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Ikaite

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Formula:
CaCO3 · 6H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For the type locality Ikka Fjord, Greenland (formerly spelled Ika)
Readily dehydrates to calcite above 8°C.
The resulting pseudomorph of calcite after ikaite is also called "glendonite."

Classification of Ikaite

Approved
5.CB.25

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
15.1.4.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)·xH2O
11.4.5

11 : Carbonates
4 : Carbonates of Ca
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First Recorded Occurrence of Ikaite

Year of Discovery:
1962

Occurrences of Ikaite

Geological Setting:
Forms in sea water and lake water in anerobic, organic-rich periglacial and glaciomarine environments near 0°C, readily converting to calcite at higher temperatures.

Crystallography of Ikaite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.87Å, b = 8.23Å, c = 11.02Å
β = 110.2°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.078 : 1 : 1.339
Unit Cell Volume:
V 754.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Ikaite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.455 nβ = 1.538 nγ = 1.545
2V:
Measured: 45° , Calculated: 30°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
distinct

Chemical Properties of Ikaite

Formula:
CaCO3 · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Ikaite to other Species

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
5.CB.10NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2O
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2O
11.4.1CalciteCaCO3
11.4.2AragoniteCaCO3
11.4.3VateriteCaCO3
11.4.4MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2O
11.4.6DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
11.4.7HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4
11.4.8SergeeviteCa2Mg11(CO3)13 · 10H2O

Other Names for Ikaite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Ikait
Russian:Икаит
Spanish:Ikaita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ikaite

Reference List:
Pauly, H. (1963) “Ikaite”, a new mineral from Greenland. Arctic, 16, 263–264.

American Mineralogist (1964): 49: 439.

Dickens, B. and Brown, W.E. (1970): The crystal structure of calcium carbonate hexahydrate at ~120°C. Inorganic Chemistry, 9, 480–486.

Suess, E., Balzer, W., Hesse, K.-F., Muller, P.J., Ungerer, C.A., and Wefer, G. (1982): Calcium carbonate hexahydrate from organic rich sediments of the Antarctic shelf: precursors of glendonites. Science, 216, 1128–1131.

Hesse, K. -F., Kuppers, H., Suess, E. (1983): Refinement of the structure of Ikaite, CaCO3.6H2O. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 163, 227-231.

Bischoff, J.L, Fitzpatrick, J.A., and Rosenbauer, R.J. (1992): The solubility and stabilization of ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) from 0° to 25°C: Environmental and paleoclimatic implications for thinolite tufa. Journal of Geology, 101, 21–33.

Bischoff, J. L., Stine, S., Rosenbauer, R. J., Fitzpatrick, J. A., Stafford Jr, T. W. (1993): Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 57, 3855-3856.

Buchardt, B., Seaman, P., Stockmann, G., Wilken, M.V.U., Duwel, L., Kristiansen, A., Jenner, C., Whiticar, M. J., Kristensen R.M., Petersen, G.H., and Thorbjorn, L. (1997): Submarine columns of ikaite tufa. Nature, 390, 129–130.

Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.

M. B. Oehlerich, N. Sánchez-Pastor, C. Mayr, B. Kremer, E. Griesshaber, W. W. Schmahl, A. Lücke, C. Ohlendorf and B. Zolitschka (2009): On the Study of Natural and Synthetic Ikaite Crystals. Macla 11, 135-136. [http://www.ehu.es/sem/macla_pdf/macla11/Macla11_135.pdf]

Dieckmann, GS; Nehrke, G; Uhlig, C; Gottlicher, J; Gerland, S; Granskog, MA; Thomas, DN. (2010): Brief Communication: Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) discovered in Arctic sea ice. CRYOSPHERE 4 (2), 227-230.

Žák K., Skála R., Filippi M., Plášil J. (2010): Ikait - málo známý minerál zaledněných jeskyní: výskyt v občasném sezónním zalednění jeskyně Koda (Český kras). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 18 (1), 109-115. [Ikaite on surface of seasonal cave ice formations]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikaite [many further references]

Internet Links for Ikaite

Specimens:
The following Ikaite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Ikaite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.
  • Western Antarctica
    • Antarctic Peninsula
AmMin 86:1530-1533 (2001)
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
Keith F Compton collection
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Beroun (Beraun)
Žák K., Skála R., Filippi M., Plášil J. (2010): Ikait - málo známý minerál zaledněných jeskyní: výskyt v občasném sezónním zalednění jeskyně Koda (Český kras). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 18 (1), 109-115.
Greenland
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Ikka Fjord (Ìka)
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Tokachi Province
      • Ashoro-cho (Asyoro-tyo)
Genko. 91(6). 209-219
Romania
 
  • Buzău Co.
Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
        • White Sea Coast
Jan Styer-Gold specimen and photo
USA
 
  • California
    • Mono Co.
Geology 21:971-974.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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