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Heterogenite

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Formula:
Co3+O(OH)
The formula HCoO2 may be more correct (see below).

System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Black, reddish, ...
Lustre:
Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
3 - 5
Name:
From the Greek for "of another kind", as the mineral differs in composition from similar minerals.
Abstract from Burlet et al. (2016):
"Heterogenite is commonly referred in mineralogy literature as a cobalt oxy-hydroxide CoO(OH). However, detailed analysis of Raman and infrared spectra acquired on particularly well-crystallized natural samples of heterogenite suggests that the mineral can be characterized by a delafossite-type structure, with a general chemical formula ABO2. Indeed, the Raman spectrum of heterogenite, along the one with grimaldiite (HCrO2), lacks visible free OH-group vibrational modes, while the infrared spectrum shows strong hydrogen bond absorption bands. HCoO2 is thus a better formulation of heterogenite that describes more clearly its vibrational behavior and avoids the confusion in literature. Electronic backscattered diffraction (EBSD) is then used to distinguish and map the 2H and 3R heterogenite natural polytypes for the first time. The comparison of EBSD and Raman mappings clearly indicates that the 2H polytype is characterized by an additional peak at 1220 cm−1. The presence/absence is therefore an efficient tool to distinguish both polytypes."

Classification of Heterogenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FE.20

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
6.1.4.2

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
7.21.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
21 : Oxides of Co
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1885.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Heterogenite

Physical Properties of Heterogenite

Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black, reddish, blackish-brown
Streak:
Black, brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 5
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
4.13 - 4.47 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Heterogenite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Heterogenite-2HHeterogenite-3R
  
Hexagonal Trigonal 
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
P63/mmc R3m
  
a = 2.855(5) Å, c = 8.805(5) Å
a = 2.855Å, c = 13.157Å
a:c = 1 : 3.084a:c = 1 : 4.608
V 62.15 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 92.88 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
  
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Heterogenite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white
Internal Reflections:
Deep cobalt-blue to purle
Pleochroism:
Strong

Chemical Properties of Heterogenite

Formula:
Co3+O(OH)

The formula HCoO2 may be more correct (see below).

All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Heterogenite to other Species

4.FE.05Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)
4.FE.35FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2y
7.21.3Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
7.21.4Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O

Other Names for Heterogenite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Heterogenite

Reference List:
Frenzel (1872), Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 5: 404.

Schoep and Cuvelier (1929), Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin: 39: 74.

Schneiderhöhn and Ramdohr (1931): 2: 558.

de Leenheer (1935), Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie: 17: 44, 148.

Cooke and Doan (1935).

de Leenheer (1938), Zbl. Min.: 281.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 650-651.

Hey, M. (1962): Cobaltic hydroxide in nature. Mineral. Mag., 33, 253–259.

Deliens, M. & Goethals, H. (1973): Polytypism of heterogenite. Mineral. Mag., 39, 152–157.

American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 381.

Deliens, M. (1974): Les oxydes hydratés de cobalt du Shaba méridional. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sc. Géol., 76, 1-80.

Llorca, S. and P. Monchoux (1991): Supergene cobalt minerals from New Caledonia. Can. Mineral., 29, 149–161.

Burlet, C., Goethals, H., Vanbrabant, Y. (2016): Delafossite structure of heterogenite polytypes (HCoO2) by Raman and infrared micro-spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 159, 90-97.

