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Colourless to white, ...
From Old English is, from Proto-Germanic *isa-.
Stable as a solid under 0°C (at standard atmospheric pressure). There are many different structural varieties of ice, although the standard form found on earth is Ih (hexagonal ice) as described here.

Classification of Ice

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
A : Metal: Oxygen = 2:1 and 1:1
A : Cation:Anion (M:O) = 2:1 (and 1.8:1)

1 : A2X

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
1 : Oxides of hydrogen URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Physical Properties of Ice

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless to white, pale blue to greenish blue in thick layers
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:
Translation gliding:
0.9167 g/cm3 (Measured)    0.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Ice

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.498Å, c = 7.338Å
a:c = 1 : 1.631
Unit Cell Volume:
V 128.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Usualy as snow crystals, in complex six-rayed stellate forms of great variety, flattened {0001}. Delicate skeletal forms or hopper-shaped prisms as hoar frost. Lathlike crystals, greatly elongated at times, by crystallization on the surface of water.
Twin plane (α): {0001}, and (b): {0001¯}.

Optical Data of Ice

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.309 nε = 1.311
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.001
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Ice

Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Ice to other Species

Other Names for Ice

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ice

Reference List:
Hellmann, G. (1893): Schneekrystalle. Verlag von Rudolf Mückenberger, Berlin, 66 pp. []

Dobrowolski (1916), Ark. Kemi: 6(7).

Mügge (1918): Centralblatt für Mineralogie: 187.

Adams (1930), Royal Society of London, Proceedings: 128: 588.

Bernal and Fowler (1933), Journal Chem. Phys.: 1: 515.

Blackwelder (1939), American Journal of Science: 238: 61.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 494-498.

Acta Crystallographica: 41: 169-172.

Aoki, K., Yamawaki, H., Sakashita, M., and Fujihisa, S. (1996) Infrared absorption study of the hydrogen-bond symmetrization in ice to 110 GPa. Physical Review B, 54: 15673-15677.

Goncharov, A.F., Struzhkin, V.V., Somayazulu, M.S., Hemley, R.J., and Mao, H.K. (1996) Compression of ice to 210 gigapascals: Infrared evidence for s symmetric hydrogen-bonded phase. Science: 273-218-220.

Wolanin, E., Pruzan, P., Chervin, J.C., Canny, B., Gauthier, M., Hausermann, D., and Hanfland, M. (1997) Equation of state of ice VII up to 106GPa. Physical Review B, 56: 5781-5785.

Internet Links for Ice

Localities for Ice

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Carinthia
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Karawanken
      • Hochobir
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
      • Tennen Mts
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Salzburg
      • Untersberg massif
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Werfen
      • Blühnbach valley
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Tennen Mts
        • Eiskogel
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Tenneck
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
        • Obertraun
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Neufchâteau
  • Nunavut Territory
    • Baffin Island
      • Nanisivik
[MinRec 21:519, 21:522, 21:524]
Sébastien Goulet; ;
  • Yukon Territory
    • Mayo Mining District
      • Galena Hill
        • Elsa
Boyle, R.W., (1961) Native Zinc at Keno Hill, Can Min vol 6, pp 692-694
      • Keno Hill
[MinRec 22:386]
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Bavaria
      • Bad Reichenhall
        • Berchtesgaden
          • Marktschellenberg
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Rocchetta Vara
Flavio G. Taricco
  • Utopia Planitia
NASA photo
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Luster
      • Jostedalsbreen
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.52
Outer Space
  • Main Belt Asteroids
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Ryabinovskoe Cu-Au deposit
Pavel M. Kartashov data (2012)
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Štiavnica Co.
albert russ
albert russ
    • Žarnovica Co.
albert russ
C. Menor-Salvan
  • Kilimanjaro Region
Science 18 October 2002: Vol. 298. no. 5593, pp. 548 - 549
The Moon
  • Alaska
    • Valdez-Cordova Borough
      • Nizina District
Rocks & Minerals 81:296-300
  • California
    • Los Angeles Co.
Fred & Linda Elsnau.
    • Modoc Co.
      • Cascade Range
Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
    • Siskiyou Co.
      • Cascade Range
Swartzlow, Carl Robert (1935), Ice caves in northern California: Journal of Geology: 43: 440-442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 383.
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
      • Fulford District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • El Paso Co.
      • Manitou District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Gunnison Co.
      • Dorchester District
        • Taylor Park
[MinRec 15:86]
    • Park Co.
      • Horseshoe Basin District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Maine
    • Sagadahoc Co.
Clifford Trebilcock
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Nashua Min. Soc. Disp. Cat., 1995
  • New Mexico
    • Cibola Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Colfax Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
  • North Dakota
    • Cass Co.
[var: Snow] [Fargo - the Movie - Coen Brothers 1996]
  • Pennsylvania
    • Potter Co.
      • Coudersport
        • Ice Mountain
Ref.1) Potter County Historical Society QUARTERLY BULLETIN # 83 January 1987
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
    • Meade Co.
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • Pennington Co.
SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
  • West Virginia
    • Raleigh Co.
      • New River Gorge
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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