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Helvine

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Formula:
Mn
2+
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
System:IsometricColour:Golden yellow, brown, ...
Hardness:6 - 6½
Member of:Helvine Group
Name:from Latin 'helvus' = 'yellow', for the colour


Helvine Group. Danalite-Helvine Series, and the Genthelvite-Helvine Series.
The IMA officially recognized name (2012 IMA list) is helvine, not helvite, although the synonym "helvite" may be more common in the literature.

Classification of Helvine

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/J.12-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.FB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
B : Tektosilicates with additional anions
Dana 7th edition ID:76.2.4.1
Dana 8th edition ID:76.2.4.1

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
2 : Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.9.4

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
9 : Silicates with sulphide or sulphite
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Type Occurrence of Helvine

Co-type Localities:Brüder Lorenz Mine, Breitenbrunn, Breitenbrunn District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Friedefürst Mine, Breitenbrunn, Breitenbrunn District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany
Year of Discovery:1804

Occurrences of Helvine

Geological Setting:Granites, pegmatites, gneisses, contact zones, skarns.

Physical Properties of Helvine

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Golden yellow, brown, red, gray-yellow, yellow-green
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 6½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=741 - 873
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {111} {111}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.2 - 3.44 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.23 g/cm3

Crystallography of Helvine

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:P4 3n
Cell Parameters:a = 8.29Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 569.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Tetrahedra, dodecahedra, octahedra
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Helvine

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.728 - 1.749
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:High

Chemical Properties of Helvine

Formula:
Mn
2+
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
Simplified for copy/paste:Mn2+4(Be3Si3O12)S
Essential elements:Be, Mn, O, S, Si
All elements listed in formula:Be, Mn, O, S, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Zn,Ca

Relationship of Helvine to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Genthelvite (see here)
Forms a series with Danalite (see here)
Member of:Helvine Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Danalite
Fe
2+
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
Genthelvite
Zn
 
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
Tugtupite
Na
 
4
(AlBeSi
 
4
O
 
12
)Cl
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.FB.05Afghanite
(Na,Ca,K)
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(Cl
 
2
,SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
· 0.5H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Bystrite
(Na,K)
 
7
Ca(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(S
 
3
)
 
1.5
· H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Cancrinite
(Na,Ca,☐)
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Cancrisilite
Na
 
7
(Al
 
5
Si
 
7
O
 
24
)(CO
 
3
) · 3H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Davyne
(Na,K)
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(Cl
 
2
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
9.FB.05Franzinite
(Na,K)
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 0.5H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Giuseppettite
(Na,K,Ca)
 
7-8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,Cl)
 
1-2
9.FB.05Hydroxycancrinite
Na
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Liottite
(Na,K)
 
16
Ca
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
Cl
 
4
9.FB.05Microsommite
Na
 
4
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
9.FB.05Pitiglianoite
Na
 
6
K
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Quadridavyne
(Na,K)
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)Cl
 
4
9.FB.05Sacrofanite
(Na,K)
 
98
Ca
 
20
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)
 
14
(SO
 
4
)
 
26
Cl
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Tounkite
(Na,Ca,K)
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Vishnevite
(Na,K)
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
) · 2H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Marinellite
(Na,K)
 
42
Ca
 
6
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
Cl
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Farneseite
(Na,Ca,K)
 
56
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 6H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Alloriite
(Na,Ca,K)
 
26
Ca
 
4
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
Cl
 
6
9.FB.05Fantappièite
[Na
 
82.5
Ca
 
33
K
 
16.5
](Si
 
99
Al
 
99
O
 
396
)(SO
 
4
)
 
33
· 4H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Kyanoxalite
Na
 
7
(Al
 
6-x
Si
 
6+x
O
 
24
)(C
 
2
O
 
4
)
 
0.5+x
· 5H
 
2
O (0 < x < 0.5)
9.FB.05Balliranoite
(Na,K)
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Si
 
6
Al
 
6
O
 
24
)Cl
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
9.FB.05Carbobystrite
Na
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(CO
 
3
) · 3.5H
 
2
O
9.FB.05Depmeierite
Na
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
1-x
· 3H
 
2
O (x<0.5)
9.FB.05Kircherite
Na
 
5
Ca
 
2
K(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 0.33H
 
2
O
9.FB.10Bicchulite
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
2
SiO
 
6
)(OH)
 
2
9.FB.10Danalite
Fe
2+
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
9.FB.10Genthelvite
Zn
 
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
9.FB.10Haüyne
(Na,Ca)
 
4-8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,S,Cl)
 
1-2
9.FB.10Kamaishilite
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
2
SiO
 
6
)(OH)
 
2
9.FB.10Lazurite
Na
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,S,S
 
2
, S
 
3
,Cl,OH)
 
2
9.FB.10Nosean
Na
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
9.FB.10Sodalite
Na
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)Cl
 
2
9.FB.10Tsaregorodtsevite
(N(CH
 
3
)
 
4
)(AlSi
 
5
O
 
12
)
9.FB.10Tugtupite
Na
 
4
(AlBeSi
 
4
O
 
12
)Cl
9.FB.15Marialite
Na
 
4
Al
 
3
Si
 
9
O
 
24
Cl
9.FB.15Meionite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
CO
 
3
9.FB.15Silvialite
(Ca,Na)
 
4
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.9.1Lazurite
Na
 
6
Ca
 
2
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(SO
 
4
,S,S
 
2
, S
 
3
,Cl,OH)
 
2
17.9.2Jasmundite
Ca
 
11
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
S
17.9.3Genthelvite
Zn
 
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
17.9.5Danalite
Fe
2+
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
76.2.4.3Genthelvite
Zn
 
4
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)S

Other Names for Helvine

Synonyms:
HelviteMoonlight GarnetTetrahedral Garnet
Other Languages:
German:Helvin
Helvit
Russian:Гельвин
Simplified Chinese:日光榴石
Spanish:Helvita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Helvine

Reference List:

- +
Mohs, F. (1804) Des Herrn JAC. FRIED. VON DER NULL Mineralienkabinett, nach einem, durchaus auf äussere Kennzeichen gegründeten Systeme geordnet, beschrieben, und durch Hinzuthuung vieler, dem gegenwärtigen Zustande der Mineralogie angemessener, erläuternder Anmerkungen und nöthiger Berichtigungen, als Handbuch der Oryctognosie brauchbar gemacht. Wien. Vol. 1, p. 92-93.

Freiesleben, J.C. (1817): Helvin.- Geognostische Arbeiten, Band 6.

Freyberg, Craz & Gerlach, p. 126-129.

Werner, A.G. (1817): Letztes Mineral-System.- Freyberg & Wien, p. 2 and 29.

American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 186-192.

Internet Links for Helvine

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Helvine on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Helvite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Helvine specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Helvine

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