geologie der Graphit- Lagerstatte Kropfmuhl. Magma: 4: 52-56.

Weiner, K.-L., Hager, H. (1987) Growth spirals on graphite crystals. Lapis: 12(1): 31-33.

Rumble, D., Chamberlain, C.P. (1988) Graphite vein deposits of New Hampshire. New England Intercollegiate Geologic Conference Guidebook: 241-255.

Pearson, D.G., Davies, G.R., Nixon, P.H., Milledge, H.J. (1989) Graphitized diamonds from a peridotite massif in Morocco and implications for anomalous diamond occurrences. Nature: 338 210: 60-62.

Bernatowicz, T.J., Amari, S., Zinner, E.K., Lewis, R.S. (1991) Interstellar grains within interstellar grains. Astrophysical Journal: 373: L73-L76.

Jaszczak, J.A. (1991) Graphite from Crestmore, California. Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 427-432.

Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G. (1991) Spherical graphite from the Azov Sea region. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 13(1): 95-101.

Lemanski, Chester S.Jr. (1991) Graphite in ore. The Picking Table: 32(1): 13-Nov, 1991.

Tsuchiya, N., Suzuki, S., Chida, T. (1991) Origin of graphite in the Oshirabetsu gabbroic body, Hokkaido Japan. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology, and Economic Geology; Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan: 86(6): 264-272.

Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G. (1992) Mechanisms of natural graphite crystals growth in the Ukraine. Doklady Academuu Nauk: 4: 73-76.

Dissanayake, C.B. (1994) Origin of vein graphite in high-grade metamorphic terrains: Role of organic matter and sediment subduction Mineralium Deposita: 29: 57-67.

Jaszczak, J.A. (1994) Famous graphite crystals from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 35(2).

Semenenko, V.P., Girich, A.L. (1995) Mineralogy of a unique graphite-containing fragment in the Krymka chondrite (LL3). Mineralogical Magazine: 59: 443-454.

Tyler, I. (1995) Seathwaite Wad and the Mines of the Borrowdale Valley "Blue Rock Publications, Carlisle, England": 220.

Jaszczak, J.A. (1997) Unusual graphite crystals from the Lime Crest quarry, Sparta, New Jersey. Rocks & Minerals: 72(5): 330-334.

Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G. (1997) Growth spirals on graphite crystals from Ukraine. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal: 19(6): 43-48.

Jaszczak, J.A. (1998) Unusual graphite crystals from the Lime Crest quarry, Sparta, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 39(1): 20-24.

Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G., Zagnitko, V.M. (1998) Varieties of Graphite Spherulites from Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Ukraine. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Akademiya Nauk Ukrainy, Kiev, Ukraine: 20(2): 34-39.

Hanna, G.A., Jaszczak, J.A. (1999) A new find of spherical graphite from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 40: 27-30.

Kvasnitsa, V.N., Yatsenko, V.G., Jaszczak, J.A.(1999) Disclinations in unusual graphite crystals from anothosites of Ukraine. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37(4): 951-960.

Jaszczak, J.A. (2000) Palache's "Contributions to the mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New Jersey": The 900-foot level revisited. Matrix, A Journal of the History of Minerals: 8(3): 137-149.

Jaszczak, J.A., Robinson, G.W. (2000) Spherical and triskelial graphite from Gooderham, Ontario, Canada. Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 172-173.

Satish-Kumar, M., Wada, Hideki (2000) Carbon isotope equilibrium between calcite and graphite in Skallen Marbles, East Antarctica: evidence for the preservation of peak metamorphic temperatures. Chemical Geology: 166: 173-182.

El Goresy, A., Gillet, P., Chen, M., Künstler, F., Graup, G., Stähle, V. (2001) In situ discovery of shock-induced graphite-diamond phase transition in gneisses from the Ries Crater, Germany. American Mineralogist: 86: 611-621.

Jaszczak, J.A. (2001) Palache's "Contributions to the Mineralogy of Sterling Hill, New Jersey", The 900-foot level revisited. The Picking Table: 42(1).

Jaszczak, J.A., Rakovan, J. (2002) Growth spirals on graphite crystals from the Trotter Mine dump, Franklin, New Jersey. The Picking Table: 43(2).

Rakovan, J., Jaszczak, J.A.(2002) Multiple length scale growth spirals on metamorphic graphite {001} surfaces studied by atomic force microscopy. American Mineralogist: 87: 17-24.

Jaszczak, J.A., Robinson, G.W., Dimovski, S., Gogotsi, Y. (2003) Naturally Occurring Graphite Cones. Carbon: 41(11): 2085-2092.

Santosh, M., Wada, H., Satish-Kumar, M., Binu-Lal, S.S. (2003) Carbon isotope "stratigraphy" in a single graphite crystal: Implications for the crystal growth mechanism of fluid-deposited graphite. American Mineralogist: 88: 1689-1696.

Stadermann, F.J., Croat, T.K., Bernatowicz, T. (2004) "NanoSIMS Determination of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Presolar Graphites from the Murchison Meteorite", 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 15-19, League City, Texas, abstract no.1758.

Buseck, P.R., Beyssac, O. (2014) From organic matter to graphite: graphitization. Elements: 10: 421-426.

Bernard, S., Papineau, D. (2014) Graphitic carbons and biosignatures. Elements: 10: 435-440.

Internet Links for Graphite

Specimens:
The following Graphite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Graphite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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