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Grunerite

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Formula:
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
System:MonoclinicColour:nd
Lustre:VitreousHardness:5 - 6
Member of:Magnesium-iron-manganese Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Name:Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in honor of Louis Emmanuel Gruner [May 11, 1809 Ittigen, Switzerland - March 26, 1883 Beaucaire, France], professor of chemistry at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne and later chief mining engineer of Poitiers Department following as director of the School of Mines at Saint-Etienne. He became department head of metallurgy of Ecole des Mines in Paris and held several additional posts in government mining offices. Gruner was the first to chemically analyze the mineral which now bears his name.

Classification of Grunerite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.07-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DE.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.21.8

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1758.html
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Type Occurrence of Grunerite

Type Locality:Sarvengude ravine, Collobrières, Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Physical Properties of Grunerite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:nd
Streak:nd
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6

Crystallography of Grunerite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Grunerite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.663 - 1.686 nβ = 1.680 - 1.709 nγ = 1.696 - 1.729
2V:Measured: 90° to 70°, Calculated: 84° to 86°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.033 - 0.043

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Grunerite

Formula:
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2


Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
Simplified for copy/paste:☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Essential elements:Fe, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, O, Si

Relationship of Grunerite to other Species

Member of:Magnesium-iron-manganese Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Anthophyllite Group
☐{X
 
2
}{Z
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Gedrite Group
☐{X
2+
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Manganocummingtonite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Manganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite
{Na}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Sodic-ferrogedrite
{Na}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Sodicanthophyllite
{Na}{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Sodicgedrite
{Na}{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DE.05Anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Group
☐{Li
 
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH,F,Cl)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Mn
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite
{Na}{Li
 
2
}{Fe
 
2
Al
 
2
Li}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Joesmithite
{Pb}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Be
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Tschermakite
☐(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Cannilloite
Ca(Ca
 
2
)(Mg
 
4
Al)(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluor-cannilloite
{Ca}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite
☐{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Kaersutite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
AlTi}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic- fluoro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite
{Na}{CaMn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(Cl,OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite
{K}{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite
{Na}{Ca
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Cr
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Fe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite
☐(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophorite
NaCaNaFe
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite
☐{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Fe
2+
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramite
Na(CaNa)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
)(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
AlFe
3+
 
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Winchite
☐{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Katophorite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
4
Al}[(AlSi
 
7
)O
 
22
](OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite
{K}{CaNa}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite
K[CaNa][Mg
 
5
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite
☐[Mn
2+
 
Na][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite
☐[CaNa][Mg
 
4
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite
{Na}{CaNa}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
4
Al}Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,
 
4
Al)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite
[(Na,K)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Mn
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mn
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite
◻{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Riebeckite
◻[Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiite
NaNa
 
2
(Mn
2+
2
Mn
3+
3
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
[(Fe
2+
3
,Mg)Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite
◻{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
](AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(F)
 
2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistite
Na
 
0
· 5{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
](F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
)(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite
{Na}{Na
 
2
}{MgMn
3+
2
LiTi
4+
 
}Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Fe
2+
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiite
Na(Na
 
2
)(Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)O
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite
[(K,Na)][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
][Si
 
8
O
 
22
][(F,OH)
 
2
]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite
[Na][Li
 
2
][Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Li]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite
[K][Na
 
2
][Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
 
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiMg
 
2
Al
 
2
)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedrizite
NaLi
 
2
(LiFe
2+
2
Al
 
2
)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeite
NaNa
 
2
(Mg
 
2
Al
 
2
Li)(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)F
 
2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
 
Ti)Si
 
8
O
 
22
O
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.21.1Olivine
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.21.2Ringwoodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.21.3Wadsleyite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
14.21.4Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
14.21.5Anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.6Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite
14.21.9Minnesotaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.10Chesterite
(Mg,Fe)
 
17
Si
 
20
O
 
54
(OH)
 
