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Hopeite

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Formula:
Zn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Yellow, white, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:
Member of:Hopeite Group
Name:After Thomas Charles Hope (1766-1844), Professor of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh.
Dimorph of:Parahopeite


Two varieties are known, α-Hopeite and β-Hopeite (Spencer, 1908), which are distinguished by slightly different optical properties and thermal behaviour.
These two varieties differ by the orientation of one water molecule in the crystal structure (Herschke et al., 2004).

The phosphate analogue of arsenohopeite.

Classification of Hopeite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.11-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CA.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
A : With small and large/medium cations
Dana 8th edition ID:40.3.4.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.6.3

19 : Phosphates
6 : Phosphates of Zn
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Type Occurrence of Hopeite

Type Locality:Vieille Montagne (Altenberg; Kelmisberg), Moresnet, Kelmis, Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg), Verviers, Liège Province, Belgium
Year of Discovery:1822
Associated Minerals at type locality:
Hemimorphite

Physical Properties of Hopeite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Lustre pearly on the {010} cleavage.
Colour:Yellow, white, colourless, grey or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {100}, good; on {001}, poor.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):3 - 3.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.08 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hopeite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma {P21/n 21/m 21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 10.597(3) Å, b = 18.318(8) Å, c = 5.031(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.579 : 1 : 0.275
Unit Cell Volume:V 976.6 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals tabular {010} to prismatic [001], and occurring individually or as tufted or divergent aggregates and crusts. Face development is frequently irregular. The crystals may simulate disphenoidal or hemimorphic symmetry. Reniform masses; compact.
Twinning:None observed.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hopeite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.572 - 1.574 nβ = 1.582 - 1.591 nγ = 1.590 - 1.592
2V:Calculated: 26° to 82°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.018

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v, perceptible.

Chemical Properties of Hopeite

Formula:
Zn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O
Essential elements:H, O, P, Zn
All elements listed in formula:H, O, P, Zn

Relationship of Hopeite to other Species

Member of:Hopeite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Arsenohopeite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Davidlloydite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
·4H
 
2
O
Nizamoffite
Mn
2+
 
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(H
 
2
O)
 
4
Parahopeite
Zn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CA.05Fransoletite
Ca
 
3
Be
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CA.05Parafransoletite
Ca
 
3
Be
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CA.10Ehrleite
Ca
 
4
Be
 
3
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CA.15Faheyite
(Mn,Mg,Na)Be
 
2
Fe
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
8.CA.20Gainesite
Na(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 1.5-2H
 
2
O
8.CA.20Mccrillisite
NaCs(Be,Li)Zr
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 1-2H
 
2
O
8.CA.20Selwynite
NaK(Be,Al)Zr
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CA.25Pahasapaite
Li
 
8
(Ca,Li,K)
 
10.5
Be
 
24
(PO
 
4
)
 
24
· 38H
 
2
O
8.CA.30Arsenohopeite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CA.35Warikahnite
Zn
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CA.40Phosphophyllite
Zn
 
2
Fe(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CA.45Parascholzite
CaZn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CA.45Scholzite
CaZn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CA.50Keyite
Cu
2+
3
Zn
 
4
Cd
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CA.55Pushcharovskite
K
 
0.6
Cu
 
18
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
10
(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
9.6
·18.6H
 
2
O
8.CA.60Prosperite
CaZn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.CA.65Gengenbachite
KFe
3+
3
(HPO
 
4
)
 
4
(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.CA.70Parahopeite
Zn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.6.1Tarbuttite
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.6.2Spencerite
Zn
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.6.4Parahopeite
Zn
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.6.5Veszelyite
(Cu,Zn)
 
2
Zn(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.6.6Kipushite
(Cu,Zn)
 
5
Zn(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
19.6.7Scholzite
CaZn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.6.8Parascholzite
CaZn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.6.9Ehrleite
Ca
 
4
Be
 
3
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
· 9H
 
2
O
19.6.10Faustite
(Zn,Cu)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
19.6.11Aheylite
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)Al
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 4H
 
