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Hübnerite

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Formula:
MnWO4
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Yellow-brown, ...
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous, Metallic
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Name:
Named in 1865 by Eugene N. Riotte (native of Elberfeld, Germany) for Friedrich Adolph Hübner [May 17, 1830?, Koenigsberg, East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia) -?], German mining engineer and metallurgist from Freiberg, Saxony. (Original notice did not have an umlaut as it was in an English language newspaper.)
Ferberite-Hübnerite series

Occurs in high-temperature hydrothermal veins and pneumatolytically altered granites yielding greisen; in granite pegmatites; in alluvial and eluvial deposits.

Note: This species is mis-classified in Dana 8th. There are no WO4 tetrahedra in it. It should be in Class 4, Simple Oxides.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hübnerite.

Classification of Hübnerite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.DB.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
48.1.1.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
27.4.13

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Hübnerite

Occurrences of Hübnerite

Geological Setting:
High-temperature hydrothermal veins and pneumanolytically altered greisens; granite pegmatites and sedimentary alluvial deposits.

Physical Properties of Hübnerite

Adamantine, Resinous, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow-brown, reddish-brown, blackish brown, black, red (rare)
Streak:
Greenish-grey, yellow to reddish-brown
Hardness (Mohs):
4 - 4½
Comment:
Directional
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Parting:
On {100} and {102}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
7.12 - 7.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.234 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hübnerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.8238(7) Å, b = 5.7504(10) Å, c = 4.9901(8) Å
β = 91.18(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.839 : 1 : 0.868
Unit Cell Volume:
V 138.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals commonly prismatic and striated [001]; also tabular, to bladed, flatened {100} and exhibit numerous forms, including {010}, {110}, {100}, {310}, {112}, {001}, {102} and {011}. Radiating groups or in parallel configuration.
Twinning:
Common as simple contact twins on {100}, rarely on {001}; as interpenetrant twins, lamellar.

Optical Data of Hübnerite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.170 - 2.200 nβ = 2.220 nγ = 2.300 - 2.320
2V:
Measured: 73° , Calculated: 73°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.130
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:
White to gray
Internal Reflections:
Deep blood red
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Yellow to green, orange-red
Y = Yellowish brown to greenish yellow, red-orange to red
Z = Green, brick red to red

Chemical Properties of Hübnerite

Formula:
MnWO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hübnerite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Ferberite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2
4.DB.05RutileTiO2
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2
4.DB.20Scrutinyitealpha-PbO2
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFeSnTa2O8
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLi(Ta,Nb)3O8
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMnTiTa2O8
4.DB.40WodginiteMn(Sn,Ta)Ta2O8
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]
27.4.1CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2
27.4.2ScheeliteCa(WO4)
27.4.4AnthoiniteAlWO3(OH)3
27.4.5MpororoiteWAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
27.4.8StolzitePb(WO4)
27.4.9RaspitePb(WO4)
27.4.10RusselliteBi2WO6
27.4.11PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
27.4.12Uranotungstite(Fe2+,Ba,Pb)(UO2)2(WO4)(OH)4 · 12H2O
27.4.14FerberiteFeWO4
27.4.15Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
27.4.16Ferritungstite
27.4.17Phyllotungstite(H2O,M)x(W,Fe)(O,OH)3 · yH2O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
27.4.18Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10

Other Names for Hübnerite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Tungsten ore.

References for Hübnerite

Reference List:
NOTE: See also: Wolframite references.

Breithaupt (1852) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 11: 189 (as Megabasit).

Liebe (1863) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 652 (as Blumit).

Credner (1865) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 24: 370.

Riotte (1865) Reese River Reveille, Austin, Nevada.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 40 (as Manganowolframit).

Hillebrand (1885) U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 20: 96.

Headden (1906) Proceedings of the Colorado Science Society: 8: 175.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 157.

(1963) NBS Mono. 25, 2, 24.

Weitzel, H. (1976) Kristallstrukturverfeinerung von Wolframiten und Columbiten. Zeits. Krist., 144, 238–258 (in German with English abstract).

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1976): 477.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 297.

Internet Links for Hübnerite

Specimens:
The following Hübnerite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hübnerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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