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Hanksite

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Formula:
Na
 
22
K(SO
 
4
)
 
9
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
System:HexagonalColour:Colourless to grey, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, DullHardness:3 - 3½
Name:Honors Henry Garber Hanks (1826-1907) for service as first state mineralogist of California.
This page provides mineralogical data about Hanksite.

Classification of Hanksite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.14-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BD.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:32.3.1.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
3 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.2.2

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Hanksite

Type Locality:Searles Lake, San Bernardino Co., California, USA
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC 81217
Year of Discovery:1885
Geological Setting of type material:Lacustrine evaporite deposit.

Occurrences of Hanksite

Geological Setting:Lacustrine evaporite deposits.

Physical Properties of Hanksite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to grey, yellow or almost black; colourless in transmitted light..
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {0001}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.562 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.585 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hanksite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/m
Cell Parameters:a = 10.465(21) Å, c = 21.191(43) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.025
Unit Cell Volume:V 2,009.84 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Large, short prismatic [0001] to tabular {0001} crystals to 20cm.; also as quartzoids with large {10_12}; {10_10} striated horizontally; crystals frequently in interpenetrating groups.
Crystal Atlas:
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Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}, {223}
Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hanksite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.481 nε = 1.461
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.020

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Hanksite

Formula:
Na
 
22
K(SO
 
4
)
 
9
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Essential elements:C, Cl, K, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:C, Cl, K, Na, O, S

Relationship of Hanksite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BD.05Sulphohalite
Na
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
FCl
7.BD.05Sulfohalite
7.BD.10Galeite
Na
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
F
 
4
Cl
7.BD.10Schairerite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(F,Cl)
7.BD.15Kogarkoite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F
7.BD.20Caracolite
Na
 
3
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
7.BD.20Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
7.BD.20Aiolosite
Na
 
4
Bi(SO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
7.BD.25Burkeite
Na
 
6
(CO
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.BD.35Cannonite
Bi
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
7.BD.40Lanarkite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
7.BD.45Grandreefite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)F
 
2
7.BD.50Itoite
Pb
 
3
Ge
4+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
7.BD.55Chiluite
Bi
 
3
Te
6+
 
Mo
6+
 
O
 
10.5
7.BD.60Hectorfloresite
Na
 
9
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(IO
 
3
)
7.BD.65Pseudograndreefite
Pb
 
6
(SO
 
4
)F
 
10
7.BD.70Sundiusite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
8
Cl
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.2.1Burkeite
Na
 
6
(CO
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
12.2.3Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.4Motukoreaite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
12.2.5Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.6Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
12.2.7Carbonatecyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
12.2.8Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
12.2.9Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
12.2.10Schulenbergite
(Cu,Zn)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
12.2.11Leadhillite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.12Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.13Susannite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.14Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
12.2.15Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
12.2.16Nasledovite
PbMn
 
3
Al
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
12.2.17Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
12.2.18Schröckingerite
NaCa
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F · 10H
 
2
O
12.2.19Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.20Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
12.2.21Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite
[(Ni
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.23Mountkeithite
[(Mg
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.24Camerolaite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(HSbO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Hanksite

Synonyms:
Other Languages:
Dutch:Hanksiet
German:Hanksit
Italian:Hanksite
Russian:Ганксит
Simplified Chinese:碳钾钠矾
碳酸芒硝
Spanish:Hanksita
Traditional Chinese:碳鉀鈉礬

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Pale yellow under LW UV
Other Information:Readily soluble in water. Saline taste.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hanksite

Reference List:

- +
Dana and Penfield (1885) American Journal of Science: 30: 136.

Hidden, W.E. (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphato-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California, New York Acad. Sci. Annals, vol. 3: 238-241 [also American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 30: 133-135, 1885; Mining & Scientific Press: 50: 1, 1885.

Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 123: 1325.

Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 123-135; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897).

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 4: 109.

Koch (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 80: 416.

Ramsdell (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 109.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 628-629.

Carnahan, V. (1962), Hanksite: Mineralogist: 30: 4-9.

Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1973), The crystal structure of hanksite: American Mineralogist: 58: 799-801.

Acta Crystallographica: B28: 3614-3617.

Internet Links for Hanksite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Hanksite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Hanksite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Hanksite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hanksite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Specimens:The following Hanksite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Hanksite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Neuquén
      • Copahue
        • Copahue Geothermal Field
    Mineral. Mag. 71 (2007) 235-240.
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
    Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 629; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols.
      • Mono Co.
    Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
    Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 283.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    American Journal of Science (1885), ser. 3, 30, 133-135; Hidden, William Earl (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphate-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California: New York Academy of Science Annals: 3: 230-241; Hanks, Henry Garber (1889), On the occurrence of hanksite in California: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 16-18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
    Arliguie M collection
      • San Luis Obispo Co.
        • Carrizo Plain
    Collection of NHM, Vienna
          • Soda Lake area
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Soda Lake District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
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