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Amber

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Hardness:2 - 2½


A fossil resin.
In order to qualify as "amber" it is NOT sufficient for a tree resin merely to harden by losing its volatiles, the molecules have to polymerize, which can take millions of years (or at least 100,000 years). After polymerization, amber becomes significantly less soluble in common organic solvents, and so will not become sticky if wetted with alcohol, acetone or gasoline. Much of the material marketed as "amber" (especially that from Colombia and Madagascar) is far too young to be considered amber, and is in reality just dried tree resin.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Amber. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Amber

Strunz 8th edition ID:9/C.01-10

9 : Organic Compounds
C : Resins and other compounds
01 : Bernstein series
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Physical Properties of Amber

Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½

Other Names for Amber

Synonyms:
AllingiteAmbarAmbroidAmbroiteChryselectrum
GlessumGlesumLyncuriumLynx-stoneSuccinite
Other Languages:
Arabic:كهرمان
Asturian:Ámbar
Belarusian:Бурштын
Bosnian (Latin Script):Ćilibar
Catalan:Ambre
Czech:Jantar
Danish:Rav
Dutch:Barnsteen
Esperanto:Sukceno
Estonian:Merevaik
Finnish:Meripihka
French:Ambre
Galician:Ámbar
German:Bernstein
Agstein
Aidstein
Allingit
Ambroit
Grabstein
Succinit
Greek:Κεχριμπάρι
Hebrew:ענבר
Hungarian:Borostyán
Icelandic:Raf
Ido:Sucino
Italian:Ambra
Japanese:コハク
Korean:호박
Latin:Succinum
Latvian:Dzintars
Lithuanian:Gintaras
Low Saxon:Barnsteen
Norwegian (Bokmål):Rav
Persian:کهربا
Polish:Bursztyn
Portuguese:Âmbar
Romanian:Chihlimbar
Russian:Янтарь
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Ћилибар
Serbo-Croatian:Jantar
Simplified Chinese:琥珀
Slovak:Jantár
Slovenian:Jantar
Spanish:Ámbar
Allingita
Ambroita
Succinita
Swedish:Bärnsten
Tamil:அம்பர்
Thai:อำพัน
Turkish:Kehribar
Ukrainian:Бурштин
Vietnamese:Hổ phách
Welsh:Ambr
Varieties:
AlmashiteAmbrosineBacaliteBurmiteDelatynite
DuxiteGedaniteJaulingiteJeliniteKochenite
MunkteniteMuntenitePlaffeiiteRosthorniteSimetite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Amber

Reference List:

- +
Flamini A., Graziani G., Grubessi O. (1974) - Inclusi di solfuro di ferro nelle ambre baltiche. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 331-338

Internet Links for Amber

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  • Localities for Amber

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Guttaring
    [var: Rosthornite] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Saualpe
        • Görtschitz valley
          • Klein St Paul
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Wolfsberg
        • St Stefan
    [var: Jaulingite] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Lower Austria
      • Industrieviertel
        • Berndorf
          • St Veit an der Triesting
    [var: Jaulingite] V. R. v. Zepharovich: Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien 16:366 (1855)
      • Mostviertel
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Salzburg
      • Salzburg
        • Anthering - Muntigl area
    On exhibit in the Museum "Haus der Natur", Salzburg.
    • Styria
      • Hieflau
        • Gams bei Hieflau
    peter neschen collection
      • Köflach
    [var: Jaulingite] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Koralpe
        • Wies
          • Eibiswald
    [var: Rosthornite] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Jenbach
    [var: Kochenite] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
          • Kramsach
    [var: Kochenite] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
          • Telfs
    [var: Kochenite] A. Pichler: Jahrb. k. k. geol. Reichsanstalt (1868)
    • Upper Austria
    Peter Neschen specimen
      • Kirchdorf an der Krems
        • Windischgarsten
    - J.Schadler, in: Bernstein, in Steinkohle der Oberkreide mit wenig Schwefelkies und gelben Anflug von Realgar. (Handschriftliche Aufzeichnungen).
    - H.Commenda, in: Übersicht der Gesteine und Mineralien Oberösterreichs. 1. Gesteine. Heimatgaue, Zeitschrift für oberösterreichische Geschichte, Landes - und Volkskunde 7, Heft 1, Linz 1926, Seite 41 – 65.
      • Steyr-Land
        • Weyer
    - G.Geyer, in: Erläuterungen zur Geologischen Karte SW - Gruppe 12, Weyer. Kaiserlich & königliche Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wien (1911).
      • Steyr
    Peter Neschen Collection
    - Gerhard Brandstetter, in: Mineralogische und paläontologische Notizen aus Oberösterreich. OÖ Geonachrichten, Beiträge zur Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie von Oberösterreich.15. Jahrgang (2000), Seite 16 – 22, 7 Abbbildungen. MFOÖ Mineralien - und Fossiliensammler Oberösterreichs mit ARGE Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie im Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseum.
    Baltic Sea
    Van King
    Burma (Myanmar)
    Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    • Kachin State
      • Myitkyina District
    Cruickshank, R. D., & Ko, K. (2003). Geology of an amber locality in the Hukawng Valley, northern Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(5), 441-455.
        • Tanai Township (Tanaing Township)
    Cruickshank, R. D., & Ko, K. (2003). Geology of an amber locality in the Hukawng Valley, northern Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(5), 441-455.
          • Tanai
    numerous well-labelled specimens on sale at Kyoto show, 2010
    Canada
     
