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Hydrocerussite

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Formula:
Pb
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:White or grey; ...
Hardness:
Name:In allusion to the composition, being a HYDRated lead carbonate, similar to cerussite.


Hydrocerussite is a secondary mineral usually found in oxidized lead ore deposits. It it less common than cerussite (anhydrous lead carbonate).

A closely related mineral is Plumbonacrite.
Visually very similar to Unnamed (Hydrocerussite- and Plumbonacrite-related phase) (a slag phase).

Classification of Hydrocerussite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/C.08-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BE.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
E : With Pb, Bi
Dana 8th edition ID:16a.2.2.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO3)2Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.9.2

11 : Carbonates
9 : Carbonates of Pb, Zr and Th
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Type Occurrence of Hydrocerussite

Type Locality:Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden
Geological Setting of type material:Metamorphosed Mn-Fe deposit.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Lead

Physical Properties of Hydrocerussite

Lustre:Adamantine, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:White or grey; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {0001}.
Density (measured):6.8 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.94 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hydrocerussite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Cell Parameters:a = 5.239(5) Å, c = 23.65(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 4.514
Unit Cell Volume:V 562.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals steep pyramidal {h0h1} with {0001} very small at times. Thin scales with a hexagonal presentation and flattened {0001}; also thick tabular {0001}.

Comment:Space group R-3m, with a = 5.2465(6) and c = 23.702(3) A, is given by Martinetto et al. (2002), on the basis of a structure solution from powder data.

Optical Data of Hydrocerussite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 2.090 nε = 1.940
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.150

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High

Chemical Properties of Hydrocerussite

Formula:
Pb
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Essential elements:C, H, O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:C, H, O, Pb

Relationship of Hydrocerussite to other Species

Common Associates:
ParalaurioniteMendipiteMatlockiteLeadhilliteCerussite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BE.05Shannonite
Pb
 
2
OCO
 
3
5.BE.15Plumbonacrite
Pb
 
5
O(OH)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
5.BE.20Phosgenite
Pb
 
2
CO
 
3
Cl
 
2
5.BE.25Bismutite
(BiO)
 
2
CO
 
3
5.BE.30Kettnerite
CaBiCO
 
3
OF
5.BE.35Beyerite
Ca(BiO)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.9.1Cerussite
PbCO
 
3
11.9.3Dundasite
PbAl
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
11.9.4Gysinite-(Nd)
Pb(Nd,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH) · H
 
2
O
11.9.5Schuilingite-(Nd)
PbCu(Nd,Gd,Sm,Y)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH) · 1.5H
 
2
O
11.9.6Tuliokite
Na
 
6
BaTh(CO
 
3
)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
11.9.7Weloganite
Na
 
2
Sr
 
3
Zr(CO
 
3
)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
11.9.8Sabinaite
Na
 
4
Zr
 
2
TiO
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4

Other Names for Hydrocerussite

Synonyms:
Hydrocerusite
Other Languages:
German:Hydrocerussit
Russian:Гидроцеруссит
Simplified Chinese:水白铅矿
Spanish:Hydrocerussita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids with effervescence.
Health Warning:Contains lead - always wash hands after handling. Do not lick.

References for Hydrocerussite

Reference List:

- +
Nordenskild (1877) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 3: 381.

Heddle (1889) Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 201 (as Plumbonacrite).

Flink (1901) Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 5: 94.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 202.

Spencer (1925) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 80.

Aminoff (1926) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 48: 44.

Kokkoros, P. and Vassiliadis, K. (1953). Röntgenkristallographie von Hydrocerussit. Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 3, 298-304.

Voronova, A. A. and Vainshtein, B. K. (1964): An electron-diffraction study of the crystal structure of PbCO3PbO(H2O)2. Kristallografiya 9, 197-203. (in Russian).

Keller, P. (1977): Hydrocerussit von Tsumeb/Südwestafrika. Der Aufschluss, 28, 413-415.

Flemming, N. J.; Lopata, V. J.; Sanipelli, B. L.; Taylor, P. (1984): Thermal decomposition of basic lead carbonates: a comparison of hydrocerussite and plumbonacrite. Thermochim. Acta 81, 1-8.