6
14.21.11Jimthompsonite
(Mg,Fe)
 
5
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite
(Mg,Fe)
 
5
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
14.21.13Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
14.21.14Balangeroite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
42
Si
 
16
O
 
54
(OH)
 
40

Other Names for Grunerite

Other Languages:
German:Grunerit
Russian:Грюнерит
Simplified Chinese:铁闪石
Spanish:Grunerita
Varieties:
Amosite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Grunerite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Mineralogical Society of America, Special Paper: 2: 95-100.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Angel, R.J., and Carpenter, M.A. (2000), High-pressure transformation behaviour of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 1195-1213.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., and Domeneghetti, M.C. (2001) Phase transition and mixing behavior of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 87-101.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist:
44(1): 1-21.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

Best Localities for Grunerite

Best of Species:Grunerite

Internet Links for Grunerite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Grünerite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Grunerite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Birch BH Book
        • Broken Hill District
          • Northern Section
    Econ Geol (1993) 88:505-541
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Cloncurry District
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
    • Tasmania
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Bottrill, R., 2004. Miscellaneous mineral analyses from near Balfour and Temma. Mineral Resources Tasmania Tasmanian Geological Survey Record 2004/06
      • Heazlewood district
        • Luina
    No reference listed
      • Dundas Shire
        • Norseman
    Maggie Hays Nickel Mineralization, Lake Johnston, Western Australia; W. Clayton, C. Stott, R.H. Mazzucchelli; CRC LEME 2005
      • Kondinin Shire
    Nickel Mineralisation in Western Australia by R.J. Marston 1984.
    Nickel Mineralisation in Western Australia by R.J. Marston 1984.
      • Port Hedland Shire
        • Kavir Downs Station
    Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
      • Sandstone Shire
        • Youanmi
    Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia, 1999
      • Yalgoo Shire
        • Mount Gibson Station
    The Mount Gibson Banded Iron Formation-Hosted Magnetite Deposits. Two Distinct Processes for the Origin of High Grade Iron Ore; DF Lascelles; Economic Geology; V101, May 2006, pp 651-666
      • Yilgarn Shire
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209
        • Marvel Loch
    Meinert, 1992. Skarns & Skarn Deposits; Pasi Eilu (2003) Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003 Rovaniemi, Finland December 2003
        • Southern Cross
    Pasi Eilu (2003) Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003 Rovaniemi, Finland December 2003
    Ore Petrology Chemistry and Timing of Electrum in the Archaean Hypozonal Transvaal Lode Gold Deposit, Western Australia; SG Hagemann, PE Brown, J Ridley, P Stern, J Fournelle; Economic Geology, V93May 1998, pp 271-291
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Klagenfurt
        • Moosburg
          • Stallhofen
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    Bolivia
     
    • Santa Cruz Department
      • Cerro Pelado
    [var: Amosite] Rivas, S. and Ahlfeld, F. (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes (Santa Cruz)
    Brazil
     
    • Bahia
      • Boquira (former Macaúbas)
    Misi, A., Iyer, S. S., Tassinari, C. C., Kyle, J. R., Coelho, C. E., Franca-Rocha, W. J., ... & Carvalho, I. G. (1999). Geological and isotopic constraints on the metallogenic evolution of the Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (Ag) deposits of Brazil. Gondwana Research, 2(1), 47-65
    • Goiás
      • Crixás gold field
        • Crixás
          • Crixás belt
    Jost, H., and de Tarso Ferro de Oliveira Fortes, P. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 358-376.
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Canaã dos Carajás
    Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
        • Marabá
    Monteiro, L.V.S., Xavier, R.P., de Carvalho, E.R., Hitzman, M.W., Johnson, C.A., de Souza Filho, C.R., and Torresi, I. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 129-159.; Villas, R.N., and Dias Santos, M. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 300-331
        • Parauapebas
    Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
    Dreher, A.M., Xavier, R.P., Taylor, B.E., and Martini, S.L. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 161-184.; Tallarico, F. H. B., de Oliveira, C. G., & Figueiredo, B. R. (2008). The Igarapé Bahiacu-Au mineralization, Carajás Province. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30(2).
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Catingueira
    Souza Neto, J.A., Legrand, J.M., Volfinger, M., Pascal, M.-L., and Sonnet, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 185-205.
    Cameroon
     
