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Heterosite

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Formula:
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)PO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Untreated mineral is ...
Hardness:4 - 4½
Name:Named in 1826 by François Alluaud (II) from the Greek έτερος for "another", probably in allusion to the species being the second new mineral containing iron and manganese from the same locality.


Triphylite Group, Heterosite-Purpurite Series.

The species of this series are secondary minerals formed by oxidation of iron and or manganese with the simultaneous leaching of lithium from primary phosphates (precursors), usually lithiophilite or triphyllite. Intermediate alteration products are part of a continuous process of alteration: ferrisicklerite and sicklerite, with Grandfather status, but may not be valid. The Fe:Mn value has not been observed to vary much from the primary triphylite to the secondary heterosite. Heterosite is frequently artificially coloured bright purple through acid treatment.

Classification of Heterosite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.02-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:38.4.1.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
4 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.12.10

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Heterosite

Type Locality:Les Hureaux, Saint-Sylvestre, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France
Year of Discovery:1825
Geological Setting of type material:Granite pegmatite

Occurrences of Heterosite

Geological Setting:Secondary mineral in complex granitic pegmatites replacing triphylite.

Physical Properties of Heterosite

Lustre:Waxy, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Comment:Satiny on fresh fracture surfaces; dull when altered on surface.
Colour:Untreated mineral is usually Purple Black, also Deep rose to reddish purple, especially when treated in a strong acid solution.
Comment:Dark brown to brown-black when altered.
Streak:Pale purple
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 4½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {100}, good; on {010} imperfect. Cleavage surfaces curved or crinkled at times.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):3.40 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.67 g/cm3

Crystallography of Heterosite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pmna
Cell Parameters:a = 5.83(1) Å, b = 9.79(1) Å, c = 4.769(5) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.596 : 1 : 0.487
Unit Cell Volume:V 272.19 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Cleavable blocky masses
Comment:Pmnb
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.94 (60)
4.31 (90)
3.46 (85)
2.96 (35)
2.92 (85)
2.452 (100)
2.412 (40)
Comments:ICDD 34-134

Optical Data of Heterosite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.861(1) nβ = 1.891(1) nγ = 1.911(1)
2V:Measured: 37°
Birefringence:0.050
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.050

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v very strong
Pleochroism:Strong
Comments:X = Greenish gray, gray to rose-red
Y, Z = Deep blood-red to purplish red
Z = Deep blood-red to purplish red
Comments:Optic axis sections may exhibit anomalous green interference colours.

Chemical Properties of Heterosite

Formula:
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)PO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4
Essential elements:Fe, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Fe, Mn, O, P
Common Impurities:Mn

Relationship of Heterosite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Purpurite (see here)
Common Associates:
QuartzMuscovite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AB.05Farringtonite
Mg
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.10Ferrisicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Fe
3+
x
Fe
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Lithiophilite
LiMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
8.AB.10Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
8.AB.10Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Sicklerite
Li
 
1-x
(Mn
3+
x
Mn
2+
1-x
)PO
 
4
8.AB.10Simferite
Li(Mg,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.10Triphylite
LiFe
2+
 
PO
 
4
8.AB.10Karenwebberite
Na(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)PO
 
4
8.AB.15Sarcopside
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.15Chopinite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.20Beusite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.20Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.25Xanthiosite
Ni
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.30Lammerite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.30Lammerite-β
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Mcbirneyite
Cu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Stranskiite
Zn
 
2
Cu(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.35Pseudolyonsite
Cu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AB.40Lyonsite
Cu
 
3
Fe
 
4
(VO
 
4
)
 
6
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.12.1Metaswitzerite
Mn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.2Bermanite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.3Natrophilite
NaMn
2+
 
PO
 
4
19.12.4Sidorenkite
Na
 
3
Mn
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
19.12.5Niahite
(NH
 
4
)(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.12.6Robertsite
Ca
 
3
Mn
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.7Pararobertsite
Ca
 
2
Mn
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.8Sinkankasite
H
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 6H
 
2
O
19.12.9Mangangordonite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.11Purpurite
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)PO
 
4
19.12.12Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.12.13Triploidite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.12.14Lipscombite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
19.12.15Frondelite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.16Rockbridgeite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
5
19.12.17Kryzhanovskite
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
3
19.12.18Landesite
Mn
2+
3-x
Fe
3+
x
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
x
· (3-x)H
 