Taylor, P. & Lopata, V. J. (1984): Stability and solubility relationships between some solids in the system lead oxide-carbon dioxide-water. Can. J. Chem. 62, 395-402.

Martinetto, P., M. Anne, E. Dooryhée, P. Walter and G. Tsoucaris (2002): Synthetic hydrocerussite, 2PbCO3•Pb(OH)2, by X-ray powder diffraction. Acta Cryst. C58, i82-i84. [possibly incorrect structure/space group; comment by Uwe Kolitsch]

Internet Links for Hydrocerussite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Hydrocerussite on Google
  • Look for Hydrocerussite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Hydrocerussite on Webmineral
  • Look for Hydrocerussite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Hydrocerussite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hydrocerussite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Find Hydrocerussite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Specimens:The following Hydrocerussite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Hydrocerussite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    • Queensland
    [MinRec 19 p469-490 - "Sielecki, R: The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field"]
        • Mount Isa district
    Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
    • Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
          • Tasmanian Smelting Company site
    M. Latham Collection 2011
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • St Martin am Silberberg
    Blaß, G., Graf, H.-W. & Pichler, A. (1997): Sekundäre Neubildungen in Schlacken von St. Martin am Silberberg in Kärnten (2). Mineralien-Welt, 8(6), 54-55.
      • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
        • Bleiberg District
          • Mittewald
    A.Pichler (2003)
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Ankogel group
          • Kleinelend valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    J. Taucher: Carinthia II 186./106.:132 (1996)
      • Kreuzeck group
        • Penk
          • Teuchlbach valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Gastein valley
          • Naßfeld valley
            • Kreuzkogel massif
              • Radhausberg
    Kirchner, E. Ch., Mrazek, R., Wimmer, H. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde von Bergbauhalden Radhausberg Süd (Weißental) Kreuzkogel. Mineral. Archiv Salzburg 12, 251-254.
        • Habach valley
          • Nasenkopf
    matrixx 5, p.50-54
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
            • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
              • Kolm-Saigurn
    A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
      • Lungau
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Weißpriach valley
    Schachinger, T., Kolitsch, U., Bernhard, F. & Bojar, H.-P. (2014): Erzmineralisationen und ihre Verwitterungsprodukte aus dem weiteren Bereich der Steirischen und Lungauer Kalkspitze. Der Steirische Mineralog 28, 8-21.
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • Rettenegg
          • Prinzkogel (Prinzenkogel)
            • Prinzkogel mines
              • Southern District
    Bojar, H.-P. & Moser, B. (1994); Jakely, D. et al. (2008)
        • Spital am Semmering
          • Steinhaus am Semmering
            • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
    P. Tomazic, F. Bernhard, U. Kolitsch und G. Knobloch (2012): Mineralogie eines historischen Bergbaues auf Eisen und Silber am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering. Der Steirische Mineralog 26, 4-9.
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Öblarn
          • Walchen
    [Lapis 1992: 2 p.19-30]
      • Schladming
        • Schladminger Tauern
          • Giglach valley
            • Giglach lakes
    Schachinger, T., Kolitsch, U., Bernhard, F. & Bojar, H.-P. (2014): Erzmineralisationen und ihre Verwitterungsprodukte aus dem weiteren Bereich der Steirischen und Lungauer Kalkspitze. Der Steirische Mineralog 28, 8-21.
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Imst - Nassereith District
          • Haiming
    M. Strasser (2006): Wulfenit aus Haiming in Tirol. Lapis 31 (2), 40-41.
          • Imst
            • Tschirgant
    Hanneberg, A., Simon, P. & Wolkersdorfer, C. (2009): Galmei und schöne Wulfenite: Der Blei-Zink-Bergbau rund um den Fernpaß in Tirol. Lapis 34 (4), 21-31; 54.
        • Zillertal
          • Stillupgrund (Stillup valley)
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Plombières (Bleyberg)
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Similkameen Mining Division
        • Similkameen River
        • Tulameen River
    • Ontario
      • Frontenac Co.
        • Loughborough Township
        • Olden Township
    Ann P. Sabina, Rocks & Minerals for the Collector: Geoligical Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 32. Page 16, Long Lake Zinc Mine
    • Québec
      • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
        • La Côte-de-Gaspé RCM
    Sabina; Sabina, A.P. (1967) Rocks & minerals for the collector: Eastern Townships and Gaspé, Quebec and parts of New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 66-51, 78-79.
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Luoyang Prefecture
        • Luoning Co.
    Yanjing Chen, Pirajno, F., and Jinping Qi (2007): Journal of Asian Earth Sciences (in press).
    • Yunnan Province
      • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
        • Gejiu Co.
    Zude Jin (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(1), 32-34
      • Qujing Prefecture
        • Huize Co.
    Qiliang Chen (2002): Geology and Prospecting 38(1), 22-26
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
      • Liberec Region
        • Harrachov (Harrachsdorf)
    Fengl, M.: Mineralogie těžených fluoritových ložisek (1.-5.). Minerál, 1998-1999, roč. 6-7, č. 2, 4, 6, 1, 3.
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    • Brittany
      • Côtes-d'Armor
        • Gouarec
          • Plélauff
