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Ilmenite

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Formula:
Fe2+TiO3
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Iron black or black
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5 - 6
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1827 by Adolph Theodor Kupffer after its type locality in the Ilmen Mountains, Russia.
Geikielite-Ilmenite Series, Ilmenite-Pyrophanite Series. The iron analogue of Geikielite, Pyrophanite, and Ecandrewsite.

May be confused with minerals of the Crichtonite Group and with Hematite.

Classification of Ilmenite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.5.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.9.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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First Recorded Occurrence of Ilmenite

Year of Discovery:
1827

Occurrences of Ilmenite

Geological Setting:
Common accessory mineral in igneous rocks. Also occurs in placer deposits.

Physical Properties of Ilmenite

Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Iron black or black
Streak:
Black to reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=566 - 698 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
On {0001}, {1011} due to twinning (?).
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.68 - 4.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.789 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Ilmenite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.08854(7) Å, c = 14.0924(3) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.769
Unit Cell Volume:
V 316.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Commonly thick tabular {0001}. Sometimes in thin laminae; also acute rhombohedral. Compact massive; as embedded grains.
Twinning:
1. On {0001}; 2. On {1011}, lamellar.

Crystallographic forms of Ilmenite

Crystal Atlas:
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Ilmenite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Ilmenite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong in shades of gray
Bireflectance:
Strong O=pinkish brown E= dark brown
Colour in reflected light:
Greyish white with brown tint
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Ilmenite

Formula:
Fe2+TiO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mn,Mg,V

Relationship of Ilmenite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Geikielite (see here)
Forms a series with Pyrophanite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
GeikieliteMgTiO3
PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV23+O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05Romanite(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe22+(Ti,Fe3+)6Ti12O38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi23+O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn23+O3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV23+V4+O5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti3O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SénarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9Crichtonite(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe3+,Mn)21O38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)Al12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
7.9.20KennedyiteMgFe23+Ti3O10
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Al)O4
7.9.24Cafetite(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12 · 4H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38

Other Names for Ilmenite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Weakly magnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ilmenite

Reference List:
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 534-541.

Neumann, E.-R. (1974) The distribution of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ between ilmenites and magnetites in igneous rocks. American Journal of Science: 274: 1074-1088.

Grew, E.S. (1980a) Sillimanite and ilmenite from high grade metamorphic rocks of Antarctica and other areas. Journal of Petrology: 21: 39-68.

Arculus, R.J., Dawson, J.B., Mitchell, R.H., Gust, D.A., and Holmes, R.D. (1984) Oxidation states of the upper mantle recorded by megacryst ilmenite in kimberlite and type A and B spinel Iherzolites. Contri butions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 85: 85-94.

Mineralogical Journal (Japan)(1989): 14: 179.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 volumes: 264.

Internet Links for Ilmenite

Specimens:
The following Ilmenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Ilmenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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