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Humite

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
System:OrthorhombicColour:White, yellow, dark ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:6
Member of:Humite Group
Name:
Named in 1813 by Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon in honor of Sir Abraham Hume [February 20, 1749 London, England, UK – March 24, 1838 Wormley Bury. England. UK], English connoisseur and collector of gems, minerals, and artwork.
Dimorph of:Leucophoenicite


Humite Group.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Humite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Humite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.04-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AF.50

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.3.2c.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.1.11

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)
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Type Occurrence of Humite

Type Locality:Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1813

Physical Properties of Humite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:White, yellow, dark orange or brown.
Hardness (Mohs):6

Crystallography of Humite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 10.24Å, b = 20.72Å, c = 4.73Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.494 : 1 : 0.228
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,003.58 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Humite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.607 - 1.643 nβ = 1.619 - 1.653 nγ = 1.639 - 1.675
2V:Measured: 68° to 81°, Calculated: 70° to 78°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.032

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak

Chemical Properties of Humite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
Essential elements:F, Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:F, Fe, H, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,Ca

Relationship of Humite to other Species

Member of:Humite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alleghanyite
Mn
2+
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Chegemite
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
Edgrewite
Ca
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
Hydroxylchondrodite
Mg
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Hydroxylclinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
Jerrygibbsite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
Kumtyubeite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
Leucophoenicite
Mn
2+
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
Maclureite (Seybert; Nuttall)
Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
Ribbeite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2
Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
Unnamed (F-analogue of Chegemite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AF.05Sillimanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Andalusite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Kanonaite
Mn
3+
 
Al(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.15Kyanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.20Mullite
Al
 
4+2x
Si
 
2-2x
O
 
10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite
(Al,Ga)
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AF.23Boromullite
Al
 
9
BSi
 
2
O
 
19
9.AF.25Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
9.AF.30Magnesiostaurolite
(Mg,Li,Fe
2+
 
)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.30Staurolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
9.AF.30Zincostaurolite
(Zn,Li,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.35Topaz
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.40Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Alleghanyite
Mn
2+
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.45Kumtyubeite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
9.AF.45Hydroxylchondrodite
Mg
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.55Hydroxylclinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.60Leucophoenicite
Mn
2+
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.65Ribbeite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.70Jerrygibbsite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.75Franciscanite
Mn
2+
6
(V
5+
 
,☐)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.75Örebroite
Mn
2+
3
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)(O,OH)
 
3
9.AF.75Welinite
Mn
2+
6
(W
6+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.80Ellenbergerite
Mg
 
6
(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)
 
2
(Al,Mg)
 
6
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(OH)
 
10
9.AF.85Chloritoid
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.90Poldervaartite
CaCa[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90Olmiite
CaMn
2+
 
[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.1.1Hectorite
Na
 
0.3
(Mg,Li)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
17.1.3Agrellite
NaCa
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
10
F
17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)
NaCa
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)F · 8H
 
2
O
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)
KCa
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)(F,OH) · 8H
 
2
O
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
KCa
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH,F) · 8H
 
2
O
17.1.7Hsianghualite
Ca
 
3
Li
 
2
(Be
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
)F
 
2
17.1.8Leucophanite
NaCaBeSi
 
2
O
 
6
F
17.1.9Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
17.1.10Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
17.1.12Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
17.1.13Canasite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
12
O
 
30
(OH,F)
 
4
17.1.14Charoite
(K,Sr)
 
15-16
(Ca,Na)
 
32
[Si
 
6
O
 
11
(O,OH)
 
6
]
 
2
[Si
 
12
O
 
18
(O,OH)
 
12
]
 
2
[Si
 
17
O
 
25
(O,OH)
 
18
]
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· ~3H
 
2
O
17.1.15Cuspidine
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(F,OH)
 
2
17.1.16Bultfonteinite
Ca
 
2
(HSiO
 
4
)F · H
 
2
O
17.1.17Zeophyllite
Ca
 
13
(Si
 
10
O
 
28
)F
 
10
· 6H
 
2
O
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)
(Y,Ce)
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
F
 