    inventaire minéralogique de la france No5, côtes-d'armor, Pierrot/Chauris/Laforet 1975
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
    • Burgundy
      • Saône-et-Loire
        • Saint-Léger-sous-Beuvray
          • Saint-Prix
    PASSAQUI J.-P., DEMAIZIERE J.-F., GOURAULT C., SZULAK L., PERRAUDIN M., DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R. (2007) – Les Molérats (Saône-et-Loire), Le Règne Minéral Hors série XIII, pp.91-96.
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Aude
        • Padern
    Favreau, G., Berbain, C. & Meisser, N. (2003): Cyanophyllite et autres minéraux rares de Padern (Aude). Le Cahiers des Micromonteurs, 82(4), 17-23.
      • Lozère
        • Marvejols
          • St Léger-de-Peyre
    Patrice Queneau Collection
        • Pont-de-Montvert
          • Vialas
    No reference listed
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
        • Villefranche-de-Rouergue
    Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22. ; Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
        • Saint-Germain-Laval
    Anthony Geneyton
      • Rhône
        • Beaujeu
          • Les Ardillats
    Favreau G., Legris J-R., Dardillac M. (1996), La Verrière (Rhône): Histoire et Minéralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, pp:3-28
        • Poule-les-Echarmeaux
    Chollet Pascal Collection EDS by Vincent Bourgoin - Jean Wyart association
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Badenweiler
          • Badenweiler Pb mining District
            • Sehringen
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992; Schlomann, C. and Steen, H. (1990) Neue Mineralfunde aus dem Bergbaugebiet von Badenweiler im Südschwarzwald. Lapis, 15 (12), 13-20; 50. (in German)
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Emmendingen
          • Freiamt Pb-Cu mining District
            • Freiamt
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Gengenbach
          • Haigerach valley
    Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald
        • Hausach
          • Einbach valley
    [Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald]
        • Schapbach
          • Wildschapbach valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Schönau
          • Aitern
    Lapis 21(12), 44 (1996)
        • St Blasien
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Urberg
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Todtnau
    Lapis 21(12), 44 (1996)
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Baden-W%FCrttemberg/Schwarzwald/Todtnau/Lisb%FChl
        • Waldshut
          • Brenden
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    KOLITSCH, U. & GÖTZINGER, M. (2000): Einige Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald: Eulytin, Namibit, Volborthit, Gearksutit, Spertiniit, Monazit-(La), Protasit, Sainfeldit, Cyanotrichit und Vauquelinit. - Erzgräber 14, 33-47. ; KOLITSCH, U. (2000): Eine durch Betoneinwirkung entstandene Paragenese von Blei-Verbindungen aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. - Erzgräber 14, 48-53; WALENTA, K. (1997): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara 7. Folge. - Lapis 22 (11), 37-47; WALENTA, K. (1999): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara. 8. Folge, 2. Teil. Lapis 24 (12), 40-44
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
          • Zellerfeld veins
    Gröbner, J. & Nikoleizig, J. (2009): Die Mineralien der Gruben Kahlenbergsglück & Grüne Tanne am Kahlenberg bei Zellerfeld. Mineralien-Welt 20 (4), 34-39.
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
          • Grane Reservoir
    No reference listed
        • Lautenthal
    No reference listed
        • St Andreasberg District
          • Oder valley
    Schnorrer, G. (1994): Neues aus St. Andreasberg/Harz. Lapis 19(5), 35.
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • St Andreasberg
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    International Association of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 9 (3), 3-6; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Niederberg area
        • Velbert
          • Rützkausen
    Lapis 1988(1), 15-34
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Essen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Brilon
    Lapis 25(12), 47 (2000)
        • Sundern
          • Bönkhausen
    Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Adenau
          • Antweiler
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Prüm
          • Bleialf
            • Neue Hoffnung Mine
    Lapis, 16(2), 13-18+58.
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Braubach
    Lapis, 16 (1), 38-53+58.
          • Frücht
    Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
      • Palatinate
        • Winnweiler
          • Imsbach
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Westerwald
        • Linz am Rhein
          • Rheinbreitbach
    Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Zschopau
    Witzke, T. (2012): Neubestimmungen von Fundstellen in Sachsen: Pyracmonit, Philipsbornit, Mottramit, Mansfieldit, Hydrocerussit und weitere. Aufschluss, 63, 295-300.
    • Thuringia
      • Wurzbach
        • Weitisberga
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Sounion area
    Blaß, G., Fabritz, K. H., Mühlbauer, W. and Prachar, I. (1998): Immer wieder Neues aus Lavrion. Mineralien-Welt 9 (2), 46-48 (in German).
    Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
          • Vromopoussi area
    Fritz Schreiber collection
    Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
    Uwe Kolitsch (PXRD-analysed)
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; - Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Puntazeza area (Punta Zeza area)
    Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German)
          • Sounion area
    Fritz Schreiber Collection
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    [Mineralogical Record - Vol 24 No 2]; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Indonesia
     
