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Hedenbergite

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Formula:
CaFe2+Si2O6
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
brownish green, black
Hardness:
5½ - 6½
Name:
Named in 1819 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in honor of Mr. Anders Ludvig (Ludwig) Hedenberg [1781 Sweden - 1809 Sweden], formerly a clerk associated with Mountain College, and later chemistry student and co-worker with Berzelius and who first found it at Mormorgruvan, Tunaberg, Sweden and published a description of the mineral. Later Berzelius (in 1819) named the mineral and described it. Hedenberg and Berzelius attempted to make compounds involving nitrogen and sulfur. {N.B. The first initial commonly attributed to Anders Ludvig Hedenberg's name signifies the title "Mister" and not to a given name.}

Classification of Hedenbergite

Approved
9.DA.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.3a.2

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.22.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca
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Type Occurrence of Hedenbergite

Year of Discovery:
1819

Occurrences of Hedenbergite

Geological Setting:
Metamorphosed iron formations, Fe-Mn skarns, alkalic granites, xenoliths in kimberlite.

Physical Properties of Hedenbergite

Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Opaque
Colour:
brownish green, black
Streak:
white, grey
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:
{100}{010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.56 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.65 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hedenbergite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.85Å, b = 9.01Å, c = 5.25Å
β = 104.82°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.093 : 1 : 0.583
Unit Cell Volume:
V 450.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Short prismatic crystals, columnar or acicular aggregates, granular, lamellar, massive.
Twinning:
Simple and polysynthetic on {100} {010}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hedenbergite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.699 - 1.739 nβ = 1.705 - 1.745 nγ = 1.728 - 1.757
2V:
Measured: 58° to 63°, Calculated: 56° to 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= pale green, bluish green
Y= green, bluish green
Z= green, yellow green

Chemical Properties of Hedenbergite

Formula:
CaFe2+Si2O6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mn,Zn,Ti,Al,Mg,Na,K

Relationship of Hedenbergite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Johannsenite (see here)
Forms a series with Diopside (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]
GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6
JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Jervisite(Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]
NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6
NatalyiteNa(V3+,Cr)Si2O6
Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
Pigeonite(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
9.DA.05EnstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.05FerrosiliteFeSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
9.DA.10Pigeonite(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.20Omphacite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
9.DA.25Jervisite(Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6
9.DA.25NatalyiteNa(V3+,Cr)Si2O6
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
14.22.2Pyroxferroite(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO3
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.4KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe22+Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
14.22.9AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3

Other Names for Hedenbergite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hedenbergite

Reference List:
Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18),Vol 2, p. 164.

Berzelius, J.J. (1819): Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819. p.206

Smith, J.V. (1966) X-ray emission microanalysis of rock-forming minerals. VI: Clinopyroxenes near the diopside-hedenbergite join. Journal of Geology: 74: 463-467.

Clark, J.R., D.E. Appleman, and J.J. Papike (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper 2: 31-50.

Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.

Cameron, M., S. Shigeho, C.T. Prewitt & J.J. Papike (1973), High temperature crystal chemistry of acmite, diopside, hedenbergite, jadeite, spodumene and ureyite: American Mineralogist: 58: 594-618.

Shimazaki, H. and Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.

Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1978): 107: 113.

Fehr, K.T. and Hobelsberger, B. (1997) Experimentelle Bestimmung der chemischen Potentiale von Hedenbergit in der Mischreihe Hedenbergit-Petedunnit. Beiheft zum European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 98.

Rothkopf, A.L. and fehr, K.T. (1998) The chemical potential of hedenbergite in hedenbergite-petedunnite solid solution determined by EMF measurements. Terra Abstracts: 10: Supplement 1: 53.

Internet Links for Hedenbergite

Specimens:
The following Hedenbergite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hedenbergite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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