2
(?)
17.1.19Yuksporite
(K,Ba)NaCa
 
2
(Si,Ti)
 
4
O
 
11
(F,OH) · H
 
2
O
17.1.20Yftisite-(Y)
(Y,Dy,Er)
 
4
(Ti,Sn)(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(F,OH)
 
6
17.1.21Mosandrite
(◻,Ca,Na)
 
3
(Ca,REE)
 
4
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
[H
 
2
O,OH,F]
 
4
· H
 
2
O
17.1.22Hiortdahlite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
(Zr,Ti)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(O,OH,F)
 
2
17.1.23Burpalite
Na
 
2
CaZr(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)F
 
2
17.1.24Seidozerite
Na
 
8
Mn
2+
2
Zr
 
3
Ti
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
4
O
 
4
F
 
4
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine
CaMnThSi
 
4
O
 
11
(OH)F · 6H
 
2
O
17.1.26Zircophyllite
(K,Na)
 
3
(Mn,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
24
(O,OH,F)
 
7
17.1.27Jinshajiangite
BaNaFe
2+
4
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
F
17.1.28Rosenbuschite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
(Zr,Ti)(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)OF
17.1.29Narsarsukite
Na
 
4
(Ti,Fe)
 
2
[Si
 
8
O
 
20
](O,OH,F)
 
2
17.1.30Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2

Other Names for Humite

Synonyms:
Umite
Other Languages:
German:Humit
Umit
Russian:Гумит
Simplified Chinese:硅镁石
Spanish:Humita
Umita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Humite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist: 56: 1155-1173.

Best Localities for Humite

Best of Species:Humite

Internet Links for Humite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Humite on Google
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Humite on Webmineral
  • Look for Humite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Humite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Humite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Humite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
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  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Search for Humite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Specimens:The following Humite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.
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  • Localities for Humite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Koralpe
        • Ettendorf
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    Brazil
     
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Catingueira
    Souza Neto, J.A., Legrand, J.M., Volfinger, M., Pascal, M.-L., and Sonnet, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 185-205.
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • La Pêche
    SABINA, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Tongling Prefecture
        • Shizishan ore field
    Jingwen Mao, Yongjun Shao, Guiqing Xie, Jiandong Zhang, and Yuchuan Chen (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(2), 109-119
        • Tongguanshan ore field
    Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249; Junwu Lu and Yuanfa Xia (2001): Geology and Prospecting 37(3), 29-31
        • Xinqiao ore field
    Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
    • Gansu Province
      • Jiuquan Prefecture
        • Guazhou Co. (Anxi Co.)
    Laigeng Yang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(6), 9-13
    • Guangdong Province
      • Meizhou Prefecture
        • Mei Co.
    Jinyan Yao (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(4), 5-11
    • Hebei Province
      • Baoding Prefecture
        • Laiyuan Co.
    Xiangzhen Meng and Meifang Zhao (1985): Acta Petrological Sinica 1(3), 82-86
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Chengde Co.
    USGS Open-File Report 03-220
    • Hubei Province
      • Huangshi Prefecture
        • Daye Co.
    Yuanming Pan and Ping Dong (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15, 177-242.
    Jianwei Li, Xinfu Zhao, Meifu Zhou, Vasconcelos, P., Changqian Ma, Xiaodong Deng, de Souza, Z.S., Yongxin Zhao, and Gang Wu (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 315-336.
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Linwu Co.
          • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Dequan Zhang and Lihua Wang (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(4), 33-42
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
        • Bayan Obo Mining District
          • Bayan Obo
            • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
    Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): "Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China", Science Press (Beijing), 226 pp.
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Yudu Co.
    Baogui Zhang (1996), In: Tu Guangzhi (Ed.): Geochemistry of strata-bound deposits in China. Science Press (Beijing), 240-253.
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Dandong Prefecture
        • Fengcheng Co.
          • Saima complex
    Saima Deposit Research Group, Beijing Institute of Uranium Geology (1978): Scientia Sinica 11(3), 365-389
        • Kuandian Co.
    Jingdang Liu, Rongge Xiao, Shengzhi Wang, and Cuizhi Wang (2005): Geology and Resources 14(2), 126-131
      • Huludao Prefecture
        • Jianchang Co.
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
      • Liaodong Peninsula
        • Dalian Prefecture
          • Wafangdian Co.
    Matsuda, K. (1969) Copper-bearing contact deposits of Hua-tung-kou, Fu Hsien, Feng-tien province, Manchuria (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, vol. 2, pp 414-422, Tokyo University Press).; Zhiqian Zhang and Jianning Wang (2009): Gold Science and Technology 17(2), 34-37, 53
      • Liaoyang Prefecture
        • Liaoyang Co.
    Mingshou Yang (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(2), 8-18
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dechang Co.
    Xiaoyu Li (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(2), 151-160
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Coqên Co. (Cuoqin Co.)
          • Nixiong Fe-Cu ore field (Nyixung Fe-Cu ore field)
    Yushuai Yu, Zhusen Yang, Yingchao Liu, Shihong Tian, Can Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xianhua Ji, Weizheng Hu, and Shenghua Cao (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(4), 775-790
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
          • Machangqing Cu-Mo-Au ore field (Baoxingchang Cu-Mo-Au ore field)
    Yunnan Metallurgical Geology Team No. 310 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(2), 20-28
    Finland
     