    www.alpinegems.net
    • British Columbia
      • Similkameen Mining Division
    Mustoe, G. E. (1985). Eocene amber from the Pacific coast of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96(12), 1530-1536
    Simandl, G.J. (2009): Nonmetallic minerals other than coal: Industrial minerals, gemstones and aggregate in British Columbia, Canada; British Columbia Geological Survey, Paper 2009‐2, pages.
    • Manitoba
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
    Huishu Wang (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(4), 338-344
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Fushun Prefecture
        • Wanghua District
    http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_China_localities.htm
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Ústí Region
        • Bílina (Bilin)
    [var: Duxite] Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
        • Kadaň (Kaaden)
          • Tušimice
    [var: Duxite] Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
        • Most
    [var: Duxite] Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
    [var: Duxite] Petr Fuchs
    Denmark
    http://www.ravsiden.dk/ ; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    Dominican Republic
     
    • Hato Mayor Province
    http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
    • Sánchez Ramírez Province
      • Cotuí
    http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
    • Santiago Province
    http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
    Raúl Joreg Tauber Larry
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Ethiopia
     
    • Amhara Province
      • Semien Shewa
        • Mida (Midda)
    www.ambergallery.it
    Germany
     
    • Brandenburg
      • Eberswalde-Finow
        • Ruhlsdorf
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
      • Rüdersdorf
    Jahn, S. (2013): Der Kalksteinbruch Rüdersdorf bei Berlin. Mineralien-Welt 24 (3), 44-88.
    • Mecklenburg-West Pomerania
      • Wolgast
        • Usedom Island
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Bitterfeld
    [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Eiderstedt Peninsula
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
      • Schwarzenbek
        • Groß Pampau
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
      • Sylt Island
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    Andreas Gerstenberg collection
    India
     
    • Gujarat
      • Anand District
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11618809
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11618809
    Israel
     
    • Golan Heights
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    • Negev
      • Northern Negev
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    • Northern District (HaZafon District)
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Modena Province
        • Secchia Valley
          • Prignano sulla Secchia
    Roberto Bosi finding; http://www.academia.edu/991620/northern_Italy_ARCHAEOLOGICAL_AMBERS_FROM_NORTHERN_ITALY_AN_FTIR-DRIFT_STUDY_OF_PROVENANCE_BY_COMPARISON_WITH_THE_GEOLOGICAL_AMBER_DATABASE http://www.mineralimodenesi.it/Schede/Castelvecchio.htm
      • Parma Province
        • Varano de' Melegari
          • Ceno Valley
    Adorni, F., Battilocchi, G., Bersani, D. & Calderini, V. (2010). Le septarie dell'Appennino Parmense. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 222-241.
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Catania
    Speranza Cavenago-Bignami Moneta (1980) Gemmologia. Hoepli Ed., Milano at pag 1254; Mineralogical and Petrographical Museum of University of Bologna specimens.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Sorachi Province
        • Mikasa City
          • Ponbetsu
    Alfredo Petrov specimen
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Chiba Prefecture
    Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
        • Ibaraki Prefecture
          • Kita-Ibaraki City
    Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
        • Tokyo Prefecture
          • Hachioji City
    Alfredo Petrov specimen
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
    Kuji Amber Museum; American Museum of Natural History (New York); Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    Kuji Amber Museum; American Museum of Natural History (New York); Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    Jordan
     
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    Latvia
     
    • Kurzeme Region
    Dreimanis A., Liepiņš P. 1942. Latvijas minerāli un ieži. Rīga, Universitātes apgāds, 312 lpp.
    Lebanon
     
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
    Lithuania
     
    • Klaipėda County
      • Neringa municipality
        • Neringa
          • Curonian Spit
    GEOCHRONOMETRIA 33 (2009), pp 33-36
    GEOCHRONOMETRIA 33 (2009), pp 33-36
    • Telšiai County
      • Varniai
    Ellen Chivers Davies (1937) A wayfarer in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
    Malaysia
     