    • Kalimantan Island (Borneo Island)
      • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
    Hattori, K. H., Cabri, L. J., Johanson, B., & Zientek, M. L. (2004). Origin of placer laurite from Borneo: Se and As contents, and S isotopic compositions. Mineralogical Magazine, 68(2), 353-368.
    Iran
     
    • Yazd Province
      • Nayband (Neyband)
    Anthony, J.W. et al. (2005): Handbook of Mineralogy
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Canavese District
          • Chiusella Valley
            • Traversella
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
          • Oridda
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Valsugana
          • Novaledo
    Rocchetti I., Gentile P. and Ferretti P. (2012): La Miniera di Frattasecca presso Malga Broi (Novaledo, Trentino-Alto Adige). Storia e nuove segnalazioni mineralogiche. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali, 92, pagg. 167-180.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
    Int. Assoc. of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 10 (2), 4-6.
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Franzini et al., 1992. Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Riv. Miner. Ital., 1: 1-14; Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Miyazaki Prefecture
        • Takachiho
    Kato, A. (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 38. (Sakurai collection)
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Keller, P. (1977): Hydrocerussit von Tsumeb/Südwestafrika. Der Aufschluss, 28, 413-415.
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    Norway
     
    • Akershus
      • Nesodden
    L. O. Kvamsdal (1988). Mi-Fo nytt 71. (nr 5-1988)
    • Buskerud
      • Drammen
        • Konnerud
          • Konnerudkollen Mines (Konnerud Mines)
    Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p
    • Nordland
      • Sørfold
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    • Telemark
      • Porsgrunn
        • Mørje
          • Sagåsen
    Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Tvedalen
    Åmli, R. and Griffin, W.L. (1972): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway, No 47. Three minerals new to Norway: Wickmannite, Leadhillite and Hydrocerussite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 52: 192-196
          • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
    Poland
     
    • Małopolskie
      • Chrzanów District
        • Trzebinia
    Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, A., and Strzelska-Smakowska, B. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 559-580.
      • Olkusz District
        • Bolesław
    Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, A., and Strzelska-Smakowska, B. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 559-580.
        • Olkusz
    Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, A., and Strzelska-Smakowska, B. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 559-580.
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
            • Eveslogchorr Mt
              • 3rd left tributary of Vuonnemijok river (Astrophillytovyi stream)
    Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
          • Lovozero Massif
            • Seidozero Lake
    Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Mikhailova, J.A., and Ivanyuk, G.Yu. (2007): Canadian Mineralogist 45, 451-456.
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Altaiskii Krai
        • Rudnyi Altai
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 271.
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Delmas
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Tschermaks Min. Pet. Mitt. 3 (1953), 298; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
    No reference listed
    Switzerland
     