    • North-West Region
      • Nkambe
    Tetsopgang, S., Koyanagi, J., Enami, M., and Kihara, K. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(3), 509-516.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
    Bernier, Louis R., 1990, Vanadiferous Zincian-Chromian Hercynite in a Metamorphosed Basalt-Hosted Alteration Zone, Atik Lake, Manitoba, Canadian Mineralogist (1990) v. 28:57-50.; Richardson, D.J., Ostry, G., Weber, W., Fogwill, W.D. (1996) Gold deposits of Manitoba, Manitoba Energy and Mines, Economic Geology Report 86-1 (2nd Edition), 114 p.
      • Thompson Nickel Belt
        • Moab-Setting Lakes area
    Can. Min. 31, 695
    Phillips, K. A. (1979) Minerals of Manitoba: Volume II: Metallic minerals. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/2.
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    KLEIN, C. (1966): Mineralogy and petrology of the metamorphosed Wabush iron formation, southwest Labrador. Journal of Petrology 7, 246-305.
    www.geosurv.gov.nf.ca/gacmap/LAB2.html.
    • Northwest Territories
    Meinert, 1992. Skarns & Skarn Deposits; Econ Geol (1994) 89:1217-1227; Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209
    • Ontario
      • Algoma District
        • Elliot Lake area
    Robertson, J.A. (1976) The Blind River Uranium Deposits: the ores and their setting. (Ontario Division of Mines, Miscellaneous paper 65)
        • McMurray and Chabanel Townships
    from photos posted to Mindat - Maggie Wilson
        • McMurray Township
      • Kenora District
        • Skinner Lake Area
    Kinross Gold Corporation, Technical Report (2003); Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209; 55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 74
      • Sudbury District
        • Hutton Township
    Markland, G.D., (UNK), The Geology of the Moose Mountain Mine and its Application to Mining and Milling
        • Levack Township
    Springer (1989) Can. Min. 27, 311-313
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
          • Val d'Or
    Sabina, A.P. (2003): Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Kirkland Lake - Rouyn-Noranda - Val d'Or, Ontario & Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 77, 197p.
        • Rouyn-Noranda TE
    Galley, A.G., Jonasson, I.R., and Watkinson, D.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 619-637.
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Nunavik
    W. W. Moorhouse and N. Shepherd (1963): Hypersthene and cummingtonite from Payne Bay, New Quebec. Can. Mineral. 7, 527-532
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Qinhuangdao Prefecture
        • Qinglong Co.
    USGS Open-File Report 03-220
    • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Jiamusi Prefecture
        • Tangyuan Co.
    Wei Juying and Zeng Qiang (1996): Geology & Geography 32(4), 472-480.
    • Hubei Province
      • Huangshi Prefecture
        • Daye Co.
    Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
    Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Bayan Nur League (Bayannao'er Prefecture)
        • Hanggin Rear Banner (Hangjin Houqi)
    Xinming Jiang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(4), 1-10
      • Hinggan League (Xing'an Prefecture)
        • Tuquan Co.
    Xixin Zhang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(11), 49-51
      • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
        • Bairin Left Banner (Balin Zuoqi)
    Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
      • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
        • Plain Blue Banner (Zhenglan Co.)
    Yiming Zhao, Daxin Li, Wenming Chen, Chengyou Feng, and Wenhong Sun (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(2), 113-122
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Siping Prefecture
        • Yitong Co.
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
    • Shanxi Province
      • Taiyuan Prefecture
        • Loufan Co.
    Yang Ding, Jiyue Xue, and Gufeng Luo (1998): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 17(2), 142-147
      • Xinzhou Prefecture
        • Wutai Co.
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
    • Yunnan Province
      • Baoshan Prefecture
        • Longyang District
    Hua Huang, Changqing Zhang, Yunman Zhou, Bo Liu, Yongfu Xie, Yuntao Dong, Chunhai Yang, and Wenwei Dong (2014): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 33(1), 127-148
      • Dêqên Autonomous Prefecture (Deqin Autonomous Prefecture; Diqing Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Shangri-La Co. (Xianggelila Co.; Zhongdian Co.)
    Tao Ren, Zhong Hong, Xingchun Zhang, Runsheng Han, and Meijuan Ma (2013): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 33(3), 278-286
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Josef Vajdak (2002) Mineral News, 18, #1, 6.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
          • Horní Hostice
    Zimák, J.: Mineralogie železných rud na historickém ložisku Horní Hoštice v Rychlebských horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 2, 238-242.
      • Vysočina Region
        • Velká Bíteš
    Víšková E., Fojt, B., Hrazdil, V., Houzar, S., (2013): Mineralogie magnetit-grunerit-sideritového zrudnění z Radoškova (jednotka Bílého potoka, svratecká klenba, moravikum). Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. geol., 98, 2, 39–50.
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
    Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp (p.346)
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Seinäjoki
    Mancini, F., Alviola, R., Marshall, B., Satoh, H., & Papunen, H. (2000). The manganese silicate rocks of the early Proterozoic Vittinki group, southwestern Finland: Metamorphic grade and genetic interpretations. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38(5), 1103-1124.
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Hautes-Pyrénées
        • Argelès-Gazost
          • Pierrefitte
    Mineralogical Magazine 1931 22 : 477-481
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Collobrières
    Mineralogical Magazine 1931 22 : 477-481
        • Les Mayons
    G. MARI (1979) : Mines et minéraux de la Provence cristalline (Maures.Esterel.Tanneron). Ed. SERRES.(in French)
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Oberlausitz
        • Weißenberg
          • Döbschütz
    Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2012): Fayalit, Cristobalit, Tridymit und Grunerit aus dem Königshainer Granit, Lausitz. Aufschluss, 63 (6), 301-307.
    Hungary
     
