Mindat Logo

Halite

This page kindly sponsored by George Frederick Huggins



Formula:
NaCl
System:IsometricColour:Colourless, whitish, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:
Name:From the Greek άλς, sea, for halites, later modified by J.D. Dana to halite.


Halite Group

Natural Salt. Occurs both as evaporite deposits in saline lakes and water courses, or as bedded sedimentary deposits, or as salt domes.

Classification of Halite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.02-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.AA.20

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
A : M:X = 1:1, 2:3, 3:5, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:9.1.1.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
1 : AX
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.1.3

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
1 : Halides of the alkali metals and ammonium
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1804.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Halite

Geological Setting:Sedimentary evaporite deposits

Physical Properties of Halite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, whitish, yellow, red, purple or blue
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {001}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.168 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.165 g/cm3

Crystallography of Halite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 5.6404(1) Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 179.44 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Normally cubic, rarely octahedral. Crystal faces often cavernous and stepped (hopper crystals). Massive. Coarsely granular to compact; columnar, stalactitic or capillary forms rare.
Twinning:On {111} (artificial crystals).
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Halite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
Structure
  Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York rocksalt structure. Crystal Structures 1:85-237.

Show
Unit Cell | Structure | Polyhedra

Style
Black Background | White Background

Rotation
Stop | Start

Labels
Label Atoms | Off

More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database

Optical Data of Halite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.5443
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:Moderately strong
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:The pleochroism id sometimes developed in coloured material after being subjected to pressure.
Comments:Weakly anisotropic due to stress.

Chemical Properties of Halite

Formula:
NaCl
Essential elements:Cl, Na
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Na
Common Impurities:I,Br,Fe,O

Relationship of Halite to other Species

Common Associates:
SylvitePolyhaliteKieseriteKainiteGypsum
ClayCarnalliteAnhydrite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.AA.05Marshite
CuI
3.AA.05Miersite
(Ag,Cu)I
3.AA.05Nantokite
CuCl
3.AA.05UM1999-11:I:CuS
Cu(I,S)
3.AA.10Iodargyrite
AgI
3.AA.10Tocornalite
(Ag,Hg)I
3.AA.15Bromargyrite
AgBr
3.AA.15Chlorargyrite
AgCl
3.AA.20Carobbiite
KF
3.AA.20Griceite
LiF
3.AA.20Sylvite
KCl
3.AA.20Villiaumite
NaF
3.AA.25Salammoniac
NH
 
4
Cl
3.AA.25UM1998-03-Cl:Tl
TlCl
3.AA.25Lafossaite
Tl(Cl,Br)
3.AA.30Calomel
(Hg
2+
2
)Cl
 
2
3.AA.30Kuzminite
(Hg
2+
2
)(Br,Cl)
 
2
3.AA.30Moschelite
(Hg
2+
2
)I
 
2
3.AA.35Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
3.AA.40Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
3.AA.45Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
3.AA.50Radhakrishnaite
PbTe
 
3
(Cl,S)
 
2
3.AA.55Challacolloite
KPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
3.AA.60Hephaistosite
TlPb
 
2
Cl
 
5
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.1.1Griceite
LiF
8.1.2Villiaumite
NaF
8.1.4Hydrohalite
NaCl · 2H
 
2
O
8.1.5Carobbiite
KF
8.1.6Sylvite
KCl
8.1.7Salammoniac
NH
 
4
Cl

Other Names for Halite

Synonyms:
β-HaliteCommon SaltHalitesMartinsite (of Karsten)Muriate of Soda
NatrikaliteRock SaltSaltSaltspar
Other Languages:
Basque:Halita
Catalan:Halita
Czech:Halit
Dutch:Haliet
Estonian:Haliit
French:Halite
Chlorure de sodium
Sal Mare
Sel gemme
Soude muriatée
German:Halit
Alit
Bergsalz
b-Halit
Knistersalz
Kochsalz
Steinsalz
Hebrew:הליט
Italian:Halite
Alite
Salgemma
Japanese:岩塩
Lithuanian:Halitas
Low Saxon:Halit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Halitt
Polish:Halit
Portuguese:Halita
Romanian:Sare gemă
Russian:Галит
Simplified Chinese:石盐
岩盐
Slovak:Halit
Spanish:Halita
Alita
Sal gema
Sal marina
Telugu:రాతి ఉప్పు
Traditional Chinese:石鹽
Ukrainian:Галіт
Varieties:
Huantajayite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Red (SW UV)[Searles Lake, CA]. Orange (SW) [Poland]
Thermal Behaviour:Melts at 804°.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Salar del Hombre Muerto, Antofagasta de la Sierra Department, Catamarca, ArgentinaYes, specimens must be preserved from wet air, and storaged in closed boxes.
Health Warning:Licking or ingesting raw halite in the "wild" could cause health problems due to unidentified admixed substances (such as alkaline compounds).
Industrial Uses:Edible salt, chlorine production

References for Halite

Reference List:

- +
Karsten (1845), Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 36: 127 (as Martinsite).

Adam, M. (1869) Tableau minéralogique, Paris (as Natrikalite).

Dana (1868), System of Mineralogy, 5th. ed.: 112.

Exner (1873), Härte an Krystallflächen, Wien.

Raimondi (1876), in: Domeyko, Min. Chili, 5th. Appendix (as Huantajayite).

Cesàro (1888), Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Memoir: 15: 204.

Brauns (1889), Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 1: 113.

Bragg (1914), Royal Society of London, Proceedings: 9A: 468.

Straumanis and Ievins (1914) Zeitschrift für Physik, Brunswick, Berlin: 109: 468.

Tertsch (1932), Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 264.

Paniche (1933), Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 4: 25 (as β-halite).

Murzaev (1941), Ac.sc. Leningrad Comptes rendus (Doklady): 33: 306 (as Saltspar).

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 4-7.

Panichi U. – (1933) Sul dimorfismo del salgemma e della silvite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 25-33.

Hunt, G.R., J.W. Salisbury, and C.J. Lenhoff (1972), Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks: V. Halides, phosphates, arsenates, vanadates and borates. Modern Geology, v. 3, p. 121-132.

Basso R., Della Giusta A., Isetti G. (1977) - Anomalie ottiche in cristalli di salgemma. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 91-98.

Janz, G.J. (1980) Molten-salts data as reference-standards for density, surface-tension viscosity and electrical conductance - KNO3 and NaCl. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data: 9: 791-829.

Best Localities for Halite

Best of Species:Halite

Internet Links for Halite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Halite on Google
  • Look for Halite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Halite on Webmineral
  • Look for Halite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Halite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Halite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Halite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Find Halite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Specimens:The following Halite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Halite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: December 9, 2014 00:47:43
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds