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Hambergite

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Formula:
Be2(BO3)(OH)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, greyish, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1890 by Waldemar Christofer Brøgger in honor of Axel Hamberg [January 17, 1863 Klara Församling, Stockholm, Sweden - June 28, 1933 Stockholm, Sweden], professor of geography at the University of Uppsala, Sweden, who drew attention to the first specimens.
A pegmatite mineral often occurring with beryl.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hambergite.

Classification of Hambergite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
6.AB.05

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
25.1.1.1

25 : ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : Monoborates
9.2.1

9 : Borates
2 : Borates of Be and Mg
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1811.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Hambergite

Year of Discovery:
1890
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Syenite pegmatite

Occurrences of Hambergite

Geological Setting:
Alkali-rich pegmatites (Madagascar); gem gravels (Kashmir).

Physical Properties of Hambergite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, greyish, yellowish; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}; on {100} good.
Density:
2.347 - 2.372 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.365 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hambergite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbca
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.71Å, b = 12.2Å, c = 4.42Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.796 : 1 : 0.362
Unit Cell Volume:
V 523.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001], frequently flattened {100}. {100} striated [001] with dull and etched terminal faces (large crystals).
Twinning:
Twin and composition plane {110}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hambergite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.554 - 1.560 nβ = 1.587 - 1.591 nγ = 1.628 - 1.631
2V:
Calculated: 87°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.074
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak r > v

Chemical Properties of Hambergite

Formula:
Be2(BO3)(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hambergite to other Species

Common Associates:
6.AB.10BerboriteBe2(BO3)(OH,F) · H2O
6.AB.15JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
6.AB.20Warwickite(Mg,Fe2+)3Ti(BO3)2O2
6.AB.20YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Fe2+,Al,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O
6.AB.25KarliteMg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5
6.AB.30Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.30FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30LudwigiteMg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.30VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.35Pinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Blatterite(Mn2+,Mg)2(Mn3+,Sb3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.40ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Takéuchiite(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Hulsite(Fe2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Sn,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.50FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
6.AB.50HydroxylboriteMg3(BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.55ShabyniteMg5(BO3)(OH)5(Cl,OH)2 · 4H2O
6.AB.55WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2O
6.AB.60GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
6.AB.65SakhaiteCa12Mg4(BO3)7(CO3)4(OH)2Cl
6.AB.70HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)Mg2(BO3)(F,OH)
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)Mg2(BO3)(OH)
6.AB.80JacquesdietrichiteCu2(H2BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.85PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
9.2.2SuaniteMg2[B2O5]
9.2.3KotoiteMg3[BO3]2
9.2.4SzaibélyiteMgBO2(OH)
9.2.5PreobrazhenskiteMg3B11O15(OH)9
9.2.6AksaiteMg[B6O7(OH)6] · 2H2O
9.2.7WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2O
9.2.8PinnoiteMg[B2O(OH)6]
9.2.9KurnakoviteMgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
9.2.10HalurgiteMg2[B4O7]2 · 5H2O
9.2.11InderiteMgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
9.2.12HungchaoiteMg(B4O7) · 9H2O
9.2.13AdmontiteMg[B6O7(OH)6] · 4H2O
9.2.14McallisteriteMg2[B6O7(OH)6]2 · 9H2O
9.2.15RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
9.2.16KaliboriteKMg2H[B6O8(OH)5]2(H2O)4
9.2.17IquiqueiteK3Na4Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH) · 12H2O

Other Names for Hambergite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Hambergit
Simplified Chinese:硼铍石
Spanish:Hambergita
Traditional Chinese:硼鈹石

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in HF.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hambergite

Reference List:
Bäckström (1890) Bihang KVAH Bd. 15:2, pp.23-24.

Bröger (1890) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 16: 65.

Lacroix (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 320.

Goldschmidt and Müller (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 48: 473.

Lacroix (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 49 (analysis by Pisani).

Müller (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 48: 473.

Drugman and Goldschmidt (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 596.

Burton (1913) Records of the Geological Survey of India: 43: 168.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 4: 106.

Zachariasen (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 76: 289.

Payne (1939) Gemmologist, London: 9: 33.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 370-372.

Switzer, G.S., Clarke, R.S., Sinkankas, J., and Worthing, H.W. (1965): Fluorine in hambergite. American Mineralogist: 50: 85-95.

Canadian Mineralogist (1995): 33: 1205-1213.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 275.