    • Fejér Co.
      • Velencei Mtns
        • Sukoró
    Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
    India
     
    • Karnataka
    Econ Geol. (1995) 90:2040-2057
      • Kolar District
        • Kolar Gold Fields
          • South Schist Belt
    Econ Geol (1994) 89:1552-1566
    • Tamil Nadu
      • Salem District
        • Namakkal
          • Nainamalai Adivaram
    N. Subba Reddy, et al (1982) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences, 91, 55-63.
      • Thiruvannaamalai district (Tiruvannamalai)
    N. Subba Reddy, and A. N. Sashidhar (1989) Mineralogy and chemistry of banded iron formations (BIF) of Tiruvannamaiai area, Tamil Nadu. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 98, 167-172.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Shiga Prefecture
          • Konan City
            • Ishibe
    Masutomi Museum specimens (Kyoto)
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
          • Kawamata
            • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
    Excalibur Mineral company specimens
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Kamaishi City
    No reference listed
    Uchida, E. (1983) Grunerite from the Shinyama ore deposit, Kamaishi mine, Japan. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 517-528.
    • Kyushu Region
      • Miyazaki Prefecture
    Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Oita Prefecture
        • Ono-gun
    Masutomi Museum specimens
    Madagascar
     
    • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
      • Betsiboka Region
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Mauritania
     
