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Amphibole Supergroup

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A = ☐, Na, K, Ca, Pb2+
X = Li, Na, Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca
Z = Li, Na, Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn, Co, Ni, Al, Fe3+, Cr3+, Mn3+, V3+, Ti, Zr

The IMA nomenclature report (Hawthorne et al 2012) use the general formula AB2C5T8W2. On mindat.org we avoid using variables with the same symbol as elements and we use X rather than B, Z rather than C and (OH,F,Cl,O) rather than W
Name:The name amphibole (Greek αμφιβολος - amphibolos meaning 'ambiguous') was used by RJ Haüy to include tremolite, actinolite, tourmaline and hornblende. The group was so named by Haüy in allusion to the protean variety, in composition and appearance, assumed by its minerals. This term has since been applied to the whole group. (Wikipedia).

An extensive and complex group of minerals presently divided into a group/subgroup/root-name group hierarchy (see group/subgroup/root-name group files for species within each of these groups). The amphibole group remains under study with the most recent, IMA-approved nomenclature being published in 2012 (Hawthorne et al., 2012, superseding Hawthorne & Oberti, 2006).

Individual members can often only be correctly identified by a combination of chemical-analytical, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods.

The amphibole hierarchy is as follows:
- w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group
- Calcium Amphibole Subgroup
- Lithium Amphibole Subgroup
- Lithium-(Magnesium-Iron-Manganese) Amphibole Subgroup
- Lithium-Calcium Amphibole Subgroup
- Magnesium-iron-manganese Amphibole Subgroup
- Sodium Amphibole Subgroup
- Sodium-(Magnesium-Iron-Manganese) Amphibole Subgroup
- Sodium-Calcium Amphibole Subgroup
- w(O)-dominant Amphibole Group
- Ferri-obertiite
- Ferro-ferri-obertiite
- Kaersutite Group
- Mangani-dellaventuraite
- Mangano-mangani-ungarettiite

The crystal symmetry is either monoclinic (more common) or orthorhombic.

Classification of Amphibole Supergroup

IMA status:Approved
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Crystallography of Amphibole Supergroup

Crystal Atlas:
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Amphibole no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Amphibole no.39 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Chemical Properties of Amphibole Supergroup


A = ☐, Na, K, Ca, Pb2+
X = Li, Na, Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca
Z = Li, Na, Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn, Co, Ni, Al, Fe3+, Cr3+, Mn3+, V3+, Ti, Zr

The IMA nomenclature report (Hawthorne et al 2012) use the general formula AB2C5T8W2. On mindat.org we avoid using variables with the same symbol as elements and we use X rather than B, Z rather than C and (OH,F,Cl,O) rather than W
Simplified for copy/paste:AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2

Relationship of Amphibole Supergroup to other Species

Group Members:
Cummingtonite (of Dewey)
w(O)-dominant Amphibole Group
w(OH, F, Cl)-dominant Amphibole Group

Other Names for Amphibole Supergroup

AmphiboleAmphibole FamilyAnfibola
Other Languages:
Norwegian (Bokmål):Amfibol
Simplified Chinese:角闪石
Slovak:Skupina amfibolu

Other Information

Health Warning:Amphiboles with a asbestosform morphology present a health risk if finely divided fibrous particles are inhaled.

References for Amphibole Supergroup

Reference List:

- +
Burns, R.G. and Strens, R.G.J. (1966) Infrared study of the hydroxyl band in clinoamphiboles. Science: 153: 890-892.

Strens, R.G.J. (1966) Infrared study of clustering and ordering in some (Fe,Mg) amphibole solid solutions. Chemical Communications: 519-520.

Leake, B.E. (1968) A catalog of analyzed calciferous and sub-calciferous amphiboles together with their nomenclature and associated minerals. Geological Society of America Special Paper 98.

Himmelberg, G.R. & J.J. Papike (1969), Coexisting amphiboles from blueschist facies metamorphic rock: Jour. Petrology: 10: 102-114.

Papike, J.J., Ross, M., and Clark, J.R. (1969) Crystal chemical characterization of clinoamphiboles based on five new structure refinements. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 2: 117-136.

Saxena, S.K. and Ekstrom, T.K. (1970) Statistical chemistry of calcic amphiboles. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 26: 276-284.

Strens, R.G.J. (1974) The common chain, ribbon, and ring silicates. In V.C. Farmer, Ed., The infrared spectra of minerals: 305-330. Mineralogical Society, London.

Law, A.D. (1976) A model for the investigation of hydroxyl spectra of amphiboles. In: The Physics and Chemistry of Minerals and Rocks (R.G.J. Strens, ed.). J. Wiley & Sons, London, U.K.

Boettcher, A.L. and O'Neil, J.R. (1980) Stable isotope, chemical and petrographic studies of high pressure amphiboles and micas: evidence for metasomatism in the mantle source regions of alkali basalts and kimberlites. American Journal of Science: 280A: 594-621.

Ungaretti, L. (1980) Recent developments in X-ray single crystal diffractometry applied to the crystal-chemical study of amphiboles. Godisnjak Jugoslavenskog centra za Kristalografiju: 15: 29-65.

Hawthorne, F.C.H. (1983) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles. Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 173-480.

Rock, N.M.S. and Leake, B.E. (1984) The International Mineralogical Association amphibole nomenclature scheme: computerization and its consequences. Mineralogical magazine: 48: 211-227.

Phillips, M.W., Popp, R.K., and Clowe, C.A. (1988) Structural adjustments accompanying oxidation-dehydrogenation n amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 73: 500-506.