    • Southern Finland Region
    Arhe, Markku 1980. Iitin Perheniemen kalkkiivi-karsi esiintymästä ja sen ympäristön geologiasta. 155 s., 16 l. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus, arkistoraportti M/3111/-80/1/10.
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Hautes-Pyrénées
        • Aure Valley
          • Vielle Aure
    DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Spessart
          • Aschaffenburg
            • Gailbach
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Bavarian Forest
          • Arnschwang
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Indonesia
     
    • Irian Jaya (New Guinea)
      • Papua Province
        • New Guinea
          • Carstensz Mts
            • Gunung Bijih District (Grasberg District)
    New, B. T. (2006). Controls of copper and gold distribution in the Kucing Liar deposit, Ertsberg mining district, West Papua, Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, James Cook University).
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    [Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
            • Ercolano
              • San Vito
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
            • Pollena - Trocchia area
    Carati M., 1982. Guida alla mineralogia vesuviana. Guide Calderini, Bologna.
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Salerno Province
          • Nocera
            • Lavorate
    Balassone, G., et al. (2002): Re-examination of fluosiderite an unknown mineral from southern Italy: equal to fluorite-rich Chondrodite, European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 14, 151-155
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Novate Mezzola
          • Codera Valley
    D. Colzada - V. De Michele - località mineralogiche consigliate: S. Giorgio di Novate Mezola (SO) - Notizie del Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Milano - Vol 1 - (March, 1973) pagg. 10-11
    Madagascar
     
    Anthony,Bideaux,Bladhhttp://www.minsocam.org/msa/Handbook/Humite.PDF
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Horombe Region
        • Ihosy District
          • Sahambano Commune
    http://fonjatany-mth.com/pdf/etudes/annexes_rapport.pdf
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
        • Amboasary District
          • Maromby Commune
    Wolfgang Hampel, site visit 13 August 2005
            • Belafa area
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34.
          • Tranomaro Commune
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34, p 397
    Norway
     