2
O
19.6.12Jungite
Ca
 
2
Zn
 
4
Fe
3+
8
(PO
 
4
)
 
9
(OH)
 
9
· 16H
 
2
O
19.6.13Schoonerite
ZnMn
2+
 
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
19.6.14Phosphophyllite
Zn
 
2
Fe(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Hopeite

Synonyms:
α-Hopeiteβ-HopeiteHibbenite
Other Languages:
French:Stilbite duovigésimale
German:Hopeit
Prismatoidischer Zinkphyllit
Russian:Гопеит
Simplified Chinese:板状磷锌矿
Spanish:Hopeita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in dilute HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hopeite

Reference List:

- +
Brewster (1822) Edinburgh Phil. Journal: 6: 184.

Brewster (1823) Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 10: 107 (1826).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Edition: 38 (as Prismatoidischer Zinkphyllit).

Haüy (cf. Des Cloizeaux) (1879) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 2: 133 (as Stilbite duovigésimale).

Spencer, L.J. (1908) On hopeite and other zinc phosphates and associated minerals from Broken Hill mines, North-Western Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine, 15, 1-38.

Buttgenbach (1909) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels - Bull., no. 5: 567.

Ungemach (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 132.

Walker (1916) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 6: 685.

Walker (1916), University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 10 (1918).

Buttgenbach (1919) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: 93.

Buttgenbach (1921) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: M93

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 87.

Wolfe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 795.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 734-737.

Liebau, F. (1962) Über die Struktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Chemie der Erde, 22, 430-432.

Liebau, F. (1965) Zur Kristallstruktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica, 18, 352-354.

Kawahara, A., Takano, Y., Takahashi, M. (1973): The structure of hopeite. Mineralogical Journal, 7, 289-297.

Hill, R. J. & Jones, J. B. (1976): The crystal structure of hopeite. American Mineralogist, 61, 987-995.

Whitaker, A. (1978a) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica, B31, 2026-2035.

Whitaker, A. (1978b) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O: errata. Acta Crystallographica, B34, 2385-2386.

Pawlig, O. and Trettin, R. (1999) Synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin, 34, 1959-1966.

Herschke, L., Enkelmann, V., Lieberwirth, I. and Wegner, G. (2004): The role of hydrogen bonding in the crystal structures of zinc phosphate hydrates. Chemistry - A European Journal, 10, 2795-2803.

Parhi, P., Manivannan, V., Kohli, S. and McCurdy, P. (2008) Room temperature metathetic synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin, 43, 1836-1841.

Internet Links for Hopeite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hopeite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Hopeite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Hopeite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Kelmis
            • Moresnet
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736; MJ 7 (1973), 289; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Cornelio Saavedra Province
        • Machacamarca District (Colavi District)
          • Huallani (Huayllani)
            • Infiernillos mine
    Anthony Kampf analysis, Alfredo Petrov specimen.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Nelson Mining Division
        • Salmo
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734 & 753, 933.
    China
     
    • Guizhou Province
      • Bijie Prefecture
        • Weining Co.
          • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
    Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
    • Yunnan Province
      • Qujing Prefecture
        • Huize Co.
          • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
    Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
    Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Vohenstrauß
            • Pleystein
    Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
            • Waidhaus
              • Hagendorf
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Bockswies veins
            • Oberschulenberg
    Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
          • Büsbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Frücht
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Portugal
     
    • Guarda District
      • Gouveia
        • Folgosinho
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Delmas
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Catalonia
      • Tarragona
        • Priorat
          • Bellmunt del Priorat
    Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
        • Kaiyuh District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arizona
      • Graham Co.
        • Aravaipa District
          • Santa Teresa Mts
            • Aravaipa
              • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
    Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
    • California
      • San Diego Co.
        • Pala District
          • Pala
            • Chief Mountain
    Mineralogical Record (2002): 33(5): 388.
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    No reference listed
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
        • Custer District
          • Fourmile
    Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Glendale
    Rocks & Minerals: 60: 116.
    Zambia
     
    • Central Province
      • Kabwe District
        • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736, 870.
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