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Hausmannite

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Formula:
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
System:TetragonalColour:Brown-black
Hardness:
Name:Named by Wilhelm Haidinger in in 1827 in honor of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann (1782-1859), Professor of Mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany.
This page provides mineralogical data about Hausmannite.

Classification of Hausmannite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/B.05-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.BB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:7.2.7.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.18.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Hausmannite

Type Locality:Oehrenstock (Öhrenstock), Langewiesen, Ilmenau District, Thuringian Forest, Thuringia, Germany
Year of Discovery:1813

Physical Properties of Hausmannite

Lustre:Sub-Metallic
Colour:Brown-black
Streak:Dark brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Very Good
{001} nearly perfect; {112} and {011} indistinct.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.83 - 4.85 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.84 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hausmannite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:I41/amd
Cell Parameters:a = 5.76Å, c = 9.46Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.642
Unit Cell Volume:V 313.86 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Pseudo-octahedral {001}; {013} usually smooth and bright, {011} often dull and striated parallel to [100]. Massive, granular.
Twinning:Twin plane {112}, often repeated as fivelings; also lamellar.
Crystal Atlas:
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Hausmannite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hausmannite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hausmannite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Hausmannite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
Epitaxi Comments:Oriented intergrowths.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.924 (30)
3.089 (40)
2.768 (85)
2.487 (100)
1.7988 (25)
1.5762 (25)
1.5443 (50)

Optical Data of Hausmannite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Colour in reflected light:Grey-white
Internal Reflections:Deep blood-red to red-brown
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:O = light grey=white; E = dark grey-white
Comments:Lamellar twinning in polished sections often visible.

Chemical Properties of Hausmannite

Formula:
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:MnMn2O4
Essential elements:Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:Mn, O
Common Impurities:Zn,Fe,Ca,Ba,Mg

Relationship of Hausmannite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.BB.05Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Galaxite
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
4.BB.05Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
4.BB.05Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
4.BB.10Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.15Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,◻)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.20Tegengrenite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Sb
5+
0.5
(Mn
3+
 
,Si,Ti)
 
0.5
O
 
4
4.BB.25Xieite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.18.1Manganosite
MnO
7.18.3Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
7.18.4Ramsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.5Akhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.6Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.7Manganite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.8Groutite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
7.18.10Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
7.18.11Birnessite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
7.18.12Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.18.13Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Hausmannite

Synonyms:
ArseniodialytiteBlack ManganeseManganèse oxydé hydratéManganèse oxydé noir brunâtrePyramidales Mangan-Erz
Pyramidal Manganese OreSchwarzer BraunsteinSchwarz-Manganerz
Other Languages:
French:L'oxyde rouge de manganèse
German:Arseniodialytit
Blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein
Gewässertes Manganperoxydul
Glanzbraunstein
Hausmannit
Scharfmanganerz
Russian:Гаусманнит
Simplified Chinese:黑锰矿
Spanish:Arseniodialytita
Hausmannita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hausmannite

Reference List:

- +
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813): Blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein.- Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 1, p. 293. Göttingen.

Haidnger, W. (1827), Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions: 11: 127.

Haidinger, W. (1828), Mineralogische Beschreibung der Manganerze. I. Prismatoïdisches Manganerz, Manganit. II. Pyramidales Manganerz, Hausmannit. III. Untheilbares Manganerz, Psilomelan. IV. Brachytypes Manganerz, Braunit. V. Prismatisches Manganerz, Pyrolusit: Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 14: 197-211.

Rammelsberg (1865), Ann. Phys.: 124: 521.

Flink (1888), Ak Stockholm, Bh.: 12(7): 40.

Koechlin (1908), Min. Mitt.: 27: 262.

Miser and Fairchild (1920), Washington Academy of Science Journal: 10: 1.

Krüll (1932), Chem. Erde: 7: 473.

Aminoff (1936), Zs. Kr.: 64: 475.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 707, 712-715.

Mineralogy and Petrology: 37: 15-23.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1974): 375.

Internet Links for Hausmannite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hausmannite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Hausmannite

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