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Hydrobiotite

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Big Photo

Oaxaca, Mexico
© 2008, JGW




Formula:
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicHardness:2½ - 3


A 1:1 regular interstratification of Biotite and Vermiculite layers.

Classification of Hydrobiotite

IMA status:Redefined Approved
Explanation of status:Redefinition approved by CNMNC
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/H.18-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EC.60

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
Dana 8th edition ID:71.2.2d.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
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Physical Properties of Hydrobiotite

Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3

Crystallography of Hydrobiotite

Crystal System:Monoclinic

Optical Data of Hydrobiotite

Type:Biaxial (-)
Dispersion:weak

Chemical Properties of Hydrobiotite

Formula:
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:K(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4·nH2O
Essential elements:H, K, Mg, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, H, K, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Cr,Mn,Ca,Sr,Ba,Na,Rb,F,P

Relationship of Hydrobiotite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EC.05Minnesotaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.05Talc
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.05Willemseite
(Ni,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.10Ferripyrophyllite
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.10Pyrophyllite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Celadonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chernykhite
(Ba,Na)(V
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Montdorite
(K,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
9.EC.15Muscovite
KAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Nanpingite
CsAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.15Paragonite
NaAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Roscoelite
K(V
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Tobelite
(NH
 
4
,K)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Aluminoceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chromphyllite
K(Cr,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.15Ferro-aluminoceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Ferroceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chromceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Cr,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Tainiolite
KLiMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.15Ganterite
(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Annite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Ephesite
LiNaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Hendricksite
K(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Masutomilite
(K,Rb)(Li,Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Norrishite
KLiMn
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)O
 
2
9.EC.20Phlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.20Polylithionite
KLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Preiswerkite
NaMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Siderophyllite
KFe
2+
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Tetraferriphlogopite
KMg
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorotetraferriphlogopite
KMg
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Wonesite
(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
9.EC.20Eastonite
KMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Tetraferriannite
KFe
2+
3
((Fe
3+
 
,Al)Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Trilithionite
K(Li,Al)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorannite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Shirokshinite
KNaMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Shirozulite
K(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Sokolovaite
CsLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Aspidolite
NaMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorophlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi
(Cs,K)(Al,Li)
 
2.6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Suhailite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Yangzhumingite
KMg
 
2.5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Orlovite
KLi
 
2
Ti(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)OF
9.EC.20Oxyphlogopite
K(Mg,Ti,Fe)
 
3
[(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
](O,F)
 
2
9.EC.25Brammallite
(Na,H
 
3
O)(Al,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.30Margarite
CaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Anandite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
((Si,Al,Fe)
 
4
O
 
10
)(S,OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Bityite
LiCaAl
 
2
(AlBeSi
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Clintonite
Ca(Mg,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
3
SiO
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(O,OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.35Fluorokinoshitalite
BaMg
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.40Beidellite
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
)
 
0.3
Al
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Kurumsakite
(Zn,Ni,Cu)
 
8
Al
 
8
V
5+
2
Si
 
5
O
 
35
· 27H
 
2
O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.33
(Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Nontronite
Na
 
0.3
Fe
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Volkonskoite
Ca
 
0.3
(Cr,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite
(Ca,Na)
 
0.5
(Cu,Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Hectorite
Na
 
0.3
(Mg,Li)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.45Saponite
Ca
 
0.25
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.45Sauconite
Na
 
0.3
Zn
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Spadaite
MgSiO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite
(Ca,Na)
 
x
Mg
 
3-x
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.45Swinefordite
Li(Al,Li,Mg)
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.45Zincsilite
Zn
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Ferrosaponite
Ca
 
0.3
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.50Vermiculite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
3
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.55Baileychlore
(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Chamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Clinochlore
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Cookeite
(Al
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Franklinfurnaceite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
 
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
 
(Zn
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Gonyerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Nimite
(Ni,Mg,Al)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
9.EC.55Pennantite
Mn
2+
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Sudoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Donbassite
Al
 
4.33
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Glagolevite
Na(Mg,Al)
 
6
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
9.EC.55Borocookeite
Li
 
1+3x
Al
 
4-x
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.60Aliettite
Ca
 
0.2
Mg
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Corrensite
(Mg,Fe)
 
9
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.60Dozyite
Mg
 
7
Al
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
15
)(OH)
 
12
9.EC.60Karpinskite
(Ni,Mg)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
5
(OH)
 
2
(?)
9.EC.60Kulkeite
Mg
 
8
Al(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
9.EC.60Lunijianlaite
Li
 
0.7
Al
 
6.2
(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH,O)
 
10
9.EC.60Rectorite
(Na,Ca)Al
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Saliotite
(Li,Na)Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
5
9.EC.60Tosudite
Na
 
0.5
(Al,Mg)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
18
)(OH)
 
12
· 5H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Brinrobertsite
Na
 
0.3
Al
 
4
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3.5 H
 
2
O
9.EC.65Macaulayite
(Fe,Al)
 
24
Si
 
4
O
 
43
(OH)
 
2
9.EC.70Burckhardtite
Pb
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)Te
4+
 
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
9.EC.75Ferrisurite
(Pb,Ca)
 
2.4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)
 
1.7
(OH)
 
3
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.75Surite
(Pb,Ca)
 
3
(Al,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.EC.75Niksergievite
(Ba,Ca)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.80Kegelite
Pb
 
8
Al
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8

Other Names for Hydrobiotite

Synonyms:
LedikitePhiladelphiteVoigtite
Other Languages:
German:Hydrobiotit
Ledikit
Philadelphit
Voigtit
Simplified Chinese:水黑云母
Spanish:Hidrobiotita
Ledikita
Voigtita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hydrobiotite

Reference List:

- +
Brindley, G.W., Zalba, P.E., and Bethke, C.M. (1983): Hydrobiotite, a regular 1:1
interstratification of biotite and vermiculite layers. American Mineralogist 68, 420-425.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1986): 4: 163-169.

