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Hardystonite

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Formula:
Ca2Zn(Si2O7)
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
light brownish white, ...
Hardness:
3 - 4
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1899 by John E. Wolff after Hardyston Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, USA, locality of the Franklin orebody prior to incorporation of Franklin Borough in 1913. Hardyston Township surrounds the borough of Franklin today.
In daylight, natural hardystonite is a very non-descript massive ashen white mineral distinguished from massive calcite by a lack of cleavage and a somewhat greasy luster. (Note: Many photographers over-expose images of hardystonite to accentuate the blue fluorescent brightness. Such photos are often called "eBay blue", because deceptive sellers wish to increase their sales, but disappointed buyers feel cheated because the actual fluorescence of hardystonite is fairly dim compared with associated species such as calcite, willemite, or esperite.)

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hardystonite.

Classification of Hardystonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.BB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination
55.4.2.2

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
14.7.14

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
7 : Silicates of Ba, Sr and Zn
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First Recorded Occurrence of Hardystonite

Year of Discovery:
1899
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Occurs in a metamorphosed zinc-manganese-iron silicate-oxide orebody.

Physical Properties of Hardystonite

Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
light brownish white, pale greyish-white, whitish, very pale pinkish
Streak:
white
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 4
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good

Crystallography of Hardystonite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.8287(16) Å, c = 5.0140(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.64
Unit Cell Volume:
V 307.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Large, rough crystals rare embedded in calcite or other matrix.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hardystonite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.672 nε = 1.661
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of Hardystonite

Formula:
Ca2Zn(Si2O7)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Often replaced by, or being replaced by esperite. The latter condition very apparent under UV light as whisps and veils of esperite invading the hardystonite.
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Mn,Pb,Mg,Na

Relationship of Hardystonite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)
Ferri-gehleniteCa2Fe3+AlSiO7
GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)
OkayamaliteCa2B(BSiO7)
9.BB.10ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
9.BB.10CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
9.BB.10GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
9.BB.10GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)
9.BB.10Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)(Si2O7,HSi2O7)
9.BB.10OkayamaliteCa2B(BSiO7)
9.BB.10Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)
9.BB.15BaryliteBe2Ba(Si2O7)
9.BB.15Barylite-1OBe2Ba(Si2O7)
9.BB.20AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
14.7.1SanborniteBa2(Si4O10)
14.7.2KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2O
14.7.3WalstromiteBaCa2(Si3O9)
14.7.4MacdonalditeBaCa4Si16O36(OH)2 · 10H2O
14.7.5EricssoniteBaMn22+Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)
14.7.6Ericssonite-2OBaMn22+Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)
14.7.7GillespiteBaFe2+[Si4O10]
14.7.8AndrémeyeriteBaFe22+(Si2O7)
14.7.9PellyiteBa2Ca(Fe,Mg)2Si6O17
14.7.10TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
14.7.11WillemiteZn2SiO4
14.7.12HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
14.7.13ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
14.7.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
14.7.16ClinohedriteCaZn(SiO4) · H2O
14.7.17JunitoiteCaZn2Si2O7 · H2O
14.7.18LarsenitePbZnSiO4
14.7.19EsperitePbCa2Zn3(SiO4)3
14.7.20HodgkinsoniteMn2+Zn2(SiO4)(OH)2
14.7.21GerstmanniteMnMgZn(SiO4)(OH)2
14.7.22GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
14.7.23FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn32+Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8

Other Names for Hardystonite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:锌黄长石
Spanish:Hardystonita

Other Information

Dull persistent purple to blue (SW UV); blue (LW UV).
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None

References for Hardystonite

Reference List:
Palache, C. (1935), USGS PP 180: 94.

Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Pt3: 411-412.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 130: 427-437.

Internet Links for Hardystonite

Localities for Hardystonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
        • Poličany
          • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
Germany
 
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
Elmar Lackner collection
Besteman, Andre, et al, Hettstedt-smelter slag-dumps, Mansfeld Basin, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, The Strahlen Foundation.
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Katowice
      • Świętochłowice
Puziewicz, J., Zainoun, K. and Bril, H. (2007): Primary phases in pyrometallurgical slags from a zinc-smelting waste dump, Świętochłowice, Upper Silesia, Poland. Can. Mineral. 45, 1189-1200.
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bear Valley Mining District
Verbeek, Earl R. and Van Fleet, James, 2014, Hardystonite from the Desert View Mine, California: The Picking Table, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 15-17.
  • Illinois
    • Vermilion Co.
      • Danville
        • Hegeler
Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):94; Dunn(1995):Pt3:411-412.
Van King
Christopher O'Neill
Van King; Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Weissman purchased specimen
Mineral and/or Locality  
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