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Ilmenite

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Formula:
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
System:TrigonalColour:Iron black or black
Lustre:Metallic, Sub-MetallicHardness:5 - 6
Member of:Ilmenite Group
Name:Named in 1827 by Adolph Theodor Kupffer after its type locality in the Ilmen Mountains, Russia.


Geikielite-Ilmenite Series, Ilmenite-Pyrophanite Series. The iron analogue of Geikielite, Pyrophanite, and Ecandrewsite.

May be confused with minerals of the Crichtonite Group and with Hematite.

Classification of Ilmenite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.05-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.5.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.15

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Ilmenite

Type Locality:Ilmen Natural Reserve, Ilmen Mts, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Year of Discovery:1827

Occurrences of Ilmenite

Geological Setting:Common accessory mineral in igneous rocks. Also occurs in placer deposits.

Physical Properties of Ilmenite

Lustre:Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Iron black or black
Streak:Black to reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=566 - 698 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Parting:On {0001}, {1011} due to twinning (?).
Fracture:Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.68 - 4.76 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.789 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ilmenite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:R3
Cell Parameters:a = 5.08854(7) Å, c = 14.0924(3) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.769
Unit Cell Volume:V 316.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Commonly thick tabular {0001}. Sometimes in thin laminae; also acute rhombohedral. Compact massive; as embedded grains.
Twinning:1. On {0001}; 2. On {1011}, lamellar.
Crystal Atlas:
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Ilmenite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Ilmenite no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Ilmenite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong in shades of gray
Bireflectance:Strong O=pinkish brown E= dark brown
Colour in reflected light:Greyish white with brown tint
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Ilmenite

Formula:
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2+TiO3
Essential elements:Fe, O, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Fe, O, Ti
Common Impurities:Mn,Mg,V

Relationship of Ilmenite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Geikielite (see here)
Forms a series with Pyrophanite (see here)
Member of:Ilmenite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CB.05Brizziite
NaSb
5+
 
O
 
3
4.CB.05Corundum
Al
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Eskolaite
Cr
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
4.CB.05Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Karelianite
V
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.05Melanostibite
Mn
2+
 
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
3
4.CB.05Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
4.CB.05Akimotoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)SiO
 
3
4.CB.05Auroantimonate
AuSbO
 
3
4.CB.05Romanite
(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe
2+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSb
Au
+
2
Sb
3+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
4.CB.05Tistarite
Ti
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Avicennite
Tl
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.10Bixbyite
Mn
3+
2
O
 
3
4.CB.15Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
4.CB.15Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S
[(Zn,Al,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S
[(Zn,Mg)
 
7
(Al,Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
16
O
 
31
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
O
 
15
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
4
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
10
O
 
19
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S
[(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
[Al
 
7
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)]O
 
15
(OH)]
 
2
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S
[(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
5
(Al,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
12
O
 
23
(OH)]
 
6
4.CB.25Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.25Kleberite
FeTi
 
6
O
 
11
(OH)
 
5
4.CB.30Berdesinskiite
V
3+
2
TiO
 
5
4.CB.30Oxyvanite
V
3+
2
V
4+
 
O
 
5
4.CB.35Olkhonskite
(Cr,V)
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.35Schreyerite
V
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
4.CB.40Kamiokite
Fe
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Nolanite
(V
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Ti)
 
10
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Rinmanite
Zn
 
2
Sb
 
2
Mg
 
2
Fe
 
4
O
 
14
(OH)
 
2
4.CB.40Iseite
Mn
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.40Majindeite
Mg
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
4.CB.45Claudetite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.45Stibioclaudetite
AsSbO
 
3
4.CB.50Arsenolite
As
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.50Sénarmontite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.55Valentinite
Sb
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.60Bismite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.65Sphaerobismoite
Bi
 
2
O
 
3
4.CB.70Sillénite
Bi
 
12
SiO
 
20
4.CB.75Kyzylkumite
Ti
 
2
V
3+
 
O
 
5
(OH)
4.CB.80Tietaiyangite
Fe
3+
4
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
9
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.25Loveringite
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Ilmenite

Synonyms:
Axotomous EisenerzCibdelophaneHaplotypiteIlmenite (of Kupffer)Mänaken
Mohsite (of Levy)Para-ilmeniteTitaneisenerzTitanic IronTitanioferrite
Other Languages:
Basque:Ilmenita
Czech:Ilmenit
Dutch:Ilmeniet
Finnish:Ilmeniitti
French:Ilménite
Titane oxydé ferrifère
German:Ilmenit
Eisenhaltiges Titanerz
Eisentitan
Hystatisches Eisenerz
Titaneisen
Titaneisenstein
Greek:Ιλμενίτης
Hebrew:אילמניט
Hungarian:Ilmenitcsoport
Italian:Ilmenite
Japanese:イルメナイト
Lithuanian:Ilmenitas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Ilmenitt
Polish:Ilmenit
Portuguese:Ilmenita
Romanian:Ilmenit
Russian:Ильменит
Simplified Chinese:钛铁矿
Slovak:Ilmenit
Spanish:Ilmenita
Ukrainian:Ільменіт
Varieties:
Cr-rich PicroilmeniteFerrian IlmeniteGuadarramiteHystatiteIserine
KibdelophaneMagnesian menaccaniteMagnetoilmeniteManaccaniteManganilmenite
Manganoan IlmenitePicrocrichtonitePicroilmenitePicrotitaniteSilico-ilmenite
Washingtonite

Other Information

Other Information:Weakly magnetic
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Ilmenite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 534-541.

Neumann, E.-R. (1974) The distribution of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ between ilmenites and magnetites in igneous rocks. American Journal of Science: 274: 1074-1088.

Grew, E.S. (1980a) Sillimanite and ilmenite from high grade metamorphic rocks of Antarctica and other areas. Journal of Petrology: 21: 39-68.

Arculus, R.J., Dawson, J.B., Mitchell, R.H., Gust, D.A., and Holmes, R.D. (1984) Oxidation states of the upper mantle recorded by megacryst ilmenite in kimberlite and type A and B spinel Iherzolites. Contri butions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 85: 85-94.

Mineralogical Journal (Japan)(1989): 14: 179.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 volumes: 264.

Internet Links for Ilmenite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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    Localities for Ilmenite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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