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Amblygonite

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Formula:
LiAl(PO4)F
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Milk-white, yellow, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
Named by August Breithaupt in 1817 from the Greek αμβλύς ("amvlys") for "blunt" and γωνία ("gonia") for "angle," referring to the fact that its cleavage angle slightly differs from 90°, distinguishing it from scapolite for which it was originally mistaken.
Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series. Fluorine analogue of Montebrasite.

Occurs chiefly in granite pegmatites of the lithium- and phosphate-rich type. Crystals may be enormous in size.
NOTE: Most "amblygonite" from granite pegmatites, especially from crystal pockets, are in fact montebrasite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Amblygonite.

Classification of Amblygonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BB.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
41.5.8.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
22.1.1

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
1 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with fluoride
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Type Occurrence of Amblygonite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Massive
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany, 20336
Year of Discovery:
1817
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite pegmatite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Amblygonite

Geological Setting:
Zoned granite pegmatites, high-temperature tin veins, greisens.

Physical Properties of Amblygonite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Slightly pearly on well-developed cleavages.
Colour:
Milk-white, yellow, beige, salmon-pink, pale green, light blue, grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
Almost always white to slightly gray-white; yellow specimens may be montebrasite
Streak:
white
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect; {110} good; {011}, distinct; {001}, imperfect.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Comment:
Breaks into blocky pieces and may superficially resemble beryl, petalite, and other species.
Density:
3.04 - 3.11 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.11 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Amblygonite end-member value is ~ 3.11.

Crystallography of Amblygonite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Space Group Setting:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.644Å, b = 7.744Å, c = 6.91Å
α = 90.35°, β = 117.33°, γ = 91.01°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.858 : 1 : 0.892
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crude crystals, typically equant to short prismatic [010], with complex form development, to 1.5 meters; also occurs as large cleavable masses; columnar; compact. Free-standing amblygonite crystals from crystal pockets are rare. Most pocket crystals are hydroxyl-rich montebrasite.
Twinning:
On {111}, common, with composition plane {111} with the resulting twins commonly tabular parallel to {111} and the twinned individuals of about equal size; also tabular {110} and the twinned individuals of very unequal size. Also twins on {111}, rare; lamellar. Microscopic polysynthetic twinning is common.
Comment:
Unit cell variability reported in Cerna, Cerrny, and Ferguson (1973)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.642 (80)
3.87 (80)
3.300 (50)
3.237 (60)
3.151 (100)
2.955 (80)
2.384 (50)
1.935 (60)
1.728 (50)
Comments:
ICDD 22-1138. Sample from Chursdorf, Germany. Composition may be estimated +/- 5% of the weight percent F from position of diffraction peaks associated with d {101} (Cerna et al., 1973).

Optical Data of Amblygonite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.577 - 1.591 nβ = 1.592 - 1.605 nγ = 1.596 - 1.613
2V:
Measured: 107° to 129.5°
Birefringence:
0.020
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.019 - 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Refractive Index lowers with increased Fluorine substitution. (Greiner and Bloss, 1987).

Chemical Properties of Amblygonite

Formula:
LiAl(PO4)F
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Sample from Chursdorf, Germany, by electron microprobe
P2O5 (48.44)
Al2O3 (33.90)
Li2O (10.12)
F (13.06)
H2O (0.00)
-O = F2 (5.50)
Empirical Formula:
Li1.00Al0.98[F1.02|(PO4)1.01]

