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Holmquistite

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Formula:
☐{Li
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
The holmquistite group are orthorhombic amphiboles in the lithium amphibole subgroup.

Holmquistite is defined with Mg>Fe2+ and Al>3+ in the C position
System:OrthorhombicColour:Black, dark-violet, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:
Member of:Holmquistite Root Name Group > Lithium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Name:For Per Johan Holmquist (1866-1946), petrologist from Stockholm, Sweden


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Classification of Holmquistite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/F.12-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.DD.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
D : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Orthoamphiboles
Dana 8th edition ID:66.1.2.9

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.1.9

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
1 : Aluminosilicates of Li
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Type Occurrence of Holmquistite

Type Locality:Utö Mines, Utö, Södermanland, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1913

Physical Properties of Holmquistite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Black, dark-violet, light sky-blue.
Streak:White with sky-blue tinge.
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Holmquistite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 18.3Å, b = 17.69Å, c = 5.3Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.034 : 1 : 0.3
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,715.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Holmquistite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.613 - 1.625 nβ = 1.634 - 1.645 nγ = 1.646 - 1.666
2V:Measured: 49° , Calculated: 72° to 90°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.033 - 0.041

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Holmquistite

Formula:
☐{Li
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2


The holmquistite group are orthorhombic amphiboles in the lithium amphibole subgroup.

Holmquistite is defined with Mg>Fe2+ and Al>3+ in the C position
Simplified for copy/paste:☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Essential elements:Al, H, Li, Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, H, Li, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Mn,Ca,Na,K,F

Relationship of Holmquistite to other Species

Member of:Holmquistite Root Name Group > Lithium Amphibole Subgroup > w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group > Amphibole Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ferri-holmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Ferro-ferri-holmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Ferro-holmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.DD.05Ferro-anthophyllite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Ferro-gedrite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Gedrite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Proto-mangano-ferro-anthophyllite
☐{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Sodicanthophyllite
{Na}{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite
{Na}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(AlSi
 
7
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Sodic-ferrogedrite
{Na}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Sodicgedrite
{Na}{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
3
Si
 
5
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Ferro-holmquistite
☐{Li
 
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
9.DD.05Proto-anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.1.1Petalite
LiAl(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
16.1.2Spodumene
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
16.1.3Eucryptite
LiAlSiO
 
4
16.1.4Virgilite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
16.1.5Cookeite
(Al
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.1.6Bikitaite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
· H
 
2
O
16.1.7Lunijianlaite
Li
 
0.7
Al
 
6.2
(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH,O)
 
10
16.1.8Swinefordite
Li(Al,Li,Mg)
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
16.1.13Clino-holmquistite Root Name
☐{Li
 
2
}{Z
2+
3
Z
3+
2
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH,F,Cl)
 
2
16.1.14Magnesioholmquistite
16.1.15Bityite
LiCaAl
 
2
(AlBeSi
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
16.1.16Sogdianite
K(□,Na)
 
2
Li
 
3
(Zr,Fe,Ti)
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
]
16.1.17Sugilite
K(Na,□)
 
2
Li
 
3
(Fe,Mn,Al,Zr)
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
30
]

Other Names for Holmquistite

Synonyms:
LithionglaukophanMagnesioholmquistite
Other Languages:
German:Holmquistit
Italian:Holmquistite
Russian:Холмквистит
Simplified Chinese:锂蓝闪石
Spanish:Holmquistita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Holmquistite

Reference List:

- +
A.Osann(1913):Über Holmquistit,einen Lithiumglaukophan von der Insel Utö, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften Jahrgang 1913. 23. Abhandlung

Thorolf Vogt, Otto Bastiansen, Per Skancke(1958):Holmquistite as a rhombic amphibole, American Mineralogist Vol 43, pp981-982

Mineralogical Record: 29 (1998): 169-174.

Ishida, K. and Hawthorne, F.C. (2003). Fine structure in the infrared OH-stretching bands of holmquistite and anthophyllite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 30: 330-336.

Hawthorne, Frank C., and Roberta Oberti (2006), On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 1-21.

Frank C. Hawthorne, Roberta Oberti, George E. Harlow, Walter V. Maresch, Robert F. Martin, John C. Schumacer, Mark D. Welch (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 2031–2048

Internet Links for Holmquistite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Holmquistite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Holmquistite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Angola
     
    • Namibe Province
      • Giraul pegmatite field
    Antonio Olimpio Gonçalves, Joan Carles Melgarejo, Pura Alfonso Abella (2009) SEQUENCE OF CRYSTALLISATION OF PEGMATITES: THE ANGOLA CASE. Estudos Geológicos v. 19 (2), pp 35-39
    Antonio Olimpio Gonçalves, Joan Carles Melgarejo, Pura Alfonso Abella (2009) SEQUENCE OF CRYSTALLISATION OF PEGMATITES: THE ANGOLA CASE. Estudos Geológicos v. 19 (2), pp 35-39
    Argentina
     
