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Kalinite

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Formula:
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O Not confirmed
System:MonoclinicColour:White to pale blue
Hardness:2
Name:For its potassium content (kalium).


Currently valid, but non-existent species (Uwe Kolitsch, discreditation proposal to be submitted to IMA).

Classification of Kalinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Explanation of status:Identical with potassium alum (Uwe Kolitsch, discreditation proposal to be submitted to IMA)
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.13-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CC.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.5.4.2

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
5 : AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.6.16

25 : Sulphates
6 : Sulphates of Al and Tl
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Physical Properties of Kalinite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:White to pale blue
Hardness (Mohs):2
Density (measured):1.75 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2 g/cm3

Crystallography of Kalinite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 19.92(16) Å, b = 9.27(3) Å, c = 8.304(13) Å
β = 98.79(19)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.149 : 1 : 0.896
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,515.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4

Optical Data of Kalinite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.430 nβ = 1.452 nγ = 1.485
2V:Measured: 52° , Calculated: 82°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.055

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Kalinite

Formula:
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O Not confirmed
Simplified for copy/paste:KAl(SO4)2·11H2O Not confirmed
Essential elements:Al, H, K, N, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, H, K, N, O, S
Empirical Formula:
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O

Relationship of Kalinite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CC.05Krausite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CC.10Tamarugite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.15Mendozite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Tschermigite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lanmuchangite
Tl
+
 
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Voltaite
K
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Zincovoltaite
K
 
2
Zn
 
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Pertlikite
K
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
2
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.30Kröhnkite
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.35Ferrinatrite
Na
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CC.40Goldichite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.45Löweite
Na
 
12
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
13
· 15H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Blödite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Nickelblödite
Na
 
2
(Ni,Mg)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Changoite
Na
 
2
Zn(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55Leonite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.55Mereiterite
K
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Mohrite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ni(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Picromerite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.65Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.70Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.75Amarillite
NaFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.80Konyaite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CC.85Wattevilleite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O (?)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.6.1Rostite
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.2Jurbanite
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.3Khademite
Al(SO
 
4
)F · 5H
 
2
O
25.6.4Meta-aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.6.5Aluminite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.6.6Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.7Alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
25.6.8Felsőbányaite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 4H
 
2
O
25.6.9Basaluminite
25.6.10Hydrobasaluminite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 12-36H
 
2
O
25.6.11Zaherite
Al
 
12
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
26
· 20H
 
2
O
25.6.12Tamarugite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.6.13Mendozite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
25.6.14Alum-(Na)
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.15Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.17Alum-(K)
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
25.6.18Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.19Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.6.20Tschermigite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O

Other Names for Kalinite

Synonyms:
AlumotrichitePotash AlumPotassalumite
Other Languages:
German:Alumotrichit
Kalinischer Alumsulphat
Kalinit
Spanish:Alumotrichita
Kalinita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kalinite

Reference List:

- +
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 652.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 9.

Winchell, A. (1931) The Microscopic Characters of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals. Second edition, 403 pp., New York and London.: 259 (as Potassalumite).

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II: 471.

Internet Links for Kalinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Kalinite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Kalinite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • San Juan
      • Iglesia Department
    Bengochea, L., Lara, R. y Mas, G., 1996. Kalinita y boyleita. Sulfatos secundarios del Área Valle del Cura; San Juan. 3ra Reunión de Mineralogía y Metalogenia. Instituto de Recursos Minerales, UNLP. Publicación 5: 63-66.
    • Santa Cruz
      • Macizo del Deseado
    Jovic, S.M., Guido, D.M., Schalamuk, I.B., Ríos, F.J., Tassinari, C.C.G., Recio. C. (2011): Pingüino In-bearing polymetallic vein deposit, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina: characteristics of mineralization and ore-forming fluids. Mineralium Deposita, 46, 257-271.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
        • Caldas
          • Campo do Cercado
    Waber et al. (1992) Jour. Geochemical Explor. 45, 53-112; WABER, N., SCHORSCHER, H.D., & PETERS, T. (1992) Hydrothermal and supergene uranium mineralization at the Osamu Utsumi mine, Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 45, 53-112.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973; R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Aveyron
        • Decazeville
          • Decazeville coal basin
    http://membres.lycos.fr/cgineste/aveyron/h_embrasee.html
    http://www.pangeaminerals.com/aveyron/houiller/houiller.htm
    • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
      • Pas-de-Calais
    Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Recsk
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    • Sardinia
      • Medio Campidano Province
    Fadda, A.F.(1989): Sardegna pietre dure e minerali. CO.EDI.SAR. Cagliari
    • Sicily
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
              • Porto Levante
    PANICHI U. (1924): Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell'Isola di Vulcano. - Memorie della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL) - serie 3 - 19, 3-55.
    P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Bay of Plenty
    R.MARTIN, K.A.RODGERS, P.R.L.BROWNE The nature and significance of sulphate-rich, aluminous efflorescences from the Te Kopia geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine, June 1999, Vol. 63(3), pp. 413-419
      • Waikato
        • Taupo
          • Orakeikorako Thermal Area
    Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
    Romania
     
