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Ice

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Formula:
H
 
2
O
System:HexagonalColour:Colourless to white, ...
Hardness:
Name:From Old English is, from Proto-Germanic *isa-.


Stable as a solid under 0°C (at standard atmospheric pressure). There are many different structural varieties of ice, although the standard form found on earth is Ih (hexagonal ice) as described here.

Classification of Ice

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.AA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
A : Cation:Anion (M:O) = 2:1 (and 1.8:1)
Dana 8th edition ID:4.1.2.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
1 : A2X
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.1.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
1 : Oxides of hydrogen
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Physical Properties of Ice

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to white, pale blue to greenish blue in thick layers
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Conchoidal
Translation gliding:(0001)
Density (measured):0.9167 g/cm3
Density (calculated):0.93 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ice

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc
Space Group Setting:P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 4.498Å, c = 7.338Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.631
Unit Cell Volume:V 128.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Usualy as snow crystals, in complex six-rayed stellate forms of great variety, flattened {0001}. Delicate skeletal forms or hopper-shaped prisms as hoar frost. Lathlike crystals, greatly elongated at times, by crystallization on the surface of water.
Twinning:Twin plane (α): {0001}, and (b): {0001¯}.

Optical Data of Ice

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.309 nε = 1.311
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.001

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Ice

Formula:
H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:H2O
Essential elements:H, O
All elements listed in formula:H, O

Relationship of Ice to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.AA.10Cuprite
Cu
 
2
O
4.AA.15Paramelaconite
Cu
 
2
Cu
 
2
O
 
3

Other Names for Ice

Other Languages:
French:Glace
German:Eis
Italian:Ghiaccio
Russian:Лед
Swedish:Is
Varieties:
Snow

Other Information

Magnetism:Diamagnetic
Health Warning:See http://www.dhmo.org/

References for Ice

Reference List:

- +
Hellmann, G. (1893): Schneekrystalle. Verlag von Rudolf Mückenberger, Berlin, 66 pp. [http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/no_cache/dms/load/img/?IDDOC=320734]

Dobrowolski (1916), Ark. Kemi: 6(7).

Mügge (1918): Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 187.

Adams (1930), Royal Society of London, Proceedings: 128: 588.

Bernal and Fowler (1933), Journal Chem. Phys.: 1: 515.

Blackwelder (1939), American Journal of Science: 238: 61.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 494-498.

Acta Crystallographica: 41: 169-172.

Aoki, K., Yamawaki, H., Sakashita, M., and Fujihisa, S. (1996) Infrared absorption study of the hydrogen-bond symmetrization in ice to 110 GPa. Physical Review B, 54: 15673-15677.

Goncharov, A.F., Struzhkin, V.V., Somayazulu, M.S., Hemley, R.J., and Mao, H.K. (1996) Compression of ice to 210 gigapascals: Infrared evidence for s symmetric hydrogen-bonded phase. Science: 273-218-220.

Wolanin, E., Pruzan, P., Chervin, J.C., Canny, B., Gauthier, M., Hausermann, D., and Hanfland, M. (1997) Equation of state of ice VII up to 106GPa. Physical Review B, 56: 5781-5785.

www.its.caltech.edu

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice

Mindat.org articles about Ice

Article entries:
The most Common Rock on and above Our Planet.Dave Crosby

Internet Links for Ice

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Ice on Webmineral
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  • Look for Ice on Wikipedia
  • Look for Ice on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ice details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Ice

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Karawanken
        • Hochobir
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Salzburg
      • Golling
        • Tennen Mts
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Salzburg
        • Untersberg massif
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Werfen
        • Blühnbach valley
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Tennen Mts
          • Eiskogel
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
          • Tenneck
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Hallstatt
          • Obertraun
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dachstein-Rieseneish%C3%B6hle
    Belgium
     
    • Luxembourg Province
      • Neufchâteau
    Canada
     
    • Nunavut Territory
      • Baffin Island
        • Nanisivik
    [MinRec 21:519, 21:522, 21:524]
    Sébastien Goulet; ;
    • Yukon Territory
      • Mayo Mining District
        • Galena Hill
          • Elsa
    Boyle, R.W., (1961) Native Zinc at Keno Hill, Can Min vol 6, pp 692-694
        • Keno Hill
    [MinRec 22:386]
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Bavaria
        • Bad Reichenhall
          • Berchtesgaden
            • Marktschellenberg
    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schellenberger_Eish%C3%B6hle
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • La Spezia Province
        • Rocchetta Vara
    Flavio G. Taricco
    Mars
     
    • Utopia Planitia
    NASA photo
    http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/
    Norway
     
    • Sogn og Fjordane
      • Luster
        • Jostedalsbreen
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.52
    Outer Space
     
    • Main Belt Asteroids
    http://spacefellowship.com/news/art14143/more-water-out-there-ice-found-on-an-asteroid.html
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
            • Ryabinovskoe Cu-Au deposit
    Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    http://www.answers.com/topic/avacha.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Štiavnica Co.
    albert russ
    albert russ
      • Žarnovica Co.
    albert russ
    Spain
     
    C. Menor-Salvan
    Tanzania
     
    • Kilimanjaro Region
    Science 18 October 2002: Vol. 298. no. 5593, pp. 548 - 549
    The Moon
     
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8544635.stm
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Valdez-Cordova Borough
        • Nizina District
    Rocks & Minerals 81:296-300
    • California
      • Los Angeles Co.
    Fred & Linda Elsnau.
      • Modoc Co.
        • Cascade Range
    Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Cascade Range
    Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
    • Colorado
      • Eagle Co.
        • Fulford District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • El Paso Co.
        • Manitou District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Dorchester District
          • Taylor Park
    [MinRec 15:86]
      • Park Co.
        • Horseshoe Basin District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Maine
      • Sagadahoc Co.
    Clifford Trebilcock
    • Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Nashua Min. Soc. Disp. Cat., 1995
    • New Mexico
      • Cibola Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Colfax Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
    • North Dakota
      • Cass Co.
    [var: Snow] [Fargo - the Movie - Coen Brothers 1996]
    • Pennsylvania
      • Potter Co.
        • Coudersport
          • Ice Mountain
    Ref.1) Potter County Historical Society QUARTERLY BULLETIN # 83 January 1987
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
    http://windcave.areaparks.com/parkinfo.html?pid=17374
      • Meade Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
      • Pennington Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • West Virginia
      • Raleigh Co.
        • New River Gorge
    http://www.mindat.org/photo-27554.html
    Venezuela
     
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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