2
O
19.12.19Phosphoferrite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.20Reddingite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.12.21Earlshannonite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.22Hureaulite
(Mn,Fe)
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.23Switzerite
(Mn,Fe)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.12.24Laueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.25Pseudolaueite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.26Strunzite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.27Stewartite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.28Alluaudite
(Na,Ca)Mn
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.29Ferroalluaudite
(Na,Ca)Fe
2+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.30Fillowite
{Mn
2+
 
}{Na
 
8
}{Ca
 
4
Na
 
4
}{(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
43
}(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.31Johnsomervilleite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
18
Fe
 
25
(PO
 
4
)
 
36
19.12.32Wicksite
NaCa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
4
MgFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)
{KNa}{Mn
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
3
}{Mn
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
12
(OH)
 
2
19.12.34Sarcopside
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.35Ludlamite
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.12.36Graftonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.37Wilhelmvierlingite
CaMnFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.12.38Fairfieldite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.39Beusite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ca,Mg)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.12.40Messelite
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.44Keckite
CaMn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
(H
 
2
O)
 
7
19.12.45Stanfieldite
Ca
 
7
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
9
(PO
 
4
)
 
12
19.12.46Laubmannite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
Fe
3+
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
12
19.12.47Zodacite
Ca
 
4
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.12.48Hagendorfite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Fe
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.49Maghagendorfite
(□,Na,)(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)Mn(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.50Varulite
NaCaMn
2+
 
Mn
2+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.51Griphite
Na
 
4
Li
 
2
Ca
 
6
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
19
Al
 
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
24
(F,OH)
 
8
19.12.52Attakolite
(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
19.12.53Arrojadite-(KFe)
{KNa}{Fe
2+
 
◻}{Ca}{Na
 
2
◻}{Fe
2+
13
}{Al}(PO
 
4
)
 
11
(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
19.12.54Lun'okite
(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO
 
4
)
 
2
OH · 4H
 
2
O
19.12.55Eosphorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.56Ernstite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.57Childrenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.12.58Bobfergusonite
Na
 
2
Mn
 
5
FeAl(PO
 
4
)
 
6
19.12.59Qingheiite
NaMn
3+
 
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg)
{Ca}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg)
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.63Rittmannite
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
}{(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.12.64Zanazziite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
5
Be
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
19.12.65Samuelsonite
(Ca,Ba)Ca
 
8
Fe
2+
2
Mn
2+
2
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
10
(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Heterosite

Synonyms:
FerripurpuriteHetepositeHeteroziteNa-heterositeNeopurpurite
PseudotriplitePurpurite (of Graton and Schaller)Soda-Heterosite
Other Languages:
German:Hetepozit
Heterosit
Melanchlor
Russian:Гетерозит
Simplified Chinese:异磷铁锰矿
Spanish:Heterosita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not Fluorescent
Other Information:Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Heterosite

Reference List:

- +
Alluaud in: Vauquelin (1825) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 30: 294 (as Heteposite).

Alluaud, F. (1826): Notices sur l'hétérosite, l'hureaulite (fer et manganèse phosphatés), et sur quelques autres minéraux du département de la Haute-Vienne. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 8, 334-354. (p. 346; as Heterosite and Heterozite).

Fuchs (1839) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 17: 160 (as Melanchlor).

Blum, J.R. (1845) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. Edition: 537 (as Pseudotriplite).

Graton and Schaller (1905) American Journal of Science: 20: 146 (as Purpurite).

Schaller (1907) American Journal of Science: 24: 152 (as Ferripurpurite).

Pisani in: Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 470.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Notes on purpurite and heterosite: USGS Bull. 490: 72-79.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 84, 124.

de Jesus (1933) Com. Serv. Geol. Portugal: 19: 65 (as Neopurpurite).

Quensel (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 77 (as Na-heterosite).

Björling and Westgren (1938) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 60: 67.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 117.

Fisher (1945) South Dakota Geological Survey Report 50.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 675-677.

American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 45-51.

Fehr, K.T., Hochleitner, R., Laumann, A., Schmidbauer, E., Schneider, J. (2009): Mineralogy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of heterosite (Fe3+, Mn3+)PO4. Phys. Chem. Minerals 37, 179-189.

Internet Links for Heterosite

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