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Amethyst

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Formula:
SiO
 
2
Colour:PurpleLustre:Vitreous
Name:From Greek "a-methystos", meaning not drunk.
A variety of Quartz

A purple variety of quartz. The colour is caused by iron (Fe4+) impurities in the 10s to 100s parts per million range (see references).
If heated, amethyst turns yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish, and thus resembles the quartz variety citrine.

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Classification of Amethyst

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Physical Properties of Amethyst

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Purple

Chemical Properties of Amethyst

Formula:
SiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:SiO2
Essential elements:O, Si
All elements listed in formula:O, Si

Other Names for Amethyst

Synonyms:
Amethystine AgateAmethystine quartzBishops StoneLavendineSpirit Quartz
Other Languages:
Basque:Amatista
Bulgarian:Аметист
Catalan:Ametista
Czech:Ametyst
Danish:Ametyst
Dutch:Amethist
Esperanto:Ametisto
Estonian:Ametüst
Finnish:Ametisti
French:Améthyste
Georgian:ამეთვისტო
German:Amethyst
Bacchusstein
Haaramethyst
Greek:Αμέθυστος
Hebrew:אחלמה
אמתיסט
Hungarian:Ametiszt
Irish Gaelic:Aimitis
Italian:Ametista
Japanese:アメジスト
紫水晶
Kazakh (Cyrillic Script):Аметист
Latin:Amethystus
Latvian:Ametists
Lithuanian:Ametistas
Nahuatl:Tlapaltehuilōtl
Norwegian (Bokmål):Ametyst
Polish:Ametyst
Portuguese:Ametista
Romanian:Ametist
Russian:Аметист
Samogitian:Ametėsts
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Аметист
Simplified Chinese:紫晶
紫水晶
Slovak:Ametyst
Slovenian:Ametist
Spanish:Amatista
Swedish:Ametist
Thai:เขี้ยวหนุมาน
Turkish:Ametist
Ukrainian:Аметист
Wolof:Ametist
Varieties:
Burnt amethystHair Amethyst

Other Information

Health Warning:Quartz is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.

References for Amethyst

Reference List:

- +
Lietz, J. & Munchberg, W. (1957): The coloring of amethyst. II. The effect of ultraviolet and gamma-rays on the coloring. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1957, 25-33.

Chudoba, K. F. (1961): The significance of the color of amethyst. Aufschluss 12, 233-248 (in German).

Chudoba, K. F. (1962): Some relations between the causes of amethyst, smoky quartz, and citrine colors as given by modern science. Mineralogicheskii Sbornik (Lvov), (16), 91-105.

Lehmann, G. & Moore, W. J. (1966): Color center in amethyst quartz. Science 152, 1061-1062.

Lehmann, G. (1967): Iron color center as the cause of amethyst color. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Teil A: Astrophysik, Physik und Physikalische Chemie (1967), 22, 2080-2085.

Dennen, W. H. & Puckett, A. M. (1972): Chemistry and color of amethyst. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 448-456.

Cohen, Alvin J. & Hassan, F. (1974): Ferrous and ferric ions in synthetic alpha-quartz and natural amethyst. American Mineralogist 59, 719-728.

Balitskii, V. S. & Balitskaya, O. V. (1986): The amethyst-citrine dichromatism in quartz and its origin. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 13, 415-421.

Cohen, A. J. (1985): Amethyst color in quartz, the result of radiation protection involving iron. American Mineralogist 70, 1180-1185.

Kostov, R. (1987): A discussion on the color of amethyst. Priroda (Sofia), 36(2), 10-15.

Cohen, Alvin J. (1989): New data on the cause of smoky and amethystine color in quartz. Mineralogical Record 20, 365-367.

Choh, S. H.; Jo, S. H.; Song, K. J.; Park, I. W.; Han, C. S. (1993): Thermal stability of iron(3+) centers in natural and synthetic amethyst. Bulletin of Magnetic Resonance 15, 35-40.

Vasconcelos P, Wenk HR, Rossman GR (1994) The Anahí ametrine mine,
Bolivia. Gems and Gemology 30, 4-23.

Rossman GR (1994) The colored varieties of the silica minerals. In: P.J.
Haney, ed., Reviews in Mineralogy 29, 433-468.

Balitsky VS, Lu T, Rossman GR, Makhina IB, Mar'in, AA, Shigley JE, Elen S, Dorogovin BA (1999) Russian synthetic ametrine. Gems and Gemology 35, 122-134.

Dedushenko, S. K.; Makhina, I. B.; Mar'in, A. A.; Mukhanov, V. A.; Perfiliev, Yu. D. (2004): What oxidation state of iron determines the amethyst colour? Hyperfine Interactions 156/157, 417-422.

Balzer, R. (2008): Amethyst Uruguay. 304 pp (in German and English).

Tumuklu, Ali; Gumus, Hande & Sen, Sezer (2008): Role of trace elements in natural amethysts in colouring. Asian Journal of Chemistry 20, 4138-4140.

Amethyst: Uncommon Vintage (2012) No. 16 Lithographie. Denver 124pp

Internet Links for Amethyst

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    Localities for Amethyst

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