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Hematite

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Formula:
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
System:TrigonalColour:Steel-grey to black in ...
Lustre:Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, EarthyHardness:5 - 6
Member of:Hematite Group
Name:Originally named about 300-325 BCE by Theophrastus from the Greek, Ατματιτης for blood stone. Translated in 79 by Pliny the Elder to haematites, "bloodlike" in allusion to the vivid red color of the powder. The modern form evolved by authors frequently simplifying the spelling by excluding the "a", somewhat in parallel with other words originally utilizing the root "haeme".
Dimorph of:Maghemite


Hematite Group. The iron analogue of Corundum, Eskolaite, and Karelianite.

Hematite is rather variable in its appearence - it can be in reddish brown, ocherous masses, dark silvery-grey scaled masses, silvery-grey to black crystals, and dark-grey masses, to name a few. What they all have in common is a rust-red streak.

NOTE: The 'hematite' used in jewelery, and often sold as magnetized items, is nothing of the sort and is an artificially created material, see Magnetic Hematite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hematite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Hematite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.04-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:4.3.1.2
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.1.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.20.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe
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Occurrences of Hematite

Geological Setting:Large ore bodies of hematite are usually of sedimentary origin; also found in high-grade ore bodies in metamorphic rocks due to contact metasomatism, and occasionally as a sublimate on igneous extrusive rocks ("lavas") as a result ov volcanic activity. It is also found coloring soils red all over the planet...

Physical Properties of Hematite

Lustre:Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Steel-grey to black in crystals and massively crystalline ores, dull to bright "rust-red" in in earthy, compact, fine-grained material.
Streak:Reddish brown ("rust-red")
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=1000 - 1100 kg/mm2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Parting:Partings on {0001} and {1011} due to twinning. Unique cubic parting in masses and grains at Franklin Mine, Franklin, NJ.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Comment:Elastic in thin lamellae
Density (measured):5.26 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.255 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hematite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 5.038(2) Å, c = 13.772(12) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.734
Unit Cell Volume:V 302.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Crystals generally thick to thin tabular {0001}, rarely prismatic [0001] or scalenohedral; also rarely rhombohedral {1011}, producing pseudo-cubic crystals. Often found in sub-parallel growths on {0001} or as rosettes ("iron crosses.") Sometimes in micaceous to platy masses. May be compact columnar or fibrous masses, sometimes radiating, or in reniform masses with a smooth fracture ("kidney ore"), and botryoidal and stalactic. Frequently in earth masses, also granular, friable to compact, concretionary and oolitic.
Twinning:Penetration twins on {0001}, or with {1010} as a composition plane. Frequently exhibits a lamellar twinning on {1011} in polished section.
Crystal Atlas:
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Hematite no.319 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.331 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.337 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.68(30)
2.70(100)
2.52(70)
2.21(20)
1.84(40)
1.69(50)
1.49(30)
1.45(30)

Optical Data of Hematite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 3.150 - 3.220 nε = 2.870 - 2.940
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.280

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Colour in reflected light:White to gray white with bluish tint
Internal Reflections:Red
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:O = brownish red
E = yellowish red

Chemical Properties of Hematite

Formula:
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2O3
Essential elements:Fe, O
All elements listed in formula:Fe, O
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,H2O

Relationship of Hematite to other Species

Member of:Hematite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3
Eskolaite
Cr
 
2
O
 
3
Karelianite
V
3+
2
O
 
3
Tistarite
Ti
3+
2
O
 
3
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CB.05Brizziite
NaSb
5+
 
O
 
3
4.CB.05Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Eskolaite
Cr
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
4.CB.05Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Karelianite
V
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Melanostibite
Mn
2+
 
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
3
4.CB.05Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Akimotoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)SiO
 
3
4.CB.05Auroantimonate
AuSbO
 
3
4.CB.05Romanite
(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe
2+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSb
Au
+
2
Sb
3+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
4.CB.05Tistarite
Ti
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Avicennite
Tl
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Bixbyite
Mn
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.15Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
4.CB.15Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S
[(Zn,Al,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S
[(Zn,Mg)
 
7
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
16
O
 
31
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
4
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
10
O
 
19
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
[Al
 
7
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)]O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S
[(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
5
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
12
O
 
23
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.25Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.25Kleberite
FeTi
 
6
O
 
11
(OH)
 
5
4.CB.30Berdesinskiite
V
3+
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.30Oxyvanite
V
3+
2
V
4+
 
