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Jarosite

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Formula:
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
System:TrigonalColour:Amber-yellow, ...
Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, ResinousHardness:2½ - 3½
Member of:Alunite Group > Alunite Supergroup
Name:Named in 1852 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt for the type locality, Barranco Jaroso in southern Spain.


Usually found as amber-yellow to brown crusts or coatings of minute crystals, larger crystals rather rare.

Desborough et al. (2010) showed there is only limited solid solution between jarosite and natrojarosite at low temperatures.

Synthetic samples may be monoclinic-pseudorhombohedral (Grey et al., 2010, 2013).

Mo-bearing jarosite was described by Žáček et al. (2008).

Classification of Jarosite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.11-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:30.2.5.1
Dana 8th edition ID:30.2.5.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.11.9

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Jarosite

Type Locality:Jaroso Ravine, Sierra Almagrera, Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera), Almería, Andalusia, Spain
Year of Discovery:1852

Occurrences of Jarosite

Geological Setting:A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of sulfide deposits, forming by the reaction of dilute sulfuric acid in ground water, derived from the oxidation of pyrite, with gangue minerals and wall rock in the deposits.

Physical Properties of Jarosite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Sub-adamantine to vitreous on crystal faces; resinous on fractures.
Colour:Amber-yellow, yellow-brown, to brown or light yellow.
Streak:Pale-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3½
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {0001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.9 - 3.26 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.25 g/cm3

Crystallography of Jarosite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3m {R3 2/m}
Cell Parameters:a = 7.304Å, c = 17.268Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.364
Unit Cell Volume:V 797.80 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology:Crystals usually tiny, pseudocubic {01-13} or tabular {0001}. Typically found as granular crusts, it may also be in nodules or fibrous masses, pulverulent to earthy, or concretionary.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.93(50)
5.09(70)
3.65(40)
3.11(80)
3.08(100)
2.29(40)
1.98(50)
1.83(50)

Optical Data of Jarosite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.815 - 1.820 nε = 1.713 - 1.715
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.102 - 0.105

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Ε (X) = Colourless
(Y) = Reddish brown
Ο (Z) = Reddish brown
Comments:Commonly aomalously biaxial with a very small 2V and sectional development.

Chemical Properties of Jarosite

Formula:
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Essential elements:Fe, H, K, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, K, O, S
Common Impurities:Na,Ag,Pb

Relationship of Jarosite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Natrojarosite (see here)
Member of:Alunite Group > Alunite Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Beaverite-(Zn)
Pb(Fe
3+
2
Zn)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Dorallcharite
(Tl,K)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Huangite
Ca
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Schlossmacherite
(H
 
3
O)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Walthierite
Ba
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BC.05D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
7.BC.10Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Dorallcharite
(Tl,K)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Huangite
Ca
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite
(H
 
3
O)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Walthierite
Ba
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)
Pb(Fe
3+
2
Zn)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.15Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
7.BC.20Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
7.BC.20Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl
7.BC.25Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
7.BC.30Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.30Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.35Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
7.BC.40Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
7.BC.45Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.45Alumoklyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.50Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
7.BC.55Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
7.BC.60Mammothite
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.BC.65Linarite
PbCu(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.BC.65Schmiederite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
6+
 
O
 
4
)(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.65Munakataite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.70Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.75Krivovichevite
Pb
 
3
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
7
7.BC.80Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.11.1Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.11.2Sideronatrite
Na
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
25.11.3Metasideronatrite
Na
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · H
 
2
O
25.11.4Ferrinatrite
Na
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
25.11.5Amarillite
NaFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.6Yavapaiite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.7Krausite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.11.8Goldichite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
25.11.10Voltaite
K
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
25.11.11Ungemachite
K
 
3
Na
 
8
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.12Metavoltine
Na
 
6
K
 
2
FeFe
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
12
O
 
2
· 18H
 
2
O
25.11.13Sabieite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.14Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.11.15Clairite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
25.11.16Mohrite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.11.17Lonecreekite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.11.18Godovikovite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.11.19Botryogen
MgFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
25.11.21Slavíkite
(H
 
3
O
+
 
)
 
3
Mg
 
6
Fe
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
18
· 98H
 
2
O
25.11.23Sturmanite
Ca
 
6
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
[B(OH)
 
4
](OH)
 
12
· 25H
 
2
O
25.11.24Millosevichite
(Al,Fe)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
25.11.25Aluminocopiapite
Al
 
2/3
Fe
3+
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
2
· 20H
 
2
O
25.11.26Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
25.11.27Idrizite
(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 15H
 
2
O or near
25.11.28Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
25.11.29Zincovoltaite
K
 
2
Zn
 
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
30.2.5.3Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
30.2.5.5Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
30.2.5.6Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Jarosite

Synonyms:
AntunesiteAntuneziteJarosite (of Breithaupt)LeucanteriteMoronolite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Jarosita
Dutch:Jarosiet
German:Jarosit
Antunesit
Antunezit
Antunit
Leucanterit
Pastréit
Vitriolgelb
Hungarian:Jarosit
Italian:Jarosite
Polish:Jarosyt
Portuguese:Jarosita
Russian:Ярозит
Simplified Chinese:黄钾铁矾
Spanish:Jarosita
Antunesita
Antunezita
Leucanterita
Varieties:
Calcium-JarositeKolosorukite

Other Information

Electrical:Strongly pyroelectric.
Other Information:Insoluble in water; soluble in HCl.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Jarosite

Reference List:

- +
Rammelsberg (1838) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 43: 132 (as Gelbeisenerz).

