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Hübnerite

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Formula:
MnWO
 
4
System:MonoclinicColour:Yellow-brown, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, MetallicHardness:4 - 4½
Member of:Wolframite Group
Name:Named in 1865 by Eugene N. Riotte (native of Elberfeld, Germany) for Friedrich Adolph Hübner [May 17, 1830?, Koenigsberg, East Prussia (Germany)? - ?], German mining engineer and metallurgist from Freiberg, Saxony. (Original notice did not have an umlaut as it was in an English language newspaper.)


Ferberite-Hübnerite series

Occurs in high-temperature hydrothermal veins and pneumatolytically altered granites yielding greisen; in granite pegmatites; in alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Note: This species is mis-classified in Dana 8th. There are no WO4 tetrahedra in it. It should be in Class 4, Simple Oxides.

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Classification of Hübnerite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.16-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DB.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:48.1.1.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.4.13

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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Type Occurrence of Hübnerite

Type Locality:Erie and Enterprize veins, Ellsworth mine, Ellsworth (Mammoth) District, Nye Co., Nevada, USA

Occurrences of Hübnerite

Geological Setting:High-temperature hydrothermal veins and pneumanolytically altered greisens; granite pegmatites and sedimentary alluvial deposits.

Physical Properties of Hübnerite

Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Yellow-brown, reddish-brown, blackish brown, black, red (rare)
Streak:Greenish-grey, yellow to reddish-brown
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 4½
Comment:Directional
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Parting:On {100} and {102}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):7.12 - 7.18 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.234 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hübnerite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P2/b {P1 1 2/b} {P2/c} {P1 2/c 1}{P2/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 4.8238(7) Å, b = 5.7504(10) Å, c = 4.9901(8) Å
β = 91.18(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.839 : 1 : 0.868
Unit Cell Volume:V 138.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals commonly prismatic and striated [001]; also tabular, to bladed, flatened {100} and exhibit numerous forms, including {010}, {110}, {100}, {310}, {112}, {001}, {102} and {011}. Radiating groups or in parallel configuration.
Twinning:Common as simple contact twins on {100}, rarely on {001}; as interpenetrant twins, lamellar.

Optical Data of Hübnerite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.170 - 2.200 nβ = 2.220 nγ = 2.300 - 2.320
2V:Measured: 73° , Calculated: 73°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.130

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct
Dispersion:relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:White to gray
Internal Reflections:Deep blood red
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = Yellow to green, orange-red
Y = Yellowish brown to greenish yellow, red-orange to red
Z = Green, brick red to red

Chemical Properties of Hübnerite

Formula:
MnWO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:MnWO4
Essential elements:Mn, O, W
All elements listed in formula:Mn, O, W

Relationship of Hübnerite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Ferberite (see here)
Member of:Wolframite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
Heftetjernite
ScTaO
 
4
Huanzalaite
MgWO
 
4
Sanmartinite
(Zn,Fe)WO
 
4
Common Associates:
TourmalineTopazRhodochrositeMolybdeniteFluorite
CassiteriteArsenopyrite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DB.05Argutite
GeO
 
2
4.DB.05Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
4.DB.05Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
4.DB.05Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
4.DB.05Rutile
TiO
 
2
4.DB.05Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
4.DB.05Tugarinovite
MoO
 
2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite
(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.10Byströmite
MgSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.10Ordoñezite
ZnSb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15cNsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
4.DB.15aParamontroseite
V
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.15aRamsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
4.DB.20Scrutinyite
alpha-PbO
 
2
4.DB.25Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Ixiolite
(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Srilankite
ZrTi
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite
(Ca,Fe
3+
 
,Y)
 
2
(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.30Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite
(Zn,Fe)WO
 
4
4.DB.30Krasnoselskite
CoWO
 
4
4.DB.30Heftetjernite
ScTaO
 
4
4.DB.30Huanzalaite
MgWO
 
4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)
FeNb
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)
FeTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)
(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)
MnTa
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DB.40Ferrowodginite
FeSnTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiotantite
Li(Ta,Nb)
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Lithiowodginite
LiTa
 
3
O
 
8
4.DB.40Titanowodginite
MnTiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wodginite
Mn(Sn,Ta)Ta
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Ferrotitanowodginite
Fe
2+
 
TiTa
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.40Wolframowodginite
Mn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DB.45Tivanite
V
3+
 
TiO
 
3
(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite
(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O
 
2-x
(OH)
 
x
]
4.DB.55Alumotantite
AlTaO
 
4
4.DB.60Biehlite
((Sb,As)O)
 
2
[MoO
 
4
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.4.1Cuprotungstite
Cu
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
27.4.2Scheelite
Ca(WO
 
4
)
27.4.4Anthoinite
AlWO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
27.4.5Mpororoite
WAlO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 2(H
 
2
O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)
YW
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,Y)W
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
27.4.8Stolzite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.9Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
27.4.10Russellite
Bi
 
2
WO
 
6
27.4.11Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
27.4.12Uranotungstite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ba,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
27.4.14Ferberite
FeWO
 
4
27.4.15Wolframite
(Fe
2+
 
)WO
 
4
 
 
to (Mn
2+
 
)WO
 
4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite
(H
 
2
O,M)
 
x
(W,Fe)(O,OH)
 
3
· yH
 
2
O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
WO
 
10

Other Names for Hübnerite

Synonyms:
HuebneriteManganese tungstateManganowolframite
Other Languages:
Dutch:Hübneriet
German:Hübnerit
Blumit (of Liebe)
Huebnerit
Manganowolframit
Megabasit
Italian:Hubnerite
Russian:Гюбнерит
Simplified Chinese:钨锰矿
锰钨矿
Spanish:Hübnerita
Huebnerita
Manganowolframita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Tungsten ore.

References for Hübnerite

Reference List:

- +
NOTE: See also: Wolframite references.

Breithaupt (1852) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 11: 189 (as Megabasit).

Liebe (1863) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 652 (as Blumit).

Credner (1865) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 24: 370.

Riotte (1865) Reese River Reveille, Austin, Nevada.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 40 (as Manganowolframit).

Hillebrand (1885) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 20: 96.

Headden (1906) Proceedings of the Colorado Science Society: 8: 175.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 157.

(1963) NBS Mono. 25, 2, 24.

Weitzel, H. (1976) Kristallstrukturverfeinerung von Wolframiten und Columbiten. Zeits. Krist., 144, 238–258 (in German with English abstract).

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1976): 477.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 297.

Internet Links for Hübnerite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Hübnerite on Webmineral
  • Look for Hübnerite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Hübnerite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Hübnerite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hübnerite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Hübnerite

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