    • San Luis
      • Las Aguilas
    Miguel Á. Galliski, María Florencia Márquez-Zavalía, Raúl Lira, Jan Cempírek and Radek Škoda (2012) Mineralogy and Origin of the Dumortierite-Bearing Pegmatites of Virorco, San Luis, Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist 50:873-894.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire
        • Greenbushes Tinfield
    Am Min 90:1167-1176; Econ Geol (1995) 90:616-635
      • Coolgardie Shire
    Wilkins, R.W.T., Davidson, L.R., and Ross, J.R. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 28, 280-287.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Koralpe
        • Moschkogel - Weinebene area
          • Brandrücken
    F. Walter (1992) Eur. Journ. Mineral. 4, 1275-1283; G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Millstatt lake ridge
        • Spittal
    Walter, F. (2009)
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • São João del Rei pegmatite province
        • Nazareno
    J. Quéméneur & M. Lagache (1994): LA HOLMQUISTITE DES PEGMATITES DE VOLTA GRANDE PRES DE SÃO JOÃO DEL REI, MINAS GERAIS, BRESIL: CARACTERISTIQUES CHIMIQUES ET MINERALOGIQUES. GEONOMOS, 2 (2), 15-21. [http://www.igc.ufmg.br/geonomos/PDFs/2_2_15_21_Quemeneur.pdf]; Quéméneur, J., & Lagache, M. (1999). Comparative study of two pegmatitic fields from Minas Gerais, Brazil, using rubidium and cesium content of the micas and feldspars. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 29(1), 27-32.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Lac-du-Bonnet area
        • Bernic Lake
    Econ Geol (1995) 90:658-675
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 11,pp.591-608 (1972)
      • Red Cross Lake
    Černý, P., Teertstra, D. K., Chapman, R., Selway, J. B., Hawthorne, F. C., Ferreira, K., ... & Meintzer, R. E. (2012). Extreme Fractionation And Deformation Of The Leucogranite–Pegmatite Suite At Red Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Iv. Mineralogy. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(6), 1839-1875.
    • Nova Scotia
      • Yarmouth Co.
    D.J. Kontak, "Geology of the Southern Lobe of the Brazil Lake LCT-type Pegmatite (NTS 21A/04), Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia", N.S. Department of Natural Resources, Report of Activities 2003 (Report 2004-1), pg 41-68, 2004.
    • Ontario
      • Kenora District
        • Lilypad Lakes pegmatites
          • Ferguson Lake Area
    J.C. Pedersen (2000) Report on 2000 Winter Diamond Drill Program Lilypad Lakes Tantalum - Cesium Property. Assessment File
          • Opikeigan Lake Area
    J.C. Pedersen (2000) Report on 2000 Winter Diamond Drill Program Lilypad Lakes Tantalum - Cesium Property. Assessment File
        • Pakeagama Lake Area
    Ontario MDI Number: MDI53C11SW00003
        • Paterson Lake Area
    Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • La Corne
    Anne P. Sabina, Rocks and Minerals for the Collector Miscellaneous Report 77, 2003, Geological Survey of Canada.; Nickel, E. H., Maxwell, J. A., & Rowland, J. F. (1960). Holmquistite from Barraute, Quebec. The Canadian Mineralogist, 6(4), 504-512.
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
            • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
              • Altay Mine
    Tianren Zou, Xiangchen Zhang, Fuyi Jia, Rucong Wang, Huizhi Cao, and Boqing Wu (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(4), 34-48
    Ethiopia
     
    • Sidamo-Borana Province
      • Kenticha pegmatite field
    Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Tuva Republic
    No reference listed
    Sweden
     
    • Södermanland
      • Utö
    Osann, A. (1913): Über Holmquistit, einen Lithionglaukophan von der Insel Utö. Silzungsber. d. Heidelberger Akad. d. Wissensch. Math-nat. Klasse. Abt. A. Jahrg. 1913, 23: 1-17 + 2 plates.
    Selway, J. B.; Smeds, S.-A.; Černý, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (2002): Compositional evolution of tourmaline in the petalite-subtype Nykopingsgruvan pegmatites, Utö, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. GFF 124, 93-102
    USA
     
    • Maine
      • Knox Co.
        • Rockport
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1, p.187.
    • New Mexico
      • Taos Co.
        • Picuris District
    Jahns, R. H. and Ewing, R. C. (1977): The Harding mine, Taos County, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 8 (2): 115-126.
    • North Carolina
    Davidson,S.C.,1927,The Hiddenite Occurence In North Carolina:American Mineralogist,Vol.12,1927,pg.305-307
    Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl ,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg.286
    Jan H. Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg.286
      • Cleveland Co.
        • Kings Mountain District
    Wilson,W.F and Mckenzie,B.J ,1978, Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
    rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/holmquistite.pdf; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
      • Gaston Co.
        • Bessemer City
    J.T Kloprogge,M.H Case and R.L Frost.,2001,Raman microscopic study of the Li amphibole Holmquistite from the Martin Marietta Quarry,Bessemer City,N.C,U.S.A,Mineralogical Magazine,Dec 2001,V.65,pp 775-785
    MinMag 65:775-785
    • South Dakota
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Keystone
    AmMin 73:324 (1988) ; American Mineralogist, Volume 73, pages 324-337, 1988
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland East
      • Mudzi District
    Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
    Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
    • Matabeleland South
      • Mweza Range (Wedja)
        • Sandawana-Belingwe District
    Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
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