Haidinger, Wm. (1845): 512 (as Misy).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts: 1205 (as Vitriolgelb).

Breithaupt (1852) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 6: 68 (as Jarosit).

Shepard C.U. (1857) Treatise on Mineralogy, third edition: vol. 2: 4 (suppl. app.) (as Moronolite).

Bergemann (1866) Naturhistorischer Verein der Rheinlande und Westfalens, Bonn. Sitzungsberichte Verhandlungen: 27: 17 (as Pastréit).

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches., 1st. edition, 78 pp., Freiberg: 42 (Kolosorukite variety).

Koenig (1880) American Chemical Journal: 2: 375.

Koenig (1880) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: 331.

Genth (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 73.

Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 73.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 974.

Azema (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 130.

Schaller (1916) USGS Bull. 610: 137.

Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3]: 4200.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 92.

Gordon (1925) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 77: 1.

Locke (1926) Leached Outcrops as Guides to Copper Ore: 107.

Jirkovsky (1927) Časopis Nârod. Musea, Prague, Czech Republic: 101: 151.

Westgate and Knopf (1932) USGS Professional Paper 171: 47.

Hendricks (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 773.

Blanchard (1944) American Mineralogist: 29: 111.

Breshenkov (1946) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 52: 329.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 560-562.

Canadian Mineralogist (1976): 14: 156.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1976): 406-417.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 630.

Drouet, C. and Navrotsky, A. (2003) Synthesis, characterization, and thermochemistry of K-Na-H3O jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 67: 2063-2076.

Drouet, C., Baron, D., and Navrotsky, N. (2003) On the thermochemistry of the solid solution between jarosite and its chromate analog. American Mineralogist: 88: 1949-1954.

Papike, J. J.; Burger, P. V.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Lueth, V. W. (2007): Terrestrial analogs of martian jarosites: Major, minor element systematics and Na-K zoning in selected samples. American Mineralogist 92, 444-447.

Žáček, V., Škoda, R. & Laufek, F. (2008): Molybdenem bohatý jarosit z oxidační zóny středověkého Au-Ag ložiska v Hůrkách u Rakovníka (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 16 (2), 190-192 (in Czech with English abstract).

Sato, E., Nakai, I., Miyawaki, R. & Matsubara, S. (2009): Crystal structures of alunite family minerals: beaverite, corkite, alunite, natroalunite, jarosite, svanbergite, and woodhouseite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen 185, 313-322.

Basciano, L. C. & Peterson, R. C. (2010): A crystallographic study of the incomplete solid solution betweeen plumbojarosite and jarosite. Can. Mineral. 48, 651-659.

Desborough, G. A., Smith, K. S., Lowers, H. A., Swayze, G. A., Hammarstrom, J. M., Diehl, S. F., Leinz, R. W. and Driscoll, R. L. (2010): Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of some natural jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 1041-1056.

Grey, I.E., Scarlett, N.N.V. & Brand, H.E.A. (2010): Ordering of iron vacancies in monoclinic jarosites. American Mineralogist, 95, 1590-1593. [synth. samples]

Xu, Hongwu; Zhao, Yusheng; Vogel, Sven C.; Hickmott, Donald D.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika A. (2010): Thermal expansion and decomposition of jarosite: a high-temperature neutron diffraction study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 37, 73-82.

I. E. Grey, N. V. Y. Scarlett, P. Bordet, and H. E. A. Brand (2011): Jarosite–butlerite intergrowths in non-stoichiometric jarosites: crystal chemistry of monoclinic natrojarosite–hydroniumjarosite phases. Mineral. Mag. 75, 2775-2791.

H. E. A. Brand, N. V. Y. Scarlett and I. E. Grey (2012): In situ studies into the formation kinetics of potassium jarosite. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 45, 535-545.

Grey, I.E.; Scarlett, N.V.Y.; Brand, H.E.A. (2013): Crystal chemistry and formation mechanism of non-stoichiometric monoclinic K-jarosites. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 249-268.

N. V. Y. Scarlett, I. E. Grey and H. E. A. Brand (2013): In situ synchrotron diffraction studies on the formation kinetics of jarosites. J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 366-375.

Mills, S. J., Nestola, F., Kahlenberg, V., Christy, A. G., Hejny, C. & Redhammer, G. (2013): Looking for jarosite on Mars: the low temperature crystal structure of jarosite. American Mineralogist, 98, 1966-1971.

Internet Links for Jarosite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Jarosite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Jarosite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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