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Grossular

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Formula:
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Brown, orange, red, ...
Hardness:6½ - 7
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Name:
Originally named "cinnamon stone" (kanalstein] in 1803 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner and renamed grossularite by Werner in 1808. Named for the green color of gooseberries (Ribes grossularium) because the original specimens were this color.

Classification of Grossular

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.08-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.4.3b.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.9.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Grossular

Type Locality:Akhtaragda River mouth (Achtaragda River mouth), Vilyui River Basin (Vilui River Basin; Wilui River Basin), Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia

Occurrences of Grossular

Geological Setting:Contact and regionally metamorphosed calcareous rocks.

Physical Properties of Grossular

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Comment:Colorless when pure (rare), commonly red orange to brown.
Streak:White to pale Brownish white
Hardness (Mohs):6½ - 7
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Parting:Rarely observed on {110}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.594 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.594 g/cm3

Crystallography of Grossular

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Ia3d
Cell Parameters:a = 11.851Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,664.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Dodecahedra or trapezohedra, granular, compact, massive. May have hexoctahedral faces. Rarely tetrahexahedral or octahedral.
Twinning:Not observed
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.959 (25)
2.647 (100)
2.417 (20)
2.321 (18)
1.921 (25)
1.643 (25)
1.581 (50)

Optical Data of Grossular

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.731 - 1.754
Birefringence:0.0-0.005
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:Weak strain birefringence

Chemical Properties of Grossular

Formula:
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:Al, Ca, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, O, Si
Analytical Data:RI increases with increasing iron contents (usually Fe3+)
Common Impurities:Fe,Cr

Relationship of Grossular to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Andradite (see here)
Forms a series with Uvarovite (see here)
Forms a series with Hibschite (see here)
Forms a series with Katoite (see here)
Forms a series with Pyrope (see here)
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Berzeliite
NaCa
 
2
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Bitikleite
Ca
 
3
SbSn(AlO
 
4
)
 
3
Blythite
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Dzhuluite
Ca
 
3
SbSnFe
3+
3
O
 
12
Elbrusite
Ca
 
3
U
6+
 
ZrFe
3+
2
Fe
2+
 
O
 
12
Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
Irinarassite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
12
Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Khoharite
Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Menzerite-(Y)
{(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe
2+
 
)}
 
3
{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
),(Fe
3+
 
,Al)}
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Schäferite
Ca
 
2
NaMg
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Skiagite
Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Usturite
Ca
 
3
SbZr(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
3
Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
Common Associates:
VesuvianiteDiopsideClinochloreClinochloreCalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.9.1Gehlenite
Ca
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
7
)
16.9.2Anorthite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
16.9.3Yoshiokaite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O
 
4
]
16.9.4Svyatoslavite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
16.9.5Dmisteinbergite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
16.9.7Vuagnatite
CaAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
16.9.8Zoisite
{Ca
 
2
}{Al
 
3
}(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
16.9.9Clinozoisite
{Ca
 
2
}{Al
 
3
}(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
16.9.10Prehnite
Ca
 
2
Al
 
2
Si
 
3
O
 
10
(OH)
 
2
16.9.11Kamaishilite
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
2
SiO
 
6
)(OH)
 
2
16.9.12Bicchulite
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
2
SiO
 
6
)(OH)
 
2
16.9.13Margarite
CaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
16.9.14Chantalite
CaAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
16.9.15Cebollite
Ca
 
5
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
4
16.9.17Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
16.9.18Lawsonite
CaAl
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
16.9.19Parthéite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
16.9.20Wairakite
Ca(Al
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
12
) · 2H
 
2
O
16.9.21Vertumnite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
24
· 3H
 
2
O
16.9.22Scolecite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
3
O
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
16.9.23Laumontite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
16.9.24Yugawaralite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
· 4H
 
2
O
16.9.25Gismondine-Ca
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
16.9.26Epistilbite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
· 5H
 
2
O
16.9.27Goosecreekite
Ca[Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
16
] · 5H
 
2
O
16.9.28Cowlesite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
3
O
 
10
· 6H
 
2
O
16.9.30Stellerite
Ca[Al
 
2
Si
 
7
O
 
18
] · 7H
 
2
O
16.9.31Strätlingite
Ca
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
7
· 8H
 
2
O
16.9.32Amstallite
CaAl(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
8
(OH)
 
4
· (H
 
2
O,Cl)

Other Names for Grossular

Synonyms:
ErniteGarnet JadeGooseberry-GarnetGooseberry StoneGrossular Garnet
GrossulariteKalkthongranatKanelsteinOlyntholitePechgranat
RomanzoviteTellemarkiteViluite (of Severgin)Wiluite (of Severgin)
Other Languages:
Dutch:Grossulaar
French:Grossulaire
Wilouite
German:Colophonit
Ernit
Grossularit
Kolophonit
Olyntholit
Rumanzowit
Rumjanzowit
Tellemarkit
Viluit
Wilouit
Hungarian:Grosszulár
Italian:Grossularia
Japanese:灰礬柘榴石
Lithuanian:Grosuliaras
Polish:Grossular
Russian:Гроссуляр
Simplified Chinese:钙铝榴石
绿榴石贵
钙铝石榴子石
Spanish:Grosularia
Colophonita
Ernita
Grossularita
Olyntholita
Tellemarkita
Viluita
Wilouita
Ukrainian:Гросуляр
Varieties:
CaswelliteChromian GrossularHessoniteHibschiteLeuco garnet
LeukogranatMagnesian GrossularManganoan GrossularPlazoliteRosolite
Stannoan GrossularTransvaal JadeTsavorite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Almost always non-fluorescent; may be a weak golden yellow (LW & SW)
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Grossular

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth, M.H. (1807): Chemische Untersuchung des olivgrünen Granats aus Sibirien, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 319-324

Hofmeister, A.M. and Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.

Cho, H. and Rossman, G.R. (1993) Single-crystal NMR studies of low-concentration hydrous species in minerals: grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 78: 1149-1164.

Stalder, A. and Aufdenblatten, M. (1995) Granat (Grossular) aus dem Täschtal VS. Schweizer Strahler: 10: 267-279.

American Mineralogist (1997): 82: 740-747.

Wang, L., Essene, E.J., and Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.

Milke, R. (2004) Spiral growth of grossular under hydrothermal conditions. American Mineralogist: 89: 211-218.

Rodehorst, U., Carpenter, M.A., Boffa Ballaran T., and Geiger, C.A. (2004) Local structural heterogeneity, mixing behaviour and saturation effects in the grossular-spessartine solid solutions. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 31: 387-404.

Antao, S. M. (2013): Is near-endmember birefringent grossular non-cubic? New evidence from synchrotron diffraction. Can. Mineral., 51, 771-784.

Mindat.org articles about Grossular

Article entries:
Fluorapatite and Odd Facts about the Basin Locality, MaineDouglas Watts

Internet Links for Grossular

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    Localities for Grossular

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