    • Alba Co.
    Onac, B. P. et al. (2003): STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, GEOLOGIA, XLVIII, 1, 29-44. [http://bioge.ubbcluj.ro/studia/pdf/2003/Onac.pdf]
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
          • Gay
    P.M. Kartashov data
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Valdez-Cordova Borough
        • Chisana District
    U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195
    • California
      • Alpine Co.
        • Silver Mountain District
          • Silver Mountain
    Williams, A., Jr. (1883), Mineral resources of the United States: Mineral Resources US, 1882, XI, 813 pp.: 606; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Calaveras Co.
        • Foothill Copper Belt
          • Copperopolis
            • Quail Hill
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867a), A notice of the peculiar mode of the occurrence of gold and silver in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Fresno Co.
        • Coalinga
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Inyo Co.
        • Coso Mts (Coso Range)
          • Coso District (New Coso District)
            • China Lake Naval Ordnance Test Station
              • Coso Hot Springs
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 376; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
        • Owens Valley
          • Olancha
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
        • White Mts
          • Laws
            • White Mountain
    Woodhouse, C.D. (1936), Change them every 10,000 miles: Mineralogist: 4(3): 37-38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Williams, A., Jr. (1885), Mineral resources of the United States: Mineral Resources US, 1883-84, vol. 14, 1016 pp.: 949; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Los Angeles Co.
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 68; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Mono Co.
        • Bodie Hills
          • Bodie District
            • Bodie
    Whiting, H.A. (1888), Mono County, California: California Mining Bureau. Report 8: 356; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Napa Co.
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • Calistoga District (Silverado District)
            • Angwin
    Williams, A., Jr. (1883), Mineral resources of the United States: Mineral Resources US, 1882, XI, 813 pp.: 606; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Placer Co.
        • Lincoln
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867a), A notice of the peculiar mode of the occurrence of gold and silver in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
        • Ophir District (Auburn District)
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 68; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
    Larsen, Esper Signius (1921), The microscopic determination of nonopaque minerals: USGS Bulletin 679, 294 pp.: 94; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Santa Barbara Co.
        • Lompoc
    Martinez, José Longinos (1938), California in 1792 (Transactions L.B. Simpson, San Marino, California): 111 pp.: 39; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
      • Sonoma Co.
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • West Mayacmas District
            • Hood Mountain Regional Park
    Mining and Scientific Press (1869), Mineralogical and geological notices: Mining and Scientific Press: 18: 264; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 68; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
    • Colorado
      • Jefferson Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Georgia
      • Rabun Co.
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
    • Montana
      • Flathead Co.
        • Hog Heaven District (Flathead District)
          • Kofford Ridge
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Alum District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Sulphur District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Cheshire Co.
    Meyers & Stewart, 1956. Geology of NH, Part III
      • Grafton Co.
    Meyers & Stewart, 1956. Geology of NH, Part III
      • Hillsborough Co.
    Morrill, 1960. New Hampshire Mines and Mineral Localities.
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 84.
    John H. Betts (2009) "The minerals of New York City", Rocks & Minerals, 84, 204-240.
    • South Dakota
      • Lawrence Co.
        • Lead District
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
      • Pennington Co.
        • Mystic
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • Utah
      • Sevier Co.
        • Antelope Range
          • Henry District
    Harvard Museum of Natural History spec. no. 109486
    • Virginia
      • Carroll Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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