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Hedenbergite

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Formula:
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:brownish green, black
Hardness:5½ - 6½
Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group
Name:Named in 1819 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in honor of Mr. Anders Ludvig (Ludwig) Hedenberg [1781 Sweden - 1809 Sweden], formerly a clerk associated with Mountain College, and later chemistry student and co-worker with Berzelius and who first found it at Mormorgruvan, Tunaberg, Sweden and published a description of the mineral. Later Berzelius (in 1819) named the mineral and described it. Hedenberg and Berzelius attempted to make compounds involving nitrogen and sulfur. {N.B. The first initial commonly attributed to Anders Ludvig Hedenberg's name signifies the title "Mister" and not to a given name.}

Classification of Hedenbergite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.01-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DA.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
Dana 8th edition ID:65.1.3a.2

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.22.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca
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Type Occurrence of Hedenbergite

Type Locality:Mormorsgruvan, Tunaberg Cu-Co Ore Field, Tunaberg, Nyköping, Södermanland, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1819

Occurrences of Hedenbergite

Geological Setting:Metamorphosed iron formations, Fe-Mn skarns, alkalic granites, xenoliths in kimberlite.

Physical Properties of Hedenbergite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Opaque
Colour:brownish green, black
Streak:white, grey
Hardness (Mohs):5½ - 6½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:{100}{010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.56 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.65 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hedenbergite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Cell Parameters:a = 9.85Å, b = 9.01Å, c = 5.25Å
β = 104.82°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.093 : 1 : 0.583
Unit Cell Volume:V 450.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Short prismatic crystals, columnar or acicular aggregates, granular, lamellar, massive.
Twinning:Simple and polysynthetic on {100} {010}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hedenbergite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.699 - 1.739 nβ = 1.705 - 1.745 nγ = 1.728 - 1.757
2V:Measured: 58° to 63°, Calculated: 56° to 72°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.029

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v strong
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= pale green, bluish green
Y= green, bluish green
Z= green, yellow green

Chemical Properties of Hedenbergite

Formula:
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:CaFe2+Si2O6
Essential elements:Ca, Fe, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, O, Si
Common Impurities:Mn,Zn,Ti,Al,Mg,Na,K

Relationship of Hedenbergite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Johannsenite (see here)
Forms a series with Diopside (see here)
Member of:Clinopyroxene Subgroup > Pyroxene Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Aegirine-augite
(Na,Ca)(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Pigeonite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DA.05Donpeacorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)Mg[SiO
 
3
]
 
2
9.DA.05Enstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.05Ferrosilite
FeSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
9.DA.10Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
9.DA.10Kanoite
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.10Pigeonite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Augite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)[(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
6
]
9.DA.15Diopside
CaMgSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Esseneite
CaFe
3+
 
[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Johannsenite
CaMn
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Petedunnite
Ca(Zn,Mn
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.15Davisite
CaScAlSiO
 
6
9.DA.15Kushiroite
CaAl[AlSiO
 
6
]
9.DA.15Grossmanite
CaTi
3+
 
AlSiO
 
6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite
(Na,Ca)(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.20Omphacite
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Aegirine
NaFe
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jadeite
Na(Al,Fe
3+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Kosmochlor
NaCrSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Namansilite
NaMn
3+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.25Natalyite
Na(V
3+
 
,Cr)Si
 
2
O
 
6
9.DA.30Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.22.2Pyroxferroite
(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO
 
3
14.22.3 Ferro-akermanite
Ca
 
2
FeSi
 
2
O
 
7
14.22.4Kirschsteinite
CaFe
2+
 
SiO
 
4
14.22.5Tungusite
Ca
 
4
Fe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
(OH)
 
6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.22.7Ilvaite
CaFe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(OH)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.22.9Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3

Other Names for Hedenbergite

Synonyms:
FunkiteLodulite
Other Languages:
Croatian:Hedenbergit
Dutch:Hedenbergiet
German:Hedenbergit
Funkit
Lodulit
Hebrew:הדנברגיט
Italian:Edenbergite
Japanese:灰鉄輝石
Polish:Hedenbergit
Russian:Геденбергит
Simplified Chinese:钙铁辉石
镁铁辉石
Spanish:Funkita
Hedenbergita
Lodulita
Ukrainian:Геденбергіт
Varieties:
Hedenbergite-HyperstheneManganoan Hedenbergite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hedenbergite

Reference List:

- +
Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18),Vol 2, p. 164.

Berzelius, J.J. (1819): Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819. p.206

Smith, J.V. (1966) X-ray emission microanalysis of rock-forming minerals. VI: Clinopyroxenes near the diopside-hedenbergite join. Journal of Geology: 74: 463-467.

Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.

Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.

Cameron, M., S. Shigeho, C.T. Prewitt & J.J. Papike (1973), High temperature crystal chemistry of acmite, diopside, hedenbergite, jadeite, spodumene and ureyite: American Mineralogist: 58: 594-618.

Shimazaki, H. and Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1978): 107: 113.

Fehr, K.T. and Hobelsberger, B. (1997) Experimentelle Bestimmung der chemischen Potentiale von Hedenbergit in der Mischreihe Hedenbergit-Petedunnit. Beiheft zum European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 98.

Rothkopf, A.L. and fehr, K.T. (1998) The chemical potential of hedenbergite in hedenbergite-petedunnite solid solution determined by EMF measurements. Terra Abstracts: 10: Supplement 1: 53.

Internet Links for Hedenbergite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Hedenbergite on Wikipedia
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hedenbergite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Hedenbergite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Specimens:The following Hedenbergite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Hedenbergite

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