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Helvine

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Formula:
Mn42+(Be3Si3O12)S
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Golden yellow, brown, ...
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Member of:
Name:
from Latin 'helvus' = 'yellow', for the colour
Helvine Group. Danalite-Helvine Series, and the Genthelvite-Helvine Series.
The IMA officially recognized name (2012 IMA list) is helvine, not helvite, although the synonym "helvite" may be more common in the literature.

Classification of Helvine

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.FB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
B : Tektosilicates with additional anions
Dana 7th ed.:
76.2.4.1
76.2.4.1

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
2 : Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
17.9.4

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
9 : Silicates with sulphide or sulphite
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First Recorded Occurrence of Helvine

Place of Conservation of First Recorded Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany
Year of Discovery:
1804

Occurrences of Helvine

Geological Setting:
Granites, pegmatites, gneisses, contact zones, skarns.

Physical Properties of Helvine

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Golden yellow, brown, red, gray-yellow, yellow-green
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=741 - 873
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {111} {111}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.2 - 3.44 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.23 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Helvine

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:
P4 3n
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.29Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 569.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Tetrahedra, dodecahedra, octahedra
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Helvine

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.728 - 1.749
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
High

Chemical Properties of Helvine

Formula:
Mn42+(Be3Si3O12)S
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Zn,Ca

Relationship of Helvine to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Genthelvite (see here)
Forms a series with Danalite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
DanaliteFe42+(Be3Si3O12)S
GenthelviteZn4(Be3Si3O12)S
TugtupiteNa4(AlBeSi4O12)Cl
9.FB.05Afghanite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4,CO3)3 · 0.5H2O
9.FB.05Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Al6Si6O24)(S3)1.5 · H2O
9.FB.05Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05CancrisiliteNa7(Al5Si7O24)(CO3) · 3H2O
9.FB.05Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(Cl2,SO4)2
9.FB.05Franzinite(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.5H2O
9.FB.05Giuseppettite(Na,K,Ca)7-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,Cl)1-2
9.FB.05HydroxycancriniteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05Liottite(Na,K)16Ca8(Al6Si6O24)3(SO4)5Cl4
9.FB.05MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)Cl2
9.FB.05PitiglianoiteNa6K2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · 2H2O
9.FB.05Quadridavyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)Cl4
9.FB.05Sacrofanite(Na,K)98Ca20(Al6Si6O24)14(SO4)26Cl2 · 8H2O
9.FB.05Tounkite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2Cl · H2O
9.FB.05Vishnevite(Na,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3) · 2H2O
9.FB.05Marinellite(Na,K)42Ca6(Al6Si6O24)6(SO4)8Cl2 · 3H2O
9.FB.05Farneseite(Na,Ca,K)56(Al6Si6O24)7(SO4)12 · 6H2O
9.FB.05Alloriite(Na,Ca,K)26Ca4(Al6Si6O24)4(SO4)6Cl6
9.FB.05Fantappièite[Na82.5Ca33K16.5](Si99Al99O396)(SO4)33 · 4H2O
9.FB.05KyanoxaliteNa7(Al6-xSi6+xO24)(C2O4)0.5+x · 5H2O (0 < x < 0.5)
9.FB.05Balliranoite(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)Cl2(CO3)
9.FB.05CarbobystriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3) · 3.5H2O
9.FB.05DepmeieriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(PO4,CO3)1-x · 3H2O (x<0.5)
9.FB.05KircheriteNa5Ca2K(Al6Si6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.33H2O
9.FB.10BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
9.FB.10DanaliteFe42+(Be3Si3O12)S
9.FB.10GenthelviteZn4(Be3Si3O12)S
9.FB.10Haüyne(Na,Ca)4-8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,Cl)1-2
9.FB.10KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
9.FB.10LazuriteNa6 Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
9.FB.10NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
9.FB.10SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
9.FB.10Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)
9.FB.10TugtupiteNa4(AlBeSi4O12)Cl
9.FB.15MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
9.FB.15MeioniteCa4Al6Si6O24CO3
9.FB.15Silvialite(Ca,Na)4(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,CO3)
17.9.1LazuriteNa6 Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
17.9.2JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2S
17.9.3GenthelviteZn4(Be3Si3O12)S
17.9.5DanaliteFe42+(Be3Si3O12)S

Other Names for Helvine

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:日光榴石
Spanish:Helvita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Helvine

Reference List:
Mohs, F. (1804) Des Herrn JAC. FRIED. VON DER NULL Mineralienkabinett, nach einem, durchaus auf äussere Kennzeichen gegründeten Systeme geordnet, beschrieben, und durch Hinzuthuung vieler, dem gegenwärtigen Zustande der Mineralogie angemessener, erläuternder Anmerkungen und nöthiger Berichtigungen, als Handbuch der Oryctognosie brauchbar gemacht. Wien. Vol. 1, p. 92-93.

Freiesleben, J.C. (1817): Helvin.- Geognostische Arbeiten, Band 6.

Freyberg, Craz & Gerlach, p. 126-129.

Werner, A.G. (1817): Letztes Mineral-System.- Freyberg & Wien, p. 2 and 29.

American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 186-192.

Internet Links for Helvine

Specimens:
The following Helvine specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Helvine

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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