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Hanksite

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Formula:
Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Colourless to grey, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Name:
Honors Henry Garber Hanks (1826-1907) for service as first state mineralogist of California.
This page provides mineralogical data about Hanksite.

Classification of Hanksite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.BD.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
32.3.1.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
3 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
12.2.2

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Hanksite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC 81217
Year of Discovery:
1885
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Lacustrine evaporite deposit.

Occurrences of Hanksite

Geological Setting:
Lacustrine evaporite deposits.

Physical Properties of Hanksite

Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to grey, yellow or almost black; colourless in transmitted light..
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {0001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.562 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.585 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hanksite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.465(21) Å, c = 21.191(43) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.025
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2,009.84 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Large, short prismatic [0001] to tabular {0001} crystals to 20cm.; also as quartzoids with large {10_12}; {10_10} striated horizontally; crystals frequently in interpenetrating groups.

Crystallographic forms of Hanksite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}, {223}
Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hanksite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.481 nε = 1.461
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of Hanksite

Formula:
Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hanksite to other Species

7.BD.05SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
7.BD.05Sulfohalite
7.BD.10GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
7.BD.10SchaireriteNa3(SO4)(F,Cl)
7.BD.15KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
7.BD.20CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
7.BD.20CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)
7.BD.20AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3Cl
7.BD.25BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
7.BD.35CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2
7.BD.40LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
7.BD.45GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2
7.BD.50ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2
7.BD.55ChiluiteBi3Te6+Mo6+O10.5
7.BD.60HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)
7.BD.65PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10
7.BD.70SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2
12.2.1BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2O
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2O
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2O
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.13SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.20HauckiteFe33+(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFex3+)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.24CamerolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)

Other Names for Hanksite

Name in Other Languages:
Dutch:Hanksiet
German:Hanksit
Italian:Hanksite
Simplified Chinese:碳钾钠矾
碳酸芒硝
Spanish:Hanksita
Traditional Chinese:碳鉀鈉礬

Other Information

Pale yellow under LW UV
Other Information:
Readily soluble in water. Saline taste.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hanksite

Reference List:
Dana and Penfield (1885) American Journal of Science: 30: 136.

Hidden, W.E. (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphato-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California, New York Acad. Sci. Annals, vol. 3: 238-241 [also American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 30: 133-135, 1885; Mining & Scientific Press: 50: 1, 1885.

Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 123: 1325.

Pratt, Joseph Hyde (1896), On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 123-135; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897).

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 4: 109.

Koch (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 80: 416.

Ramsdell (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 109.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 628-629.

Carnahan, V. (1962), Hanksite: Mineralogist: 30: 4-9.

Araki, T. & T. Zoltai (1973), The crystal structure of hanksite: American Mineralogist: 58: 799-801.

Acta Crystallographica: B28: 3614-3617.

Internet Links for Hanksite

Specimens:
The following Hanksite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hanksite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Neuquén
    • Ñorquín department
      • Copahue
        • Copahue Geothermal Field
Mineral. Mag. 71 (2007) 235-240.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 629; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols.
    • Mono Co.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 283.
    • San Bernardino Co.
American Journal of Science (1885), ser. 3, 30, 133-135; Hidden, William Earl (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphate-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California: New York Academy of Science Annals: 3: 230-241; Hanks, Henry Garber (1889), On the occurrence of hanksite in California: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 16-18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
Arliguie M collection
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Carrizo Plain
Collection of NHM, Vienna
        • Soda Lake area
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Soda Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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