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Andalusite

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Formula:
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Pink to red brown, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, GreasyHardness:6½ - 7½
Name:Named by Jean-Claude Delamétherie in 1798 for the supposed type locality, "Andalusia region", Spain, although he seems to have been not very familiar with spanish geography and the type locality is not in Andalusia.

Andalusite was first analysed by Werner on specimens coming from Spain. Both Werner and Delamétherie believed that the specimens came from Andalusia, which is why the latter named it "andalusite". However, it seems that the analyzed specimens came from El Cardoso (Guadalajara), a town they erroneously thought to be in Andalusia. Consequently the type locality must be considered El Cardoso, probably the outcrop located in Zