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System:HexagonalColour:Colourless to white, ...
Name:From Old English is, from Proto-Germanic *isa-.

Stable as a solid under 0°C (at standard atmospheric pressure). There are many different structural varieties of ice, although the standard form found on earth is Ih (hexagonal ice) as described here.

Classification of Ice

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.AA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
A : Cation:Anion (M:O) = 2:1 (and 1.8:1)
Dana 8th edition ID:

1 : A2X
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.1.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
1 : Oxides of hydrogen
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Physical Properties of Ice

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to white, pale blue to greenish blue in thick layers
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Translation gliding:(0001)
Density (measured):0.9167 g/cm3
Density (calculated):0.93 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ice

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc
Space Group Setting:P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 4.498Å, c = 7.338Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.631
Unit Cell Volume:V 128.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Usualy as snow crystals, in complex six-rayed stellate forms of great variety, flattened {0001}. Delicate skeletal forms or hopper-shaped prisms as hoar frost. Lathlike crystals, greatly elongated at times, by crystallization on the surface of water.
Twinning:Twin plane (α): {0001}, and (b): {0001¯}.

Optical Data of Ice

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.309 nε = 1.311
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.001

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Ice

Simplified for copy/paste:H2O
Essential elements:H, O
All elements listed in formula:H, O

Relationship of Ice to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +

Other Names for Ice

Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Warning:See http://www.dhmo.org/

References for Ice

Reference List:

- +
Hellmann, G. (1893): Schneekrystalle. Verlag von Rudolf Mückenberger, Berlin, 66 pp. [http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/no_cache/dms/load/img/?IDDOC=320734]

Dobrowolski (1916), Ark. Kemi: 6(7).

Mügge (1918): Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 187.

Adams (1930), Royal Society of London, Proceedings: 128: 588.

Bernal and Fowler (1933), Journal Chem. Phys.: 1: 515.

Blackwelder (1939), American Journal of Science: 238: 61.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 494-498.

Acta Crystallographica: 41: 169-172.

Aoki, K., Yamawaki, H., Sakashita, M., and Fujihisa, S. (1996) Infrared absorption study of the hydrogen-bond symmetrization in ice to 110 GPa. Physical Review B, 54: 15673-15677.

Goncharov, A.F., Struzhkin, V.V., Somayazulu, M.S., Hemley, R.J., and Mao, H.K. (1996) Compression of ice to 210 gigapascals: Infrared evidence for s symmetric hydrogen-bonded phase. Science: 273-218-220.

Wolanin, E., Pruzan, P., Chervin, J.C., Canny, B., Gauthier, M., Hausermann, D., and Hanfland, M. (1997) Equation of state of ice VII up to 106GPa. Physical Review B, 56: 5781-5785.



Mindat.org articles about Ice

Article entries:
The most Common Rock on and above Our Planet.Dave Crosby

Internet Links for Ice

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Ice on Webmineral
  • Look for Ice on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Ice on Wikipedia
  • Look for Ice on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ice details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Ice specimens
  • Find Ice on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Localities for Ice

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    • Carinthia
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Karawanken
        • Hochobir
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Salzburg
      • Golling
        • Tennen Mts
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Salzburg
        • Untersberg massif
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Werfen
        • Blühnbach valley
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Tennen Mts
          • Eiskogel
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
          • Tenneck
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Hallstatt
          • Obertraun
    • Luxembourg Province
      • Neufchâteau
    • Nunavut Territory
      • Baffin Island
        • Nanisivik
    [MinRec 21:519, 21:522, 21:524]
    Sébastien Goulet; ;
    • Yukon Territory
      • Mayo Mining District
        • Galena Hill
          • Elsa
    Boyle, R.W., (1961) Native Zinc at Keno Hill, Can Min vol 6, pp 692-694
        • Keno Hill
    [MinRec 22:386]
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Bavaria
        • Bad Reichenhall
          • Berchtesgaden
            • Marktschellenberg
    • Liguria
      • La Spezia Province
        • Rocchetta Vara
    Flavio G. Taricco
    • Utopia Planitia
    NASA photo
    • Sogn og Fjordane
      • Luster
        • Jostedalsbreen
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.52
    Outer Space
    • Main Belt Asteroids
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
            • Ryabinovskoe Cu-Au deposit
    Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Štiavnica Co.
    albert russ
    albert russ
      • Žarnovica Co.
    albert russ
    C. Menor-Salvan
    • Kilimanjaro Region
    Science 18 October 2002: Vol. 298. no. 5593, pp. 548 - 549
    The Moon
    • Alaska
      • Valdez-Cordova Borough
        • Nizina District
    Rocks & Minerals 81:296-300
    • California
      • Los Angeles Co.
    Fred & Linda Elsnau.
      • Modoc Co.
        • Cascade Range
    Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Cascade Range
    Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
    • Colorado
      • Eagle Co.
        • Fulford District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • El Paso Co.
        • Manitou District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Dorchester District
          • Taylor Park
    [MinRec 15:86]
      • Park Co.
        • Horseshoe Basin District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Maine
      • Sagadahoc Co.
    Clifford Trebilcock
    • Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Nashua Min. Soc. Disp. Cat., 1995
    • New Mexico
      • Cibola Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Colfax Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
    • North Dakota
      • Cass Co.
    [var: Snow] [Fargo - the Movie - Coen Brothers 1996]
    • Pennsylvania
      • Potter Co.
        • Coudersport
          • Ice Mountain
    Ref.1) Potter County Historical Society QUARTERLY BULLETIN # 83 January 1987
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
      • Meade Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
      • Pennington Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • West Virginia
      • Raleigh Co.
        • New River Gorge
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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