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Hollandite

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Formula:
Ba(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Formerly defined as Ba(Mn4+,Mn2+)8O16.
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Silvery-grey to greyish ...
Hardness:
4 - 6
Name:
After T.H. Holland (1868-1947), Director, Geological Survey of India.
In 2012, the IMA revised the nomenclature of the Hollandite Supergroup (Biagioni et al., 2013).
Hollandite is now redefined as the (more widespread) Ba-Mn3+ end-member of the coronadite group; concurrently, type hollandite is redefined as ferrihollandite, a new name to denote the Ba-Fe3+ end-member (Biagioni et al., 2013).

The original type locality for hollandite is now that of ferrihollandite; the neotype locality for hollandite is Gowari Wadhona (misspelt Gowani Wadhona in Biagioni et al., 2013).

Chemically similar to romanèchite.

Classification of Hollandite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.DK.05a

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
K : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; tunnel structures
7.9.1.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
9 : AB8X16
7.4.17

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths
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First Recorded Occurrence of Hollandite

Year of Discovery:
1906

Physical Properties of Hollandite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Silvery-grey to greyish black, black
Streak:
Black
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 6
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Prismatic.
Parting:
Crystals readily break parallel to [001] into striated chips or fibers.
Density:
4.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Hollandite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.02Å, b = 2.87Å, c = 9.72Å
β = 91.03°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 3.491 : 1 : 3.387
Unit Cell Volume:
V 279.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic, terminated by a flat pyramid. Massive, fibrous.
Twinning:
Reported (non-specific).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.864 (5)
3.522 (35)
3.460 (35)
3.178 (58)
3.143 (100)
3.101 (98)
3.069 (58)
2.760 (11)
2.506 (4)
2.412 (73)
2.244 (11)
2.212 (17)
2.204 (25)
2.181 (32)
2.173 (24)
2.153 (29)
1.9986 (7)
1.9865 (2)
1.9812 (2)
1.9706 (14)
1.9035 (5)
1.8601 (18)
1.8506 (8)
1.8310 (6)
1.8220 (24)
1.7611 (6)
1.7298 (6)
1.7191 (2)
1.6946 (6)
1.6917 (6)
1.6707 (21)
1.6212 (20)
1.6142 (13)
1.5654 (5)
1.5514 (23)
1.5411 (20)
Comments:
JCPDS 34-174

Optical Data of Hollandite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Hollandite

Formula:
Ba(Mn64+Mn23+)O16

Formerly defined as Ba(Mn4+,Mn2+)8O16.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Pb,K,Na

Relationship of Hollandite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
FerrihollanditeBa(Mn64+Fe23+)O16
ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
StrontiomelaneSr(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
4.DK.05Akaganeiteβ-Fe3+O(OH,Cl)
4.DK.05aCoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
4.DK.05aCryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
4.DK.05aManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
4.DK.05bMannarditeBa(Ti64+V23+)O16
4.DK.05bPrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
4.DK.05bRedledgeiteBa(Ti64+Cr23+)O16
4.DK.05bHenrymeyeriteBa(Ti74+Fe2+)O16
4.DK.05aStrontiomelaneSr(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
4.DK.10Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10
4.DK.10Todorokite(Ca,K,Na,Mg,Ba,Mn)(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3H2O
7.4.1BromelliteBeO
7.4.2BehoiteBe(OH)2
7.4.3ClinobehoiteBe(OH)2
7.4.4ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3SMg2BeAl6O12
7.4.7PericlaseMgO
7.4.8BruciteMg(OH)2
7.4.9SpinelMgAl2O4
7.4.10MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.4.11LimeCaO
7.4.12PortlanditeCa(OH)2
7.4.13ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32Cl2
7.4.14HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2O
7.4.15MarokiteCaMn23+O4
7.4.16Ranciéite(Ca,Mn)Mn4O9 · 3H2O
7.4.18Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10
7.4.19Todorokite(Ca,K,Na,Mg,Ba,Mn)(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3H2O

Other Names for Hollandite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Hollandit
Simplified Chinese:锰钡矿
Spanish:Hollandita
Traditional Chinese:錳鋇礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hollandite

Reference List:
Fermor (1906), Transactions of the Min. Geol. Institute of India: 1: 76.

Fermor (1908), Geological Survey of India, Records: 36: 295.

Fermor (1909), Geological Survey of India, Mem.: 37: 87.

Fermor (1917), Geological Survey of India, Records: 48: 103.

Orcel and Pavlovitch (1931), Bull. soc. min.: 54: 134.

Schneiderhöhn and Ramdohr (1931): 2: 514.

Frondel, C. and Heinrich (1942), American Mineralogist: 27: 48.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 743-744.

American Mineralogist (1953): 38: 1056-1065.

Post J. E., Von Dreele R. B., Buseck P. R. (1982), Symmetry and Cation Displacement in Hollandites: Structure Refinements of Hollandite, Cryptomelane and Priderite. Acta Crystallographica: B38: 1056-1065.

Miura, H. (1986) The crystal structure of hollandite. Mineralogical Journal of Japan: 13(3): 119-129.

Biagioni, C., Capalbo, C., Pasero, M. (2013): Nomenclature tunings in the hollandite supergroup. European Journal of Mineralogy 25, 85-90.

Internet Links for Hollandite

Specimens:
The following Hollandite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hollandite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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