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Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Yellow, white, ...
Vitreous, Pearly
Member of:
After Thomas Charles Hope (1766-1844), Professor of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh.
Dimorph of:
Two varieties are known, α-Hopeite and β-Hopeite (Spencer, 1908), which are distinguished by slightly different optical properties and thermal behaviour.
These two varieties differ by the orientation of one water molecule in the crystal structure (Herschke et al., 2004).

The phosphate analogue of arsenohopeite.

Classification of Hopeite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
A : With small and large/medium cations

3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
6 : Phosphates of Zn URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Hopeite

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Physical Properties of Hopeite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Lustre pearly on the {010} cleavage.
Yellow, white, colourless, grey or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
On {010}, perfect; on {100}, good; on {001}, poor.
3 - 3.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.08 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hopeite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.597(3) Å, b = 18.318(8) Å, c = 5.031(1) Å
a:b:c = 0.579 : 1 : 0.275
Unit Cell Volume:
V 976.6 ų
Crystals tabular {010} to prismatic [001], and occurring individually or as tufted or divergent aggregates and crusts. Face development is frequently irregular. The crystals may simulate disphenoidal or hemimorphic symmetry. Reniform masses; compact.
None observed.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Hopeite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.572 - 1.574 nβ = 1.582 - 1.591 nγ = 1.590 - 1.592
Calculated: 26° to 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.018
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v, perceptible.

Chemical Properties of Hopeite

Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Hopeite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
ArsenohopeiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2O
ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CA.05FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CA.05ParafransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CA.10EhrleiteCa4Be3Zn2(PO4)6 · 9H2O
8.CA.15FaheyiteBe2Mn2+Fe23+(PO4)4 · 6H2O
8.CA.20GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2O
8.CA.20MccrillisiteNaCs(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1-2H2O
8.CA.20SelwyniteNaK(Be,Al)Zr2(PO4)4 · 2H2O
8.CA.25PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2O
8.CA.30ArsenohopeiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CA.35WarikahniteZn3(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
8.CA.40PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CA.45ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
8.CA.45ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
8.CA.50KeyiteCu32+Zn4Cd2(AsO4)6 · 2H2O
8.CA.60ProsperiteCa2Zn4(AsO4)4•H2O ·
8.CA.65GengenbachiteKFe33+(HPO4)4(H2PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.CA.70ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.6.2SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
19.6.4ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.6.5Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.6.6Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
19.6.7ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.6.8ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
19.6.9EhrleiteCa4Be3Zn2(PO4)6 · 9H2O
19.6.10Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
19.6.11Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
19.6.12JungiteCa2Zn4Fe83+(PO4)9(OH)9 · 16H2O
19.6.13SchooneriteZnMn2+Fe22+Fe3+(PO4)3(OH)2 · 9H2O
19.6.14PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O

Other Names for Hopeite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in dilute HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hopeite

Reference List:
Brewster (1822) Edinburgh Phil. Journal: 6: 184.

Brewster (1823) Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 10: 107 (1826).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Edition: 38 (as Prismatoidischer Zinkphyllit).

Haüy (cf. Des Cloizeaux) (1879) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 2: 133 (as Stilbite duovigésimale).

Spencer, L.J. (1908) On hopeite and other zinc phosphates and associated minerals from Broken Hill mines, North-Western Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine, 15, 1-38.

Buttgenbach (1909) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels - Bull., no. 5: 567.

Ungemach (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 132.

Walker (1916) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 6: 685.

Walker (1916), University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series, no. 10 (1918).

Buttgenbach (1919) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: 93.

Buttgenbach (1921) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 42: M93

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 87.

Wolfe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 795.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 734-737.

Liebau, F. (1962) Über die Struktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Chemie der Erde, 22, 430-432.

Liebau, F. (1965) Zur Kristallstruktur des Hopeits, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica, 18, 352-354.

Kawahara, A., Takano, Y., Takahashi, M. (1973): The structure of hopeite. Mineralogical Journal, 7, 289-297.

Hill, R. J. & Jones, J. B. (1976): The crystal structure of hopeite. American Mineralogist, 61, 987-995.

Whitaker, A. (1978a) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Acta Crystallographica, B31, 2026-2035.

Whitaker, A. (1978b) The crystal structure of hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O: errata. Acta Crystallographica, B34, 2385-2386.

Pawlig, O. and Trettin, R. (1999) Synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin, 34, 1959-1966.

Herschke, L., Enkelmann, V., Lieberwirth, I. and Wegner, G. (2004): The role of hydrogen bonding in the crystal structures of zinc phosphate hydrates. Chemistry - A European Journal, 10, 2795-2803.

Parhi, P., Manivannan, V., Kohli, S. and McCurdy, P. (2008) Room temperature metathetic synthesis and characterization of alpha-hopeite, Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O. Materials Research Bulletin, 43, 1836-1841.

Internet Links for Hopeite

The following Hopeite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Hopeite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
        • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Martins Well
SA Geodata Database - Mineral Deposit Details Deposit Number: 3220
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Belgium (TL)
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
        • Kelmis
          • Moresnet
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736; MJ 7 (1973), 289; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV.
  • Potosí Department
    • Cornelio Saavedra Province
      • Machacamarca District (Colavi District)
        • Huallani (Huayllani)
          • Infiernillos mine
Anthony Kampf analysis, Alfredo Petrov specimen.
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
      • Salmo
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734 & 753, 933.
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
Richard Gunter Collection
  • Guizhou Province
    • Bijie Prefecture
      • Weining Co.
        • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Qujing Prefecture
      • Huize Co.
        • Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag) ore field
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
Runsheng Han, Congqiang Liu, Zhilong Huang, Jin Chen, Deyun Ma, Li Lei, and Gengsheng Ma (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31(1-4), 360-383.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Büsbach
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Frücht
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Bellmunt del Priorat
Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
  • Alaska
    • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
      • Kaiyuh District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Arizona
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Aravaipa
            • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
          • Chief Mountain
Mineralogical Record (2002): 33(5): 388.
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Kampf, A. R., Falster, A. U., Simmons, W. B., & Whitmore, R. W. (2013). Nizamoffite, Mn2+ Zn2 (PO4) 2 (H2O) 4, the Mn analogue of hopeite from the Palermo No. 1 pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire. American Mineralogist, 98(10), 1893-1898.
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Glendale
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 116.
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe District
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736, 870.
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