Internet Links for Hydrobiotite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Hydrobiotite on Google
  • Look for Hydrobiotite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Hydrobiotite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Find Hydrobiotite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Hydrobiotite specimens
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Hydrobiotite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Search for Hydrobiotite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Localities for Hydrobiotite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Gföhl
    Database „Minerale NÖ“ (A. Thinschmidt and co-workers)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Zillertal
          • Zemmgrund
            • Alpenrose Inn
    R. Dallinger & J. Gufler (2006): Der größte Euklaskristall der Alpen - Neufund im Zillertal. Lapis 31 (3), 28-31. (in German)
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    ZULINSKI, N. and LALONDE, A.E. (2007) Mineralogy of hydrothermal ferruginous clay associated with colorless aegirine and bitumen in an altered pegmatite pocket from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada. Abstracts with Program, 34th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, 23; reprinted in: Rocks & Minerals, 83(4), 346-347.
    China
     
    • Fujian Province
      • Xiamen Prefecture
        • Tong'an District
    Mao Xingli and Yan Yipeng (1987): Journal of Fuzhou University, Natural Sciences Edition 15(3)
    • Gansu Province
      • Jiuquan Prefecture
        • Subei Co.
          • Gongpoquan ore field
    Gansu Province Metallurgical and Geological Exploration Team No. 4 (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(8), 20-23
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Yizhang Co.
          • Yaogangxian W-Sn ore field
    Ottens, B. (2011): Mineralogical Record 42, 557-603
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Shangrao Prefecture
        • Dexing Co.
          • Dexing Cu-Mo-Au ore field
            • Dexing copper mine
    Kuanglin Yan (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(4), 8-16
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Lopnur Co. (Yuli Co.; Weili Co.)
    Ran Hongyan, Wang Guanxing, and Cao Junchen (1999): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 19(3), 299-307
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Haute-Loire
        • La Chaise-Dieu
          • Cistrières
    F.H Forestier "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Fascicule IV, Massif Central Médian : Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
        • Lavoûte-Chilhac
          • Saint-Cirgues
    Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 359-371.
          • Villeneuve d'Allier
    F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
    F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
        • Lubilhac
    P.G. Pélisson : "Etude Minéralogique et Métallogénique du District Filonien Polytype de Paulhaguet (Haute-Loire, Massif Central Français)", Doctorate Thesis, Orléans, France, 1989 ; F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées de France", Fascicule IV, BRGM, 1964
        • Paulhaguet
          • Salzuit
        • Torsiac
          • Lanau
    F.H. Forestier : "Les Péridotites Serpentinisées en France, Groupe I, Fascicule IV, Bassin du Haut Allier", BRGM, 1964
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    India
     
    • Jharkhand
      • Singhbhum District
    S. G. Tenainkai, A. G. Ugarkar, M. V. Koti and A. Mookherjee (1991) Copper-bearing clay minerals of the oxidized zone of the Rakha-Chapri Block, Singhbhum Copper Belt, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 100, 13-30.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Viterbo Province
        • Làtera volcano
          • Onano
    M.E. Ciriotti (2006) EPMA probed
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu Region
        • Fukui Prefecture
    Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
        • Yamanashi Prefecture
    Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
    Mexico
     
    • Hidalgo
      • Mun. de Zimapán
        • Zimapán
    Panczner(1987): 93-396.
    Pacific Ocean
     
    • Marcus-Wake ridge
    Fengyou Chu, Daqian Hu, and Jie Yao (2006): Global Geology 26(3), 245-253
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Igor Pekov and Anatoly Kasatkin analytical data (2011)
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • A Coruña (La Coruña)
        • Santiago de Compostela
          • Aríns
    Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Cottonwood Canyon District
          • Apache Junction area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
        • San Manuel District
          • San Manuel
            • San Manuel Mine (Apex Lead & Vanadium Mining Corp Mine; Quarelli group)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Schwartz, G.M. (1947), Hydrothermal alteration in the 'porphyry copper' deposits, Econ.Geol.: 42, 319-352; Creasey, S.C. (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 215, 254; Schwartz, G.M. (1958), Alteration of biotite under mesothermal conditions, Econ.Geol.: 53: 164-177; Lowell, J.D. (1968), Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 63: 645-654; Creasey, S.C, (1959), Some phase relations in the hydrothermally altered rocks of porphyry copper deposits, Econ.Geol.: 54: 351-373; .
    • Colorado
      • Saguache Co.
        • Bonanza District (Kerber Creek District)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Montana
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Libby District (Snowshoe District)
          • Libby
    American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 1955–1969, 2003
      • Ravalli Co.
        • Mineral Point District
          • Alta
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240; Chris Tucker and John Betts specimens.; Gobla, M. J. (2012) Montana Mineral Locality Index. Rocks and Minerals 87:208-240.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Crescent District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Vicksburg District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    Dana,E.S,1892,A System of Mineralogy,6th edition,pg.667
      • Macon Co.
        • Cowee Valley
          • Ellijay District
            • Franklin
              • Corundum Hill
    Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina
    Eckert, J. O., Jr., 1984, Stratigraphy, structure, and metamorphism in the east half of the Wayah Bald quadrangle, North Carolina: ...
    • South Carolina
      • Laurens Co.
    • Tennessee
    www.orth.ftw.nres.usda.gov/osd/dat/J/Jeffrey.html
    • Virginia
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Henry Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Warren Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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