Internet Links for Hambergite

Specimens:
The following Hambergite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hambergite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Nuristan Province (Nurestan Province; Nooristan Province; Nuristan)
    • Kamdesh District
Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
Argentina
 
  • Salta
    • Nevados de Palermo
Galliski, M. A. (1983). Distrito minero El Quemado, Deptos. La Poma y Cachi, provincia de Salta. II. Geología de sus pegmatitas. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argentina, 38, 340-380.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah district
      • Waratah
Bottrill
Burma (Myanmar)
 
  • Shan State
    • Kyaukme District
Van King
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
          • Khetchel village (Cache village; Khat Che village)
Andreas Ertl, John M. Hughes, Stefan Prowatke, Thomas Ludwig, Franz Brandstätter, Wilfried Körner, and M. Darby Dyar (2007): Tetrahedrally coordinated boron in Li-bearing olenite from “mushroom” tourmaline from Momeik, Myanmar. Can. Mineral. 45, 891-899.
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • O'Grady Lake area
CanMin 41:117-137
China
 
  • Hunan Province
    • Chenzhou Prefecture
      • Linwu Co.
        • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
Huang et al. (1988): Hsianghualing rocks, mineral deposits and minerals. Beijing Sci. Techn. Publ. Bur. (Beijing), 255 pp.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • South Bohemia Region
      • České Budějovice (Budweis)
Welser, P.: Minerály pegmatitů a alpské parageneze z Rudolfova u Českých Budějovic. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2002, roč. 10, s. 293-297.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Znojmo (Znaim)
Cech (1961) Occurrence of stokesite in Czechoslovakia. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 673-675.
    • Vysočina Region
      • Třebíč
Škoda, R., Novák, M., Houzar, S.: Granitické NYF pegmatity třebíčského plutonu. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 2006, roč. 91, s. 129 - 176.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
Gramaccioli C.M., Pilati T. (1977) - Hambergite dell'Elba. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 5-9 and Mineralogical Record, 16 (5), 353-363.
Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, F. (1997). Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 249 pp.
Pezzotta, F., & Guastoni, A. (2007). Hambergite, helvite e pirofanite nelle pegmatiti elbane. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2007, 166-168.
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Betafo District
        • Ambohimanambola Commune
Lacroix, A. (1909): Sur la hambergite de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris. 32, 320-324; Wilson, W.E. (1989) The Anjanabonoina pegmatite, Madagascar. Mineralogical Record 20: 191-200 Min. Record 20 (1989), p 191-200/
        • Andrembesoa Commune
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 338-39 ; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 371.
Gratacap, L. P. (1916): Some minerals from Madagascar as described in prof. A Lacroix's Mineralogie de France et ses colonies. American Mineralogist, 1: 17-34
      • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
        • Manandona Valley
Extra Lapis nr 17. Madagascar p 54 (german edition); Nizamoff, J.W. et al.(2000): Recent mining at the Antandrokomby pegmatite, Madagascar. 26th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium. Rocks & Minerals, july 2000
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
De Ascenção Guedes, R., Lebocey, J., Bayle, L.-D. & Chappero, P.-J. (2011): Munich 2011. Le Règne Minerál. 102, 10-29 [p. 22 + 29]
Larsen, K. E. (2003): Mineralene i Sahatany pegmatittfelt, Madagaskar. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift. 25, 5-18(in norwegian)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 371; Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive
Pezzotta, F. (2011): Neufunde in Madagascar-Edle Liddicoatite in Spitzenqualität. ExtraLapis 41, 66-71
Spirifer minerals (local dealer in Antsirabe information).
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Mandrosonoro Commune
          • Ambatovita
Pezzotta, F. (2005): Pezzottaite. Ad Ambatovita in Madagascar una scoperta tra avventura e scienza. Rivista Mineralogical Italiana. 30 (2): 88-103
      • Ambositra District
        • Sahatsiho-Ambohimanjaka Commune
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-4311
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
Nepal
 