    • Inchiri Region
      • Akjoujt (Akjout; Fort Repoux)
    Denver Region Exploration Geologists Society October 6, 2008 Technical Presentation Alteration and Mineralization at the Guelb Moghrein Magnetite-Copper-Gold-Cobalt Deposit, Akjoujt, Mauritania. Michael J. Kirschbaum and Murray Hitzman. ; Mineralium Deposita (2006) 41:68-81
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Usakos
          • Sandamap North Farm 115 (Sandamab)
    Steven, N.M., Armstrong, R.A., Moore, J.M. (1993): The Sandamap Noord gold prospect, central Namibia: discovery of a new style of turbidite-hosted gold mineralization. International Geology Review 35, 840-854.
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Diahot River Valley
    Briggs, R. M. (1975). Structure, metamorphism and mineral deposits in the Diahot region, northern New Caledonia. Thesis (PhD-Geology), University of Auckland, 1975
    Norway
     
    • Nordland
      • Hemnes
        • Bleikvassli
    Rosenberg, J.L., Spry, P.G., Jacobson, C.E., and Vokes, F.M. (2000): The effects of sulfidation and oxidation during metamorphism on compositionally varied rocks adjacent to the Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-(Cu) deposit, Nordland, Norway. Mineralium Deposita 35, 714-726.
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Meldal
    Nordrum, F.S. (2002): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2001-2002. STEIN 29 (2): 4-10
      • Oppdal
        • Vinstradalen
    Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 30: 72-73
    Portugal
     
    • Vila Real District
    Nuno Bento Sousa.
        • Campeã
    Nuno Bento Sousa.
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Kostomuksha
            • Kostomuksha Fe deposit
    Kuleshevich, L.V., and Gor’kovets, V.Y. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 599-608.
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Olenegorsk
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Polyarnyy
          • Greater Eastern Litsa ore field
    Ivanyuk, G.Y., and Goryainov, P.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 670-680.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Poltár Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    • Bratislava Region
      • Pezinok Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Pretoria
    Minerals of South Africa; Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Waterberg District
          • Onverwacht
    du Plessis, G., Jonck, G.J., and Kruger, R. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 362-370.
      • Capricorn District
        • Lepele-Nkumpi Municipality
    [var: Amosite] MIYANO, T. and. BEUKES, J. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology of the Contact Metamorphosed Amphibole Asbestos-bearing Penge Iron Formation, Eastern Transvaal, South Africa.- Journal of Petrology, Vol. 38 , n° 5, pp 651–676.
        • Pietersburg greenstone belt
    du Plessis, G., Jonck, G.J., and Kruger, R. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 362-370.
      • Sekhukhune District
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 211 pp;
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Minerals of South Africa
    www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn017
    Spain
     