O
 
5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite
(Cr,V)
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.35Schreyerite
V
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.40Kamiokite
Fe
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Nolanite
(V
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ti)
 
10
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Rinmanite
Zn
 
2
Sb
 
2
Mg
 
2
Fe
 
4
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Iseite
Mn
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Majindeite
Mg
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.45Claudetite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.45Stibioclaudetite
AsSbO
 
3
4.CB.50Arsenolite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.50Sénarmontite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.55Valentinite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.60Bismite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.65Sphaerobismoite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.70Sillénite
Bi
 
12
SiO
 
20
4.CB.75Kyzylkumite
Ti
 
2
V
3+
 
O
 
5
(OH)
4.CB.80Tietaiyangite
Fe
3+
4
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
9
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.20.1Wüstite
FeO
7.20.2Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.3Maghemite
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
7.20.5Goethite
α-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.6Akaganeite
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH,Cl)
7.20.7Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.8Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.9Ferrihydrite
Fe
3+
10
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
7.20.10Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
7.20.11Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.12Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
7.20.13Srebrodolskite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
O
 
5
7.20.14Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
7.20.15Brownmillerite
Ca
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
4.3.1.1Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3

Other Names for Hematite

Synonyms:
Alaska Black DiamondAnhydroferriteHaematiteHematitogeliteHematogelite (of Tućan)
Iron GlanceRed HematiteRed Iron OreRed Oxide of IronRuddle
Sanguine
Other Languages:
Basque:Hematite
Catalan:Hematites
Croatian:Hematit
Czech:Hematit
Dutch:Hematiet
Speglande Eisenglimmer
Esperanto:Hematito
Estonian:Hematiit
Finnish:Hematiitti
French:Hématite
Fer oligiste
Fer oxydé rouge
Hematite rouge
Galician:Hematita
German:Hämatit
Anhydroferrit
Eisenglanz
Haematit
Haematites
Hematit
Jernglanz
Roteisenerz
Roteisenstein
Rotheisenstein
Rother Eisenrahm
Greek:Αιματίτης
Hebrew:המטיט
Hungarian:Hematit
Italian:Ematite
Ematite rossa
Oligisto
Japanese:赤鉄鉱
Latin:Ochra rubra
Lithuanian:Hematitas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Hematitt
Polish:Hematyt
Portuguese:Hematita
Romanian:Hematit
Russian:Гематит
Simplified Chinese:赤铁矿
Slovak:Hematit
Spanish:Hematita
Anhydroferrita
Haematita
Hematita rojo
Hierro oligisto
Swedish:Hematit
Blodsten
Haematites ruber
Järnmalm tritura rubra
Jernglans
Röd Jernmalm
Rödmalm
Speglande Jernmalm
Traditional Chinese:赤鐵礦
Turkish:Hematit
Ukrainian:Гематит
Varieties:
AlumohematiteCruciliteIron RoseKidney OreMartite
Rainbow HematiteRed OchreSpecularite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:None.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:A major ore of iron.

References for Hematite

Reference List:

- +
Agricola (1546): 565, 468.

Biäsch (1929), Zs. Kr.: 70: 1.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 527-534.

American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 123-129.

Mao, H.K., D. Virgo, & P.M. Bell (1977), High-pressure 57Fe Mössbauer data on the phase and magnetic transitions of magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), magnetite (Fe3O4), and hematite (Fe2O3). Carnegie Instsitution of Washington Year Book: 76: 522-525.

Fleet, M.E. and Arima, M. (1985) Oriented hematite inclusions in sillimanite. American Mineralogist: 70: 1232-1237.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 217.

Andrault, D., & Bolfan-Casanova, N. (2001), High-pressure phase transformation in the MgFe2O4 and Fe2O3-MgSiO3 systems: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 211-217.

Rozenberg, G.Kh., L.S. Dubrovinsky, M.P. Pasternak, O. Naaman, T. LeBihan, & R. Ahuja (2002), High-pressure structural studies of hematite (Fe2O3): Physical Review B: 65: 064112.

Shim, S-H., & T.S. Duffy (2002), Raman spectroscopy of Fe2O3 to 62GPa: American Mineralogist: 87: 318-326.

Cornell, R.M. and Schwertmann, U. (2003) The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Soumya Das, M. Jim Hendry (2011): Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify iron minerals commonly found in mine wastes. Chemical Geology: 290: 101-108.
[www.sciencedirect.com]

Best Localities for Hematite

Best of Species:Hematite

Internet Links for Hematite

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  • Hematite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Hematite

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