Relationship of Amblygonite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Montebrasite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Natromontebrasite
TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.05MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.05TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15SarkiniteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)O
8.BB.15JoosteiteMn2+(Mn3+,Fe3+)(PO4)O
8.BB.15HydroxylwagneriteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)2(PO4)(OH,O)
8.BB.25AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30EveiteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
8.BB.35ParadamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.35TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.40BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40Lazulite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40WilhelmkleiniteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.45TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BB.50NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
8.BB.55PhosphoellenbergeriteMg14(PO4)6(HPO4,CO3)2(OH)6
8.BB.60UrusoviteCuAl(AsO4)O
8.BB.65TheoparacelsiteCu3(As2O7)(OH)2
8.BB.70TuraniteCu5(VO4)2(OH)4
8.BB.75StoiberiteCu5(VO4)2O2
8.BB.80FingeriteCu11(VO4)6O2
8.BB.85AverieviteCu6(VO4)2O2Cl2
8.BB.90LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.90RichelliteCaFe23+(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BB.90ZinclipscombiteZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
22.1.2LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
22.1.3NatrophosphateNa7(PO4)2F · 19H2O
22.1.5NacaphiteNa2Ca(PO4)F
22.1.6ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.1.7NefedoviteNa5Ca4(PO4)4F
22.1.9FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
22.1.10HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
22.1.11IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
22.1.12PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
22.1.13BabefphiteBaBePO4(F,OH)
22.1.14FluelliteAl2(PO4)F2(OH) · 7H2O
22.1.15MinyuliteKAl2(PO4)2(OH,F) · 4H2O
22.1.16MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
22.1.17BøggilditeNa2Sr2Al2PO4F9
22.1.18FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
22.1.19ViitaniemiiteNa(Ca,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(F,OH)3
22.1.20VäyryneniteMn2+Be(PO4)(OH,F)
22.1.21MaxwelliteNaFe3+(AsO4)F
22.1.22Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
22.1.23Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
22.1.24Magniotriplite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)2PO4F
22.1.25Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
22.1.26McauslaniteFe3Al2(PO4)3(PO3OH)F · 18H2O
22.1.27RichelliteCaFe23+(PO4)2(OH,F)2
22.1.28SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
22.1.29TilasiteCaMg(AsO4)F
22.1.30Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
22.1.31DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)F

Other Names for Amblygonite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

May fluoresce faint to medium cream yellow in SW and LW. Often shows patchy response.
Other Information:
Soluble with difficulty in acids. Colours a flame red.

Alters to mixtures of smectite or kaolinite and mica group, often as alterations rimming or surrounding rounded nodules of unaltered material. Also alters to lacroixite, Turquoise, Wavellite, Wardite, and Morinite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Amblygonite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1818): Amblygonit.- C.A.S. Hoffmann´s Handbuch der Mineralogie, Vol. 4.2.- Freiberg, Verl. Craz & Gerlach, p. 159-161.

Des Cloizeaux (1863) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 57: 357.

Des Cloizeaux (1871) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 73: 306 (as Montebrasite).

von Kobell (1872) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich, Sitzber.: 284 (as Hebronite).

Pisani (1873) Annales des mines: 29: 82.

Penfield (1879) American Journal of Science: 18: 295.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 416.

Backlund (1918) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 40: 757.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 76.

Hintze, Carl (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 626.

Landes, Kenneth K. (1925) On the Paragenesis of Granite Pegmatites in Central Maine, American Mineralogist: 10: 403, 410.

Winchell (1926) American Mineralogist: 11: 246.

Sekanina (1933) Spisy přiřo. fak. Masarykovy Univ., no. 180.

Quensel (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 455.

Strunz (1939) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 248.

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 473.

Tengnér (1940) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 62: 332.

Palache, C., Richmond and Wolfe (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 39.

Pehrman (1945) Acta Ac. Aboensis, math Phys.: 15, no. 2.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 823.

Moss, A.A., E.E. Fejer & P.G. Embrey (1969), On the X-ray identification of amblygonite and montebrasite: Mineral. Magazine: 37: 412-422.

Cerna, I, Cerny, P., and Ferguson, R., 1973, The Fluorine Content and Some Physical Properties of the Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series, American Mineralogist, v. 58, p. 291-301.

Greiner, D. and Bloss, F., 1987, Amblygonite-Montebrasite Optics: Response to (OH-) Orientation and Rapid Estimation of F from 2V, American Mineralogist, v 72:617-624.

American Mineralogist: 75: 992-1008.

King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, The Amblygonite/Montebrasite Controversy, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 1, p. 15-17, 240-244.

Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh & Nichols (2000), Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV.

Internet Links for Amblygonite

Localities for Amblygonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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