    • Asturias
      • Ibias
    Econ Geol (1996) 91:1292-1297
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Hedemora
    • Lappland
      • Storuman
        • Pauträsk
    correspondence w company geologist
    • Södermanland
      • Nyköping
        • Tunaberg
    • Västmanland
      • Hällefors
        • Grythyttan
    No reference listed
      • Ljusnarsberg
      • Skinnskatteberg
        • Riddarhyttan
    No reference listed
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Ross-shire; Ross & Cromarty)
    Paul Render
        • Loch Duish
    Paul Render
        • Lochalsh
          • Dornie
    Paul Render
            • Keppoch
    Paul Render
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Alushta
    Alexander I. Tischenko (1996). Minerals of the Crimea. - World of stones, 1996, #9, p.9-18.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Graham Co.
        • Aravaipa District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
          • Tip Top District
    Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 91.
    • California
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Laytonville
    Chesterman, C.W. (1966b), Mineralogy of the Laytonville quarry, Mendocino County, California, in: Geology of Northern California: California Division Mines & Geol. Bulletin 190: 506; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 395.; Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.; Robert Muir Wood (1982) The Laytonville Quarry (Mendocino County California) Exotic Block: Iron-rich Blueschist-Facies Subduction-Zone Metamorphism. Mineralogical Magazine 45:87-99.
      • San Benito Co.
        • Diablo Range
    Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.
      • Sonoma Co.
        • Coast Range
          • Cazadero
    Wood, R. W. (1979) The iron-rich blueschist facies minerals: 2. Howieite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:363-370.
    • Colorado
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Ralston Buttes District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Maine
      • Waldo Co.
        • Palermo
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vol. 1., p.178.
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    P Cristofono collection 2009
    Bozhilov, K. N. & Evans, B. W., 2001. Ferroanthophyllite in Rockport grunerite: A transmission electron microscopy study.(AmMin 86(10):1252-1260.); Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
    Palache, Charles (1950): Fayalite at Rockport, Massachusetts. (American Mineralogist 35:877-881).
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Cummington
    Harvard Museum of Natural History, no.130922
    • Michigan
      • Baraga Co.
        • Imperial Heights
    Rocks & Min.: 58:108.
    Rocks & Min.: 58:108.
        • Marquette iron range
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Dickinson Co.
        • Menominee iron range
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
          • Randville
    Rocks & Min.:58:108.
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
        • Menominee iron range
          • Crystal Falls
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
        • Greenwood
    Rocks & Min.:58:112.
        • Ishpeming
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
        • Marquette iron range
          • Champion
    Rocks & Min.:58:111 & 61:328.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
          • Humboldt Township
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
          • Ishpeming
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
          • Michigamme
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Rocks & Min.: 58:112.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Dave Maietta
          • Republic
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
        • Negaunee
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Minnesota
      • Crow Wing Co.
        • Cuyuna North Range
    USGS Prof Paper 407
    USGS Prof Paper 407
    USGS Prof Paper 407
      • St. Louis Co.
        • Mesabi Range
          • Babbitt
    Ross, Malcolm et al. (2007): The search for asbestos within the Peter Mitchell Taconite iron ore mine, near Babbitt, Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyVolume 52, Issue 1, Supplement 1, October 2008, Pages S43-S50
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 70-71
    • Missouri
      • Washington Co.
        • Sullivan
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Montana
      • Madison Co.
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
      • Park Co.
        • Crevasse District (Crevice District; Jardine District)
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:181-209
    • New Hampshire
      • Carroll Co.
        • Jackson
    www.bates.edu/acad/depts/geology/jcreasy.WM.html.
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Cianciulli, J. (2004), Grunerite now added to the Franklin-Sterling Hill mineral list, Min. News: 20(10): 1-3.
      • Alleghany Co.
        • Sparta
          • Bald Knob
    Brannock,K.G,1971,Minerals of the Spinel Group from Alleghany County,North Carolina,pg 43
      • Iredell Co.
        • Statesville
    U.S Bureau of Mines/Spatial Data from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(Mas/Mils)CD-ROM,Sep,1995
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
        • Custer District
          • Custer
            • Beecher Lode
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"; Redden, Jack Allison (1959) Beryl deposits of the Beecher No.3 Black Diamond pegmatite, Custer County, South Dakota. USGS Bulletin: 1072-
        • Unorganized District
    USGS Prof Paper 297F
      • Lawrence Co.
        • Galena District
          • Roubaix
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
        • Lead District
          • Lead
    P Haas collection
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Keystone
    Am Min 73:3-4 pp 324-337
    • Vermont
      • Rutland Co.
        • Shrewsbury
    Eby, G. N. and McHone, J. G. (1997) Plutonic and hypabyssal intrusions of the Early Cretaceous Cuttingsville Complex, Vermont.
    • Virginia
      • Albemarle Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wisconsin
    http://wisconsingeologicalsurvey.org/Mineral%20Index/Minerals/grunerite.htm Laybourn, D.P., 1979, Geology and Metamorphism of the Ironwood Iron Formation, Gogebic Range, Wi., Unpub. M.S. Thesis, U of M - Duluth, 223 p.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
        • Mt. Whittlesey
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Florence Co.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Jackson Co.
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 73 (1998)
      • Marinette Co.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Rusk Co.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index; Institute on Lake Superior Geology Proceedings, 42nd Annual Meeting, Cable, WI, v. 42, part 2, 179 p.
    • Wyoming
      • Fremont Co.
        • South Pass-Atlantic City District
          • Atlantic City
    Rocks & Minerals 76:386
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