Internet Links for Heterogenite

Localities for Heterogenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Argyle Co.
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
  • Northern Territory
    • Coomalie Shire
      • Batchelor
        • Rum Jungle
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
      • Cloncurry District
        • Cloncurry
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
        • Kajabbi railroad station
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Laurie J. Lawrence, Vera Munro-Smith, Anthony R. Ramsden, James L. Sharpe & Peter A. Williams (1999) Geology and Mineralogy of the Lorena Gold Mine, Cloncurry District, North-west Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales 132:29-35
      • Selwyn District
[UKJMM 19:24]
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
Judy Rowe collection; Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Cornelio Saavedra Province
      • Serranía Huarihuari
GEOBOL, Boletín #11, June 1968.
    • Tomás Frías Province
      • Chulchucani
Ahlfeld, F. (1955): Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Great Bear Lake
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
[www.ontariominerals.com]
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Huasco Province
      • Freirina
        • Sierra Perdices
Pnud Chile/Corfo; "Evaluaciones de los conocimientos existentes sobre Cobalto, Manganeso, Mercurio"; Stgo de Chile, Chile; 1969
      • Germán Riesco district
C. Ruiz Fuller/F. Peebles (1988): "Yacimientos metalíferos de Chile": Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile.
      • Sierra Totorita
C. Ruiz Fuller/F. Peebles (1988): "Yacimientos metalíferos de Chile": Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
        • Qimantage Mts
Chunyan Dong, Xiaoguo Chi, Fengyue Sun, and Yuan Zhang (2005): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 1(1), 29-33
  • Yunnan Province
    • Qujing Prefecture
      • Huize Co.
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
    • Yuxi Prefecture
      • Yimen Co.
        • Yimen Cu ore field (Sanjiachang Cu ore field)
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
Bugao Xue (1996): Mineral Resources and Geology 10(6), 388-394
      • Yuanjiang Co.
Bugao Xue (1995): Geology and Prospecting 31(3), 31-37
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kambove District
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
        • Kakanda deposit
Van King
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
[www.thamesvalleyminerals.com]
      • Katanga
Gauthier, G., King, V., and Morgan, R., in press, Carrollite from Kamoya South II Mine.
      • Kisamfu
Xiangqian Li, Yanling Yan, and Xianli Xu (2009): Mineral Resources and Geology 29(3), 253-257; Yanling Yan, Xiangqian Li, Yuping Jiang, Yatao Zhou, and Xian Liu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(3), 512-517
      • Kolwezi District
        • Kamoto
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003)
Van King
        • Kolwezi
No reference listed
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
      • Lubumbashi (Elizabethville)
http://www.portergeo.com.au/database/mineinfo.asp?mineid=mn1486
Dr Jaroslav Hyrsl specimens
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 790.
      • Shinkolobwe
www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/katangapgm/STUMAT.pdf.
      • Swambo
Deliens, M. & Goethals,H. (1973): Polytypism of Heterogenite. Mineralogical Magazine. 39, 152-7; Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
MinRec 20:287-288
http://www.tenke.com/s/CopperCobaltDeposit.asp
Paul De Bondt collection
France
 
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Prats-de-Mollo-la Preste (Prats de Molló-la Presta)
Dubru. M, (1986) Pétrologie et géochimie du marbre à brucite et des borates associés au gisement de tungstène de Costabonne, (Pyrénées orientales, France) 930p
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 22.
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Aure Valley
Queneau Patrice Collection
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Alpirsbach
[var: Heubachite] Erzgräber 1987(2), 54
[var: Heubachite] Erzgräber 1987(2), 54
      • Hausach
[var: Heubachite] Aufschluss 1974(10), 513-524
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
[var: Heubachite] K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Zundelgraben
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Niederberg area
      • Wülfrath
        • Rohdenhaus
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler
        • Ahrbrück
          • Martinsknipp
Beyer, H. (1978): Über Haldenfunde aus den Antimonitgängen von Ahrbrück (Eifel)..., Der Aufschluß, 29, 401-408
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 17(12), 24-33
      • Schneeberg District
XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
A. Frenzel (1872): Mineralogisches. 5. Heterogenit.- Journal für praktische Chemie [2] 5, 404-407
  • Thuringia
    • Harz
      • Stempeda
J. Gröbner & J. Wesiger (2008): Die Mineralien des Kupferschieferbergbaus an südlichen Harzrand bei Ilfeld in Thüringen. Mineralien-Welt 19 (2), 18-28.
    • Saalfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Iceland
 