    • Nordland
      • Gildeskål
    Bradshaw, R. & Leake, B. E. (1964) : A chondrodite-humite-spinel marble from Sørfinnset, near Glomfjord, northern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 33: 1066-1080
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Vitim Plateau
            • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
              • Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence
    Mills, S. J., Kartashov, P. M., Kampf, A. R., Konev, A. A., Koneva, A. A., & Raudsepp, M. (2012). Cordylite-(La), A New Mineral Species In Fenite From The Biraya Fe–Ree Deposit, Irkutsk, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(5), 1281-1290.
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Ladoga Region
    Aleksandrov, S. M., & Troneva, M. A. (2009). Composition and genesis of endogenous borates from the Pitkáranta ore field, Karelia. Geochemistry International, 47(9), 914-929.
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Igualeja
    Curras, J. y Torres, J. (1992).Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 15 (1), 319-322.
    • Castile-La Mancha
      • Toledo
    Laverov, N.P., Petrov, V.A., Poluektov, V.V., Nasimov, R.M., Hammer, J., Burmistrov, A.A., and Shchukin, S.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(5), 339-361.
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Falun
        • Svärdsjö
      • Hedemora
        • Garpenberg
    Öhman, L., F. Grensman (2000): Garpenberg (Södra). Litofilen, 17, 29-38
    No reference listed
      • Leksand
    • Gästrikland
      • Sandviken
        • Årsunda
    • Östergötland
      • Finspång
        • Hällestad
    No reference listed
    • Södermanland
      • Katrineholm
        • Sköldinge
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
      • Nyköping
        • Tunaberg
    No reference listed
    • Uppland
      • Norrtälje
        • Stabby ore field
    No reference listed
        • Väddö
    Wilke, H.-J. (1997): Die Mineralien und Fundstellen von Schweden. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 200 pp. (in German)
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Långban district
    Kjell Gatedal
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
        • Persberg district
    Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
    Rocks & Min.: 63:145; Dana 6:535.; Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
    Östra Värmlands Mineral Society,Långban,Sweden
    • Västerbotten
      • Skellefteå
        • Burträsk
    No reference listed
    • Västmanland
      • Lindesberg
    Kjell Gatedal
      • Ljusnarsberg
        • Kopparberg
    No reference listed
      • Nora
        • Timansberg
    Kjell Gatedal
      • Norberg
        • Getback ore field
    No reference listed
      • Sala
    Kjell Gatedal; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 25, pp. 647-658( 1987)
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
      • Pamir Mts
        • Khorog Region
          • Shakhdara range
            • Badom-Dara
    P.M. Kartashov data
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
    Paul Render
          • Broadford
            • Kilchrist
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
        • Ketchikan District
          • Prince of Wales Island
    Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
    [[email protected]]
    • Colorado
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Bergen Park area
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Maine
      • Oxford Co.
        • Norway
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vol. 1., p.188.
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
    Dunn(1995):Pt3:347.
    Dunn(1995):Pt3:347.
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Dunn(1995):Pt3:347.
    • New Mexico
      • Luna Co.
    Virginia T. McLemore, Nelia Dunbar, Matt T. Heizler, Kelly Donahue (2000): Geology and mineral deposits of the Victorio mining district, Luna County , New Mexico- Preliominary observations, New Mexico Geologic Society Guidebook, 51st field Conference, Southwest passage – A trip through the Phanerozoic, pp267-278
    • New York
      • Putnam Co.
        • Southeast Township
          • Brewster
    (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Manchester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938) (Whitlock, 1903).
    A Listing of North Carolina Minerals- Leonard S. Wiener and Sigrid Ballew-1995
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Nolan, T.B., 1935, The Gold Hill Mining District, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 177, 172 p.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Nolan, T.B., 1935, The Gold Hill Mining District, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 177, 172 p.
    • Vermont
      • Windham Co.
        • Town of Athens
          • Athens
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
    • Washington
      • Stevens Co.
        • Huckleberry Range
          • Deer Trail & Cedar Canyon Districts
            • Deer Trail District
              • Adams Mountain
    Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report; R. Derkey, N. Joseph, R. Lasmanis, 1990
    Vietnam
     
    • Yenbai Province (Yen Bai Province)
    Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
    Christian Bracke Collection.
    Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
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