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Grunerite

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Formula:
☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
nd
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in honor of Louis Emmanuel Gruner [May 11, 1809 Ittigen, Switzerland - March 26, 1883 Beaucaire, France], professor of chemistry at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne and later chief mining engineer of Poitiers Department following as director of the School of Mines at Saint-Etienne. He became department head of metallurgy of Ecole des Mines in Paris and held several additional posts in government mining offices. Gruner was the first to chemically analyze the mineral which now bears his name.

Classification of Grunerite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.DE.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
14.21.8

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg
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First Recorded Occurrence of Grunerite

Physical Properties of Grunerite

Vitreous
Colour:
nd
Streak:
nd
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6

Crystallography of Grunerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Grunerite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.663 - 1.686 nβ = 1.680 - 1.709 nγ = 1.696 - 1.729
2V:
Measured: 90° to 70°, Calculated: 84° to 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.033 - 0.043
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Grunerite

Formula:
☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Grunerite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Anthophyllite Root Name☐{X2}{Z5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Gedrite Root Name☐{X22+}{Z32+Z23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Proto-ferro-suenoite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite{Na}{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Sodic-ferrogedrite{Na}{Fe22+}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
Sodicanthophyllite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Sodicgedrite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe23+Li}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNaCaNaFe42+(Fe3+)[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe2+,4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe32+Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe32+,Mg)Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe22+Fe23+Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn23+LiTi4+}Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.21.1Olivine(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.2Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.3Wadsleyite(Mg,Fe2+)2(SiO4)
14.21.4ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
14.21.5Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.6Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite
14.21.9Minnesotaite(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
14.21.10Chesterite(Mg,Fe)17Si20O54(OH)6
14.21.11Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.13MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
14.21.14Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40

Other Names for Grunerite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Grunerit
Simplified Chinese:铁闪石
Spanish:Grunerita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Grunerite

Reference List:
Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Mineralogical Society of America, Special Paper: 2: 95-100.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Angel, R.J., and Carpenter, M.A. (2000), High-pressure transformation behaviour of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 1195-1213.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., and Domeneghetti, M.C. (2001) Phase transition and mixing behavior of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 87-101.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist:
44(1): 1-21.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

Internet Links for Grunerite

Localities for Grunerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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