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Hematite

This page kindly sponsored by Norman King
Formula:
Fe2O3
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Steel-grey to black in ...
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
5 - 6
Member of:
Name:
Originally named about 300-325 BCE by Theophrastus from the Greek, Ατματιτης for blood stone. Translated in 79 by Pliny the Elder to haematites, "bloodlike" in allusion to the vivid red color of the powder. The modern form evolved by authors frequently simplifying the spelling by excluding the "a", somewhat in parallel with other words originally utilizing the root "haeme".
Dimorph of:
Hematite Group. The iron analogue of Corundum, Eskolaite, and Karelianite.

Hematite is rather variable in its appearence - it can be in reddish brown, ocherous masses, dark silvery-grey scaled masses, silvery-grey to black crystals, and dark-grey masses, to name a few. What they all have in common is a rust-red streak.

NOTE: The 'hematite' used in jewelery, and often sold as magnetized items, is nothing of the sort and is an artificially created material, see Magnetic Hematite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hematite.

Classification of Hematite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.20.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1856.html
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Occurrences of Hematite

Geological Setting:
Large ore bodies of hematite are usually of sedimentary origin; also found in high-grade ore bodies in metamorphic rocks due to contact metasomatism, and occasionally as a sublimate on igneous extrusive rocks ("lavas") as a result ov volcanic activity. It is also found coloring soils red all over the planet...

Physical Properties of Hematite

Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Steel-grey to black in crystals and massively crystalline ores, dull to bright "rust-red" in in earthy, compact, fine-grained material.
Streak:
Reddish brown ("rust-red")
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=1000 - 1100 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Partings on {0001} and {1011} due to twinning. Unique cubic parting in masses and grains at Franklin Mine, Franklin, NJ.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Comment:
Elastic in thin lamellae
Density:
5.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.255 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hematite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.038(2) Å, c = 13.772(12) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.734
Unit Cell Volume:
V 302.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Crystals generally thick to thin tabular {0001}, rarely prismatic [0001] or scalenohedral; also rarely rhombohedral {1011}, producing pseudo-cubic crystals. Often found in sub-parallel growths on {0001} or as rosettes ("iron crosses.") Sometimes in micaceous to platy masses. May be compact columnar or fibrous masses, sometimes radiating, or in reniform masses with a smooth fracture ("kidney ore"), and botryoidal and stalactic. Frequently in earth masses, also granular, friable to compact, concretionary and oolitic.
Twinning:
Penetration twins on {0001}, or with {1010} as a composition plane. Frequently exhibits a lamellar twinning on {1011} in polished section.

Crystallographic forms of Hematite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Hematite no.319 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.331 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.337 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.68(30)
2.70(100)
2.52(70)
2.21(20)
1.84(40)
1.69(50)
1.49(30)
1.45(30)

Optical Data of Hematite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 3.150 - 3.220 nε = 2.870 - 2.940
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.280
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Colour in reflected light:
White to gray white with bluish tint
Internal Reflections:
Red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O = brownish red
E = yellowish red

Chemical Properties of Hematite

Formula:
Fe2O3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn,H2O

Relationship of Hematite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV23+O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05Romanite(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe22+(Ti,Fe3+)6Ti12O38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi23+O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn23+O3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV23+V4+O5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti3O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SénarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.20.1WüstiteFeO
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
7.20.3MaghemiteFe23+O3
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
7.20.6Akaganeiteβ-Fe3+O(OH,Cl)
7.20.7FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
7.20.9FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
7.20.10Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2O
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe23+O5
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5

Other Names for Hematite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A major ore of iron.

References for Hematite

Reference List:
Agricola (1546): 565, 468.

Biäsch (1929), Zs. Kr.: 70: 1.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 527-534.

American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 123-129.

Mao, H.K., D. Virgo, & P.M. Bell (1977), High-pressure 57Fe Mössbauer data on the phase and magnetic transitions of magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), magnetite (Fe3O4), and hematite (Fe2O3). Carnegie Instsitution of Washington Year Book: 76: 522-525.

Fleet, M.E. and Arima, M. (1985) Oriented hematite inclusions in sillimanite. American Mineralogist: 70: 1232-1237.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 217.

Andrault, D., & Bolfan-Casanova, N. (2001), High-pressure phase transformation in the MgFe2O4 and Fe2O3-MgSiO3 systems: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 211-217.

Rozenberg, G.Kh., L.S. Dubrovinsky, M.P. Pasternak, O. Naaman, T. LeBihan, & R. Ahuja (2002), High-pressure structural studies of hematite (Fe2O3): Physical Review B: 65: 064112.

Shim, S-H., & T.S. Duffy (2002), Raman spectroscopy of Fe2O3 to 62GPa: American Mineralogist: 87: 318-326.

Cornell, R.M. and Schwertmann, U. (2003) The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Soumya Das, M. Jim Hendry (2011): Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify iron minerals commonly found in mine wastes. Chemical Geology: 290: 101-108.
[www.sciencedirect.com]

Internet Links for Hematite

Specimens:
The following Hematite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hematite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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