  • Kosi Zone (Koshi Zone)
    • Sankhuwasabha District (Sankhuwa Sahba; Shankuwa-Sava)
Natural History Museum Vienna collection ; Robinson, G. W. & King, V. T. (1993): What’s New in Minerals ? Annual world summary of mineral discoveries covering april 1992 trough april 1993. Mineralogical Record 24: 393
  • Mechi Zone
Krishna P. Kaphle, Himalayan gemstones and their prospects in Nepal, 2011, http://kpkaphle.blogspot.com.es/2011/11/himalayan-gemstones-and-their-prospects.html
  • Seti Zone
    • Bajhang District
      • Chainpur
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.134
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
        • Kokkersvold E18 roadcuts
Raade, G., Åmli, R., Mladeck, H., Din. V. K., Larsen, A.O. & Åsheim, A. (1983): Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralogist. 68: 628-633
        • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
        • Slevolden
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
Ingulv Burvald specimen & photo
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Siktesøya
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
      • Mørje
Knut Edvard Larsen collection.
        • Sagåsen
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.
        • Helgeroa
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16. p. 67; Bäckström (1890) Bihang KVAH Bd. 15:2, pp.23-24; Neumann (1985) p. 104.
Uwe Kolitsch (single-crystal XRD)
      • Malerød
Andresen, P. (2011): Mineralene fra Midtfjellet larvikittbrudd, Malerød, Larvik. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 41-47
      • Stavern (Fredriksvärn)
A. O. Larsen (1989).; Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
      • Tjølling
        • Klåstad
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 104)./ Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
        • Stålaker
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
      • Tvedalen
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
Frode Andersen, find 1990
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
Åmli, R. and Griffin, W.L. (1972): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway, No 47. Three minerals new to Norway: Wickmannite, Leadhillite and Hydrocerussite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 52: 192-196; Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
Collection of Peter Andresen.
Nordrum, F.S. (2001): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2000-2001. STEIN 28 (2): 13- 19
Collection of Knut Edvard Larsen / Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26.
Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M. (2005): Neotocite and hisingerite from nepheline syenite pegmatites in the Larvik plutonic complex, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30:68-71
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 104.
Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Collection of OT Ljøstad.
K. Eldjarn, 1983. + Åsheim, A. (1994): Hamberg(itt). STEIN 21 (2), 117-119
Pakistan
 
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Astor District (Astore District)
      • Astor valley (Astore valley)
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
        • Haramosh Mts.
Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Luiz Menezes dealer collection
Collection of NHM, Vienna
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 36, Part 1, 1998, pp. 1-47.
Portugal
 
  • Viseu District
    • Sátão
      • Ferreira de Aves
        • Aldeia Nova
Pedro Alves collection
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
A.M. Portnov data
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
        • Krasnyi Chikoy
Rainer Thomas, Paul Davidson and Elena Badanina (2010) Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia. Minerals 2012, 2, 435-458.
[MinRec 32:44]
International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-06 The Sosedka gem tourmaline-rich mine: Emplacement of extremely chemically heterogeneous pegmatite-forming medium; Zagorsky, V. Y. (2012). Mineralogy of pockets of the Malkhan tourmaline deposit (< i> Transbaikalia): feldspars of the Sosedka vein. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 53(6), 522-534
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Ladoga Region
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Aleksandrov, S. M., & Troneva, M. A. (2009). Composition and genesis of endogenous borates from the Pitkáranta ore field, Karelia. Geochemistry International, 47(9), 914-929.
P.Kartashov data; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
    • Pamir Mts
      • Khorog Region
        • Shakhdara Range
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Rangkul' Highlands
[AmMin 85:1561]; Niedermayr, G. Lyckberg, P. & Jahn, S. (2011): Mineralientage Munchen 2010. Mineralien Welt. 22 (1): 10-31 (p. 14)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Zagorsky, V. Y., Makagon, V. M., & Shmakin, B. M. (1999). Systematics of granitic pegmatites. Can. Mineral, 37(3), 800-802.
Niedermayr, G. Lyckberg, P. & Jahn, S. (2011): Mineralientage Munchen 2010. Mineralien Welt. 22 (1): 10-31 (p. 14)
P,M. Kartashov data; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
USA
 
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Jurupa Mts
        • Jurupa
Mineralogical Record: 15: 273-290.
    • San Diego Co.
      • Mesa Grande District
        • Gem Hill
Fisher, J., E. E. Foord, and G. A. Bricker, 1999. The geology, mineralogy, and history of the Himalaya mine, Mesa Grande, San Diego County, California. California Geology 52(1):3-18.; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
      • Ramona District
        • Ramona
Foord, Eugene E. et al (1989), Mineralogy and Paragenesis of the Little Three Mine Pegmatites, Ramona District, San Diego County, California. Mineralogical Record, 20(2): p. 123.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Gillis Range
Mineralogical Record: 30: 277-292.
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
      • Fern
Falster, A. , W.B. Simmons & P.B. Moore (1996) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Animikie Red Ace pegmatite in Florence County, Wisconsin: Recent Research Developments in Mineralogy: 1: 7-67.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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