Hogarth, D.D. (1989) Pyrochlore, apatite and amphibole: distinctive minerals in carbonatite. In K. Bell, Ed., Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution: 105-148. Unwin Hyman Ltd., London.

Deloule, E., Albarède, F., and Sheppard, S.M.F. (1991a) Hydrogen isotope heterogeneities in the mantle from ion probe analysis of amphiboles from ultramafic rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.: 105: 543-553.

Skogby, H. and Rossman, G.R. (1991) The intensity of amphibole OH bands in the infrared absorption spectrum. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 18: 64-68.

Oberti, R., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E., and Hawthorne, F.C. (1992) The behaviour of Ti in amphiboles. I. Four- and six-coordnate Ti in richterite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 425-439.

Hawthorne, F.C., Ungaretti, L., Oberti, R., Bottazzi, P., and Czamanske, G.K. (1993) Li: an important component in igneous alkali amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 78: 733-745.

Oberti, R., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E., and Hawthorne, F.C. (1993) The mechanism of Cl incorporation in amphibole. American Mineralogist: 78: 746-752.

Hawthorne, F.C., Ungaretti, L., Oberti, Cannillo, E., and Smelik, E.A. (1994) The mechanism of [6]Li incorporation in amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 79: 443-451.

Oberti, R., F.C. Hawthorne L. Ungaretti, & E. Cannillo (1995a), [6]Al disorder in amphiboles from mantle peridotite: Canadian Mineralogist: 33: 867-878.

Oberti, R., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E., Hawthorne, F.C., and Memmi, I. (1995b) Temperature-dependent Al order-disorder in the tetrahedral double chain of C2/m amphiboles. European Journal of Mineralogy: 7: 1049-1063.

Hawthorne, F.C., Della Ventura, G., and Robert, J.-L. (1996d) Short-range order and long-range order in amphiboles: a model for the interpretation of infrared spectra in the principal OH-stretching region. In: Mineral Spectroscopy: a Tribute to Roger G. Burns (M.D. Dyar, C. McCammon & M.W. Schaefer, eds.). Geochem. Soc., Special Publication 5: 49-54.

Hawthorne, F.C. (1997) Short-range order in amphiboles: a bond-valence approach. Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 203-218.

Leake, B.E., A.R. Woolley, C.E.S. Arps, W.D. Birch, M.C. Gilbert, J.D Grice, F.C. Hawthorne, A. Kato, H.J. Kisch, V.G. Krivovichev, K. Linthout, J. Laird, J.A. Mandarino, W.V. Maresch, E.H. Nickel, N.M.S. Rock, J.C. Schumacher, D.C. Smith, N.C.N. Stephenson, L. Ungaretti, E.J.W. Whittaker, & Y. Guo (1997), Nomenclature of amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Mienrals and Mineral Names, American Mineralogist: 82: 1019-1037.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Zanetti, A. and Czamanske, G.K. (1998) The role of Ti in hydrogen-deficient amphiboles: sodic-calcic and sodic amphiboles from Coyote Peak, California. Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 1253-1265.

Welch, M.D., Lu, S., and Klinowski, J. (1998) 29Si MAS NMR systematics of calcic and sodic-calcic amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 83: 85-96.

Robert, J.-L., Della Ventura, G., and Hawthorne, F.C. (1999) Near-infrared study of short-range disorder of OH and F in monoclinic amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 84: 86-91.

Melzer, S., Gottschalk, M., Andrut, M., and Heinrich, W. (2000) Crystal chemistry of K-richterite-richterite-tremolite solid solutions: a SEM, EMP, XRD, HRTEM and IR study. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 273-291.

Reece, J.J., S.A.T. Redfern, M.D. Welch, C.M.B. Henderson, & C.A. McCammon (2002), Temperature-dependent Fe2+ - Mn2+ order-disorder behaviour in amphiboles Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 562-570.

Najorka, J. and Gottschalk, M. (2003) Crystal chemistry of tremolite-tschermakite solid solutions. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 30: 108-124.

Oberti, R., F. Cámara, L. Ottolini, J.M. Caballero (2003), Lithium in amphiboles: detection, quantification, and incorporation mechanisms in the compositional space bridging sodic and [B} Li amphiboles: European Journal of Mineralogy: 15: 309-319.

Leake, B.E., A.R. Woolley, W.D. Birch, E.A.J. Burke, G. Ferraris, J.D. Grice, F.C. Hawthorne, H.J. Kisch, V.G. Krivovichev, J.C. Schumacher, N.C.N. Stephenson & E.J.W. Whittaker (2004): Nomenclature of amphiboles: additions and revisions to the International Mineralogical Association's amphibole nomenclature. American Mineralogist 88, 883-887.

Hawthorne, F.C.H., Della Ventura, G., Oberti, R., Robert, J.-L., and Iezzi, G. (2005): Short-range order in minerals: amphiboles. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1895-1920.

Hawthorne, F. C. and Oberti, R. (2006): On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist 44, 1-21.

Ishida, K. and Hawthorne, F.C. (2006): Assignment of infrared OH-stretching bands in calcic amphiboles through deuteration and heat treatment. American Mineralogist 91, 871-879.

Esawi, E.K. (2011): Calculations of amphibole chemical parameters and implementation of the 2004 recommendations of the IMA classification and nomenclature of amphiboles. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 106, 123-129.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012): Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist, 97, 2031-2048.

Mindat.org articles about Amphibole Supergroup

Article entries:
Amphibole supergroup minerals and their relationshipOlav Revheim

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    Localities for Amphibole Supergroup

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