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Grossular

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Gooseberries
Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, ...
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Name:
Originally named "cinnamon stone" ("Kanelstein" in German) in 1803 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner and renamed grossularite by Werner in 1808. Named for the color of gooseberries (Ribes grossularium) as the original specimens were this color.

Classification of Grossular

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3b.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
16.9.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Grossular

Occurrences of Grossular

Geological Setting:
Contact and regionally metamorphosed calcareous rocks.

Physical Properties of Grossular

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Comment:
Colorless when pure (rare), commonly red orange to brown.
Streak:
White to pale Brownish white
Hardness (Mohs):
6½ - 7
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Rarely observed on {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.594 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.594 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Grossular

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Ia3d
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.851Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,664.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Dodecahedra or trapezohedra, granular, compact, massive. May have hexoctahedral faces. Rarely tetrahexahedral or octahedral.
Twinning:
Not observed
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.959 (25)
2.647 (100)
2.417 (20)
2.321 (18)
1.921 (25)
1.643 (25)
1.581 (50)

Optical Data of Grossular

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.731 - 1.754
Birefringence:
0.0-0.005
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Weak strain birefringence

Chemical Properties of Grossular

Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
RI increases with increasing iron contents (usually Fe3+)
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cr

Relationship of Grossular to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Andradite (see here)
Forms a series with Uvarovite (see here)
Forms a series with Hibschite (see here)
Forms a series with Katoite (see here)
Forms a series with Pyrope (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3
BitikleiteCa3SbSn(AlO4)3
BlythiteMn32+Mn23+[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
DzhuluiteCa3SbSnFe33+O12
ElbrusiteCa3U6+ZrFe23+Fe2+O12
GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
KhohariteMg3Fe23+(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V23+(SiO4)3
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn22+(VO4)3
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
SkiagiteFe32+Fe23+[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
UsturiteCa3SbZr(Fe3+O4)3
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe103+Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHf(SiO4)
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)
9.AD.30StetinditeCe(SiO4)
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4
16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
16.9.2AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
16.9.8Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2O
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2O
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2O
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2O
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2O
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2O
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)

Other Names for Grossular

Other Information

Almost always non-fluorescent; may be a weak golden yellow (LW & SW)
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Grossular

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Chemische Untersuchung des olivgrünen Granats aus Sibirien, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin: 319-324.

Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.

Cho, H., Rossman, G.R. (1993) Single-crystal NMR studies of low-concentration hydrous species in minerals: grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 78: 1149-1164.

Stalder, A., Aufdenblatten, M. (1995) Granat (Grossular) aus dem Täschtal VS. Schweizer Strahler: 10: 267-279.

Geiger, C.A., Armbruster, T. (1997) Mn3Al2Si3O12 spessartine and Ca3Al2Si3O12 grossular garnet: Structural dynamic and thermodynamic properties. American Mineralogist: 82: 740-747.

Wang, L., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.

Milke, R. (2004) Spiral growth of grossular under hydrothermal conditions. American Mineralogist: 89: 211-218.

Rodehorst, U., Carpenter, M.A., Boffa Ballaran T., Geiger, C.A. (2004) Local structural heterogeneity, mixing behaviour and saturation effects in the grossular-spessartine solid solutions. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 31: 387-404.

Antao, S. M. (2013) Is near-endmember birefringent grossular non-cubic? New evidence from synchrotron diffraction. The Canadian Mineralogist: 51: 771-784.

Internet Links for Grossular

Specimens:
The following Grossular specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Grossular

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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