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Hydrocerussite

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Formula:
Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
White or grey; ...
Hardness:
Name:
In allusion to the composition, being a HYDRated lead carbonate, similar to cerussite.
Hydrocerussite is a secondary mineral usually found in oxidized lead ore deposits. It it less common than cerussite (anhydrous lead carbonate).

A closely related mineral is Plumbonacrite.
Visually very similar to Unnamed (Hydrocerussite- and Plumbonacrite-related phase) (a slag phase).

Classification of Hydrocerussite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.BE.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
E : With Pb, Bi
16a.2.2.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO3)2Zq
11.9.2

11 : Carbonates
9 : Carbonates of Pb, Zr and Th
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Type Occurrence of Hydrocerussite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Metamorphosed Mn-Fe deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Physical Properties of Hydrocerussite

Adamantine, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White or grey; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {0001}.
Density:
6.8 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.94 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hydrocerussite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.239(5) Å, c = 23.65(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 4.514
Unit Cell Volume:
V 562.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals steep pyramidal {h0h1} with {0001} very small at times. Thin scales with a hexagonal presentation and flattened {0001}; also thick tabular {0001}.

Comment:
Space group R-3m, with a = 5.2465(6) and c = 23.702(3) A, is given by Martinetto et al. (2002), on the basis of a structure solution from powder data.

Optical Data of Hydrocerussite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.090 nε = 1.940
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.150
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Hydrocerussite

Formula:
Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hydrocerussite to other Species

5.BE.05ShannonitePb2OCO3
5.BE.15PlumbonacritePb5O(OH)2(CO3)3
5.BE.20PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
5.BE.25Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
5.BE.30KettneriteCaBiCO3OF
5.BE.35BeyeriteCa(BiO)2(CO3)2
11.9.1CerussitePbCO3
11.9.3DundasitePbAl2(CO3)2(OH)4 · H2O
11.9.4Gysinite-(Nd)Pb(Nd,La)(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
11.9.5Schuilingite-(Nd)PbCu(Nd,Gd,Sm,Y)(CO3)3(OH) · 1.5H2O
11.9.6TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2O
11.9.7WeloganiteNa2Sr3Zr(CO3)6 · 3H2O
11.9.8SabinaiteNa4Zr2TiO4(CO3)4

Other Names for Hydrocerussite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids with effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hydrocerussite

Reference List:
Nordenskild (1877) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 3: 381.

Heddle (1889) Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 201 (as Plumbonacrite).

Flink (1901) Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 5: 94.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 202.

Spencer (1925) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 80.

Aminoff (1926) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 48: 44.

Kokkoros, P. and Vassiliadis, K. (1953). Röntgenkristallographie von Hydrocerussit. Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 3, 298-304.

Voronova, A. A. and Vainshtein, B. K. (1964): An electron-diffraction study of the crystal structure of PbCO3PbO(H2O)2. Kristallografiya 9, 197-203. (in Russian).

Keller, P. (1977): Hydrocerussit von Tsumeb/Südwestafrika. Der Aufschluss, 28, 413-415.

Flemming, N. J.; Lopata, V. J.; Sanipelli, B. L.; Taylor, P. (1984): Thermal decomposition of basic lead carbonates: a comparison of hydrocerussite and plumbonacrite. Thermochim. Acta 81, 1-8.

Taylor, P. & Lopata, V. J. (1984): Stability and solubility relationships between some solids in the system lead oxide-carbon dioxide-water. Can. J. Chem. 62, 395-402.

Martinetto, P., M. Anne, E. Dooryhée, P. Walter and G. Tsoucaris (2002): Synthetic hydrocerussite, 2PbCO3•Pb(OH)2, by X-ray powder diffraction. Acta Cryst. C58, i82-i84. [possibly incorrect structure/space group; comment by Uwe Kolitsch]

Internet Links for Hydrocerussite

Specimens:
The following Hydrocerussite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hydrocerussite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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