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Hydroxylapatite

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Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
White, grey, yellow, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Earthy
Hardness:
5
Name:
Named hydro-apatite in 1856 by Augustin Alexis Damour from the Greek απατείν ("apatein"), "to deceive" or "to be misleading", as Apatite was often confused with other minerals (e.g. Beryl, Milarite), plus the "hydro-" prefix for the water-rich (as hydroxyl) nature of the mineral. Waldemar Schaller changed the name slightly to hydroxyl-apatite in 1912 and the one-word, hydroxylapatit, was introduced by Burri, Jakob, Parker, and Hugo Strunz in 1935. Additional names applied to this mineral include: pyroclasite, ornithite, monite, etc. Much "carbonate-apatite" is hydroxylapatite, including some dahllite, collophane, etc.
Apatite Group. The hydroxyl analogue of fluorapatite and chlorapatite. The phosphate analogue of johnbaumite.

Classification of Hydroxylapatite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
41.8.1.3

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
19.4.2

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca
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Occurrences of Hydroxylapatite

Geological Setting:
Abundant in sedimentary phosphate beds. Occasionally found in Talc-schist; in diallage-serpentine rock. May be be found in late-stage phosphate mineralization in granite pegmatites,

Physical Properties of Hydroxylapatite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
White, grey, yellow, green, violet, purple, red or brown
Comment:
Ideally white; other colors usually due to staining
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Poor on {0001) and on {1010}
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal, Fibrous
Density:
3.10 - 3.21 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.16 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density may be lower when earthy in texture.

Crystallography of Hydroxylapatite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Space Group Setting:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.41Å, c = 6.88Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.731
Unit Cell Volume:
V 527.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals short to long hexagonal prisms [0001], with {1010} and {1011} dominant; also thick tabular {0001}, frequently in the crystals of hydrothermal origin in pegmatites and veins, with {1010}, relatively large {0001}, and often also {1011} or low pyramids. Very sharp crystals are uncommon and terminations are frequently rounded. Massive, coarse granular to compact.
Twinning:
Rare contact twins on {1121}. Twin plane {10_13} rare. Also twinning reported on {1010} and {11_23}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.814 (100)
2.778 (60)
2.720 (60)
3.44 (40)
1.841 (40)
1.943 (30)
2.631 (25)
Comments:
synthetic (ICDD 9-432)

Optical Data of Hydroxylapatite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.651 nε = 1.644
Birefringence:
0.007
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.007
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Hydroxylapatite

Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hydroxylapatite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
BellitePb5 (AsO4,CrO4, SiO2)3Cl
Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
Manganapatite
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite-2M
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
19.4.1MonetiteCa(HPO4)
19.4.3BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2O
19.4.4IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
19.4.5BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)
19.4.6CanaphiteNa2Ca(P2O7) · 4H2O
19.4.7Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2O
19.4.8WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(HPO4)
19.4.9BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu6(PO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O

Other Names for Hydroxylapatite

Other Information

Not usually fluorescent.
Other Information:
Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of phosphorus.

References for Hydroxylapatite

Reference List:
Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science: 22: 96 (as Pyroclasite).

Shepard (1882) American Journal of Science: 23: 400 (as Monite).

Schaller (1912) USGS Bull. 509: 89 (as Hydroxyapatite).

Bianchi (1919) Atti soc. ital. soc. Nat.: 458: 306.

Burri, Jakob, Parker, and Strunz (1935) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 15: 327 (as Hydroxylapatit).

Gruner and McConnell (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 208.

McConnell and Gruner (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 157.

Mitchell, Faust, Hendricks, and Reynolds (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 356.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 879-889.

Mengeot, M., Bartram, R.H., and Gilliam, O.R. (1975) Paramagnetic hole-like defect in irradiated calcium hydroxyapatite single crystals. Phys. Rev.: B11: 4110-4124.

American Mineralogist (1989): 74: 87.

Nature: 204: 1050-1052.

Elliott, J. C. (1994): Structure and chemistry of the apatites and other calcium orthophosphates. Elservier, Amsterdam, 389 pp.

Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000) Site preference of rare earth elements in hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 149: 391-398.

Young J. Lee, Peter W. Stephens, Yuanzhi Tang, Wei Li, Brian L. Phillips, John B. Parise, and Richard J. Reeder (2009): Arsenate substitution in hydroxylapatite: Structural characterization of the Ca5(PxAs1–xO4)3OH solid solution. American Mineralogist 94, 666-675.

Hassen Agougui, Thouraya Turki, Hassen Bachouâ, Abdallah Aissa, Mongi Debbabi (2012): Synthesis, characterization and structural refinement of mixed hydroxyapatites Ca(10-x)Mx(PO4)6(OH)2 (M = Co, Ni or Zn). Annales de Chimie - Science des Matériaux 37, 149-169.

J. D. Pasteris, C. H. Yoder, M. P. Sternlieb, S. Liu (2012): Effect of carbonate incorporation on the hydroxyl content of hydroxylapatite. Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 2741-2759.

Internet Links for Hydroxylapatite

Specimens:
The following Hydroxylapatite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hydroxylapatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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