    • Uri
      • Urseren
        • Furka pass area
          • Gletschhorn
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 218.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
    Graeser, et al. (2008) Faszination Lengenbach. KristalloGrafik-Verl., Achberg
    Tunisia
     
    • Mahdia Governorate
      • Mahdia
    Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
    U.S. Virgin Islands
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
      • Bristol
        • Westbury on Trym
    BMS Database
      • Co. Durham
        • North Pennines
          • Weardale
            • Frosterley
              • Rogerley Quarry
    P Haas collection
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Lezant
    Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24, 2004, pp 9-28
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Braithwaite District
    No reference listed
          • Caldbeck Fells
    BMS Database
            • Carrock Fell
              • Carrock Mine
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
    BMS Database
            • Roughton Gill
    No reference listed
    Journal of The Russell Society, Volume11, 2008
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
          • Threlkeld District
            • Blencathra
    UK Journal of Mines and Minerals number 29 2008
          • Whitehaven
    BMS Database
      • Derbyshire
        • Ashover
          • Milltown
    S. Rust collection; Min.Mag.(1984) 48, 267-269; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.; Rust, S. A. (1994): Seltene Mineralien aus dem Milltown-Steinbruch bei Ashover, Derbyshire, Großbritannien. Lapis, 19(12), 13-17; 58 (in German).
        • Matlock
    Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
      • Somerset
        • Cheddar
    BMS Database
        • Cranmore
    Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46; Turner, R.W., (2006) A Mechanism for the formation of the Mineralised Mn Deposits at Merehead Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England. Min. Mag. vol. 70, no. 6, pp 629 - 653; Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 406-408.; Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 410-411
        • Holwell
    BMS Database
        • Mendip Hills
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 57.
          • Priddy
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 83; Mineralogical Record: 27: 253.
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
          • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
    S Rust collection
      • Strathclyde (Lanarkshire)
        • South Lanarkshire
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 271; Scottish Journal of Geology (1987): 23, 1-8.
            • Wanlock Dod
    S.Rust collection
    S. Rust Collection
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Ceulanymaesmawr
          • Talybont
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    UKJMM No5
        • Trefeirig
          • Pen-bont Rhydybeddau
    BMS Database
    Steve Rust Collection
        • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
          • Cwmystwyth
    Steve Rust
          • Pontrhydygroes
    BMS Database, UKJMM 17
      • Powys (Montgomeryshire)
        • Machynlleth
          • Dylife
    BMS Database
      • Powys (Radnorshire)
        • Old Radnor
          • Wethel
    Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
        • Rhayader
    No reference listed
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    [MinRec 24:421]
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Christmas area
              • Christmas
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 254.
      • Graham Co.
        • Aravaipa District
          • Santa Teresa Mts
            • Klondyke
              • Grand Reef Mountain
                • Laurel Canyon
    [MinRec 27:305]
      • La Paz Co.
        • Trigo Mts
          • Silver District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
                • Tiger Wash
    Mineral News (2002) 18-1 pp1,5-7
        • Vulture Mts
          • Vulture District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 141; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, Arizona, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Fahey, J.J., et al (1950), Wherryite, a new mineral from the Mammoth mine, AZ, Am.Min.: 35: 93-98; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 55.
    • Idaho
      • Shoshone Co.
        • Coeur d'Alene District
          • Kellogg
            • Bunker Hill properties
    Ream, Lanny L. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated, p.10
    • Massachusetts
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Easthampton
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Michigan
      • Marquette Co.
    Shawn Carlson (2010) Mineral News, 26, #11, 1-2 & 9-10.
    • North Carolina
      • Carteret Co.
        • Beaufort
    www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/qar/rcorner/Craigscreen.pdf.; Stacie E. Dunkle (2002) Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718) MS thesis VPI
    • Rhode Island
      • Providence Co.
        • Cranston
    Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston
    Vietnam
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
    Zambia
     
    • Central Province
      • Kabwe District
        • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
    Mike Leppington collection (visual identification)
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