  • Southern Peninsula
    • Trolladyngja
collection of Jamie Turnbull
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Borzoli
Giovine, M., Gotelli, A., Grattarola, C., Ciriotti, M.E. (2005): Heterogenite al Monte Ramazzo, sulle alture di Genova. Micro (notizie mineralogiche) 4/2005: 65-70.
    • La Spezia Province
      • Campiglia
Balestra, C., Kolitsch, U., Blass, G., Callegari, A.M., Boiocchi, M., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P. Bracco, R. (2009): Mineralogia ligure 2007-2008: novità caratterizzate dal Servizio UK dell’AMI. Micro, 1-2009, 78-99.
    • Savona Province
      • Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena
Antofilli, Borgo & Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Valsugana
        • Vignola-Falesina
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Yamaguchi Prefecture
        • Mine City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated by the Geological Survey of Japan); 南部松夫, 谷田勝俊, 北村強, & 桜井欽一. (1970). Heterogenite from Naganobori Mine, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. 岩石鉱物鉱床学会誌, 64(2), 53-63.
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Álamos
      • San Bernardo
Panczner (1987): 166-364.
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
        • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
          • Aghbar
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
          • Aït Ahmane
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Found by Frank de Wit
          • Bou Azer
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
          • Ightem
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
          • Méchoui
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro District
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
Antonio Jesus Pimentel specimens; www.mindat.org/mesg-25-107652.html
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Tuva Republic
Pavel M. Kartashov data
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Middelburg
        • Farm Kruisrivier 74 JS
Min Rec 27:6 pp417-428
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Huércal-Overa
        • Cuesta Alta
          • Cerro Minado Mines
FAVREAU et al. (2013)
    • Jaén
      • Linares-La Carolina District
        • Linares
Colectivo Arrayanes, Fernando J. Palero, Gonzalo Garcia, Cesar Menor (2008): El Coto de la Luz. Bocamina, 22: 56-105.
  • Asturias
    • Peñamellera Alta
      • Niserias
- Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Cármenes
José Rafael González López collection
  • Catalonia
    • Lleida (Lérida)
      • Pallars Sobirà
        • Baix Pallars
          • Peramea
-Subias I.,Fanlo I., Manuel J.,Garcia B. y Paniagua A. (2006) La Mina Solita (Peramea, Lérida):Algo más que ejemplares de colección. Rev. Macla nº 6 pp.475-478
    • Tarragona
      • Conca de Barberà
        • Vimbodí
[var: Heubachite] M Arliguie collection
  • Murcia
    • Lorca
MinRec-2003-0708-315
    • Mazarrón-Águilas
      • Pastrana
- Sainz de Baranda, B.,González de Tánago, J. y Viñals, J. (2003). Secondary minerals of the Mazarrón-Águilas mining distric. Murcia province, Spain. The Mineralógical Record, 34, 315-334.
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
      • Pavías
Adrián Pesudo
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Riviera
      • Claro
        • Molino Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 213-214.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. with contributions of Meisser, N. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais. II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. Musée de la Nature (Sion), Musée Cantonal de Géologie (Lausanne), and Editions Porte-Plumes (Ayer), 374 pp.
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
[Heterogenite-3R] Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
USA
 
  • Idaho
    • Lemhi Co.
      • Blackbird District
        • Blackbird mine complex
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Westgate District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Goodsprings
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
[Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada S. R. B. Cooke and Donald J. Doan, (1935), The Mineragraphy adn X-ray Analysis of Stainierite from the Swansea Mine, Goodsprings, Nevada. The American Mineralogist 20: 274-280
      • Virgin Mts
        • Bunkerville District
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Mineralogical Record 22:383
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point District
        • Valmy
Dr. William S. Wise presentation to Northwest Micro Mineral Study Group on 1 May 2004, Update on Mineralogy of the Silver Coin Mine, Iron Point District, Edna Mountains, Humboldt Co., Nevada
Zambia
 
  • Copperbelt Province
    • Chingola District
      • Chingola
"Dan Costian" Collection
"Dan Costian" Collection
  • Eastern Province
    • Katete District
Arliguie M Collection (Old label)
  • North-Western Province
    • Kabompo District
Exploration and Mining Geology; July 2000; v. 9; no. 3-4; p. 277-287; DOI: 10.2113/0090277 / Economic Geology, August 1, 2003; 98(5): 893 - 909
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