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Jarosite

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Formula:
KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Amber-yellow, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3½
Name:
Named in 1852 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt for the type locality, Barranco Jaroso in southern Spain.
Usually found as amber-yellow to brown crusts or coatings of minute crystals, larger crystals rather rare.

Desborough et al. (2010) showed there is only limited solid solution between jarosite and natrojarosite at low temperatures.

Synthetic samples may be monoclinic-pseudorhombohedral (Grey et al., 2010, 2013).

Mo-bearing jarosite was described by Žáček et al. (2008).

Classification of Jarosite

Approved
7.BC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
30.2.5.1
30.2.5.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
25.11.9

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Jarosite

Year of Discovery:
1852

Occurrences of Jarosite

Geological Setting:
A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of sulfide deposits, forming by the reaction of dilute sulfuric acid in ground water, derived from the oxidation of pyrite, with gangue minerals and wall rock in the deposits.

Physical Properties of Jarosite

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Sub-adamantine to vitreous on crystal faces; resinous on fractures.
Colour:
Amber-yellow, yellow-brown, to brown or light yellow.
Streak:
Pale-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3½
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {0001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 - 3.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Jarosite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.304Å, c = 17.268Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.364
Unit Cell Volume:
V 797.80 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Crystals usually tiny, pseudocubic {01-13} or tabular {0001}. Typically found as granular crusts, it may also be in nodules or fibrous masses, pulverulent to earthy, or concretionary.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.93(50)
5.09(70)
3.65(40)
3.11(80)
3.08(100)
2.29(40)
1.98(50)
1.83(50)

Optical Data of Jarosite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.815 - 1.820 nε = 1.713 - 1.715
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.102 - 0.105
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Ε (X) = Colourless
(Y) = Reddish brown
Ο (Z) = Reddish brown
Comments:
Commonly aomalously biaxial with a very small 2V and sectional development.

Chemical Properties of Jarosite

Formula:
KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Na,Ag,Pb

Relationship of Jarosite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Natrojarosite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6
PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)Cl
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(SO4)(OH)7
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2O
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
25.11.7KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.11.10VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
25.11.19BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2O
25.11.23SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
30.2.5.3Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
30.2.5.5ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
30.2.5.6PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Jarosite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Electrical:
Strongly pyroelectric.
Other Information:
Insoluble in water; soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Jarosite

Reference List:
Rammelsberg (1838) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 43: 132 (as Gelbeisenerz).

Haidinger, Wm. (1845): 512 (as Misy).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts: 1205 (as Vitriolgelb).

Breithaupt (1852) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 6: 68 (as Jarosit).

Shepard C.U. (1857) Treatise on Mineralogy, third edition: vol. 2: 4 (suppl. app.) (as Moronolite).

Bergemann (1866) Naturhistorischer Verein der Rheinlande und Westfalens, Bonn. Sitzungsberichte Verhandlungen: 27: 17 (as Pastréit).

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches., 1st. edition, 78 pp., Freiberg: 42 (Kolosorukite variety).

Koenig (1880) American Chemical Journal: 2: 375.

Koenig (1880) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: 331.

Genth (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 73.

Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 73.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 974.

Azema (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 130.

Schaller (1916) USGS Bull. 610: 137.

Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3]: 4200.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 92.

Gordon (1925) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 77: 1.

Locke (1926) Leached Outcrops as Guides to Copper Ore: 107.

Jirkovsky (1927) Časopis Nârod. Musea, Prague, Czech Republic: 101: 151.

Westgate and Knopf (1932) USGS Professional Paper 171: 47.

Hendricks (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 773.

Blanchard (1944) American Mineralogist: 29: 111.

Breshenkov (1946) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 52: 329.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 560-562.

Canadian Mineralogist (1976): 14: 156.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1976): 406-417.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 630.

Drouet, C. and Navrotsky, A. (2003) Synthesis, characterization, and thermochemistry of K-Na-H3O jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 67: 2063-2076.

Drouet, C., Baron, D., and Navrotsky, N. (2003) On the thermochemistry of the solid solution between jarosite and its chromate analog. American Mineralogist: 88: 1949-1954.

Papike, J. J.; Burger, P. V.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Lueth, V. W. (2007): Terrestrial analogs of martian jarosites: Major, minor element systematics and Na-K zoning in selected samples. American Mineralogist 92, 444-447.

Žáček, V., Škoda, R. & Laufek, F. (2008): Molybdenem bohatý jarosit z oxidační zóny středověkého Au-Ag ložiska v Hůrkách u Rakovníka (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 16 (2), 190-192 (in Czech with English abstract).

Sato, E., Nakai, I., Miyawaki, R. & Matsubara, S. (2009): Crystal structures of alunite family minerals: beaverite, corkite, alunite, natroalunite, jarosite, svanbergite, and woodhouseite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen 185, 313-322.

Basciano, L. C. & Peterson, R. C. (2010): A crystallographic study of the incomplete solid solution betweeen plumbojarosite and jarosite. Can. Mineral. 48, 651-659.

Desborough, G. A., Smith, K. S., Lowers, H. A., Swayze, G. A., Hammarstrom, J. M., Diehl, S. F., Leinz, R. W. and Driscoll, R. L. (2010): Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of some natural jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 1041-1056.

Grey, I.E., Scarlett, N.N.V. & Brand, H.E.A. (2010): Ordering of iron vacancies in monoclinic jarosites. American Mineralogist, 95, 1590-1593. [synth. samples]

Xu, Hongwu; Zhao, Yusheng; Vogel, Sven C.; Hickmott, Donald D.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika A. (2010): Thermal expansion and decomposition of jarosite: a high-temperature neutron diffraction study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 37, 73-82.

I. E. Grey, N. V. Y. Scarlett, P. Bordet, and H. E. A. Brand (2011): Jarosite–butlerite intergrowths in non-stoichiometric jarosites: crystal chemistry of monoclinic natrojarosite–hydroniumjarosite phases. Mineral. Mag. 75, 2775-2791.

H. E. A. Brand, N. V. Y. Scarlett and I. E. Grey (2012): In situ studies into the formation kinetics of potassium jarosite. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 45, 535-545.

Grey, I.E.; Scarlett, N.V.Y.; Brand, H.E.A. (2013): Crystal chemistry and formation mechanism of non-stoichiometric monoclinic K-jarosites. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 249-268.

N. V. Y. Scarlett, I. E. Grey and H. E. A. Brand (2013): In situ synchrotron diffraction studies on the formation kinetics of jarosites. J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 366-375.

Mills, S. J., Nestola, F., Kahlenberg, V., Christy, A. G., Hejny, C. & Redhammer, G. (2013): Looking for jarosite on Mars: the low temperature crystal structure of jarosite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1966-1971.

Internet Links for Jarosite

Specimens:
The following Jarosite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Jarosite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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