    • Borneo Island
      • Sarawak
    Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
    Mexico
     
    • Chiapas
      • Mun. de San Cristobal de Las Casas
    Netherlands
     
    Gerard van der Veldt collection.
    Peru
     
    • Amazonas Department
    J. Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 33
    Poland
     
    • Pomorskie
    Flamini A., Graziani G., Grubessi O. (1974) - Inclusi di solfuro di ferro nelle ambre baltiche. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 331-338 [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    Portugal
     
    Rui Nunes collection
    Rui Nunes
    Romania
     
    • Neamt Co.
      • Piatra
    [var: Almashite] Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
    • Vâlcea Co.
    [var: Muntenite] Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
    Pekin, A. (2011) Minerals of Moscow. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. Jun2011, Vol. 81 Issue 6, p1381-1391.
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
        • Sakhalin Island
          • Dolinsky district
            • Starodubskoye
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • North-Western Region
      • Kaliningradskaya Oblast'
        • Yantarny (Jantarny; Palmnicken)
          • Primorskoe (Pal'mnickenskoe) amber deposit
    Princeton Museum Record ID 2359
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Poprad Co.
        • Tatranská Javorina
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    Spain
     
    • Cantabria
      • Reocín
    Collect. José Rafael González López
    • Valencian Community
      • Alicante
        • Agost
    Juan Miguel Casanova
        • Alicante Co.
          • Serreta Llarga
    Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
    Sweden
     
    • Skåne
      • Svedala
    eg NRM 19010038
      • Vellinge
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bergskollegiums collection # 18572969, 18572970
    Switzerland
     
    • Fribourg (Freiburg)
      • Oberschrot
    [var: Plaffeiite] Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 491
    Syria
    Williamson, 1932. Book of Amber
    Turkey
     
    various photographs
    UK
     
    • England
      • Greater London
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
      • Isle of Wight
        • Freshwater
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
    Ukraine
     
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Aleutians East Borough
    Kunz, 1898. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.202.
      • Northwest Arctic Borough
        • Fairhaven District
    Rocks & Min.: 20:481.
    • Arkansas
      • Hot Spring Co.
        • Perla
    Rocks & Min.: 63:110.
    • California
      • Ventura Co.
        • Simi Valley
    Murdoch, Joseph (1934), Amber in California: Journal of Geology: 42: 309-310; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 63.
    World of Amber
    • Kansas
    [var: Jelinite] www.emporia.edu/earthsci/amber/geograph.htm
    C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry lost Mindat data).
    • Maryland
      • Anne Arundel Co.
        • Arnold
          • Magothy River
    Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.199.; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    • Massachusetts
      • Dukes Co.
        • Martha's Vineyard
          • Aquinnah
    Robinson, Samuel (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, with Their Localities, p.49.; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
      • Nantucket Co.
    Robinson, Samuel (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, with Their Localities, p. 62. ; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    • Mississippi
      • Tallahatchie Co.
      • Tishomingo Co.
    • New Jersey
      • Burlington Co.
        • Southampton Township
    Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.200.
      • Camden Co.
    D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
      • Gloucester Co.
        • South Harrison Township
          • Harrisonville
    Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.201.
      • Mercer Co.
        • Hamilton Township
    A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
      • Middlesex Co.
        • New Brunswick
    The Minerals of NYC & Its Environs, NY Min. Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 68.
    A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 92.
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 92.
      • Monmouth Co.
        • Belmar (Belmar Borough)
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 91; A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).
      • Salem Co.
    D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 84.
      • New York City
        • Staten Island (Richmond Co.)
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 59.; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
    • North Carolina
      • Beaufort Co.
        • North Carolina Phosphate District
          • Aurora
    Sinkankas, J. (1976) Gemstones of North America, Vol. 2, p 351.
    World of Amber
    Genth, F.A.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina:USGS Bulletion No.74
    World of Amber
    • Rhode Island
      • Washington Co.
        • New Shoreham
          • Block Island
    • South Carolina
      • Charleston Co.
    [var: Ambrosine]
    • Tennessee
      • Hardin Co.
    Zeitner ,1968. Appalachian Mineral & Gem Trails
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
        • Alpine
    http://www.omsinc.org/archives/Ore-cutts_Jan04.pdf
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
      • Maverick Co.
    BEG Rept Invest 42
    • Washington
      • Chelan Co.
        • Wenatchee District
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.40
      • King Co.
        • Issaquah
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.41; Mustoe, G. E. (1985). Eocene amber from the Pacific coast of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96(12), 1530-1536
    • Wyoming
      • Campbell Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:383
      • Carbon Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:384
      • Teton Co.
    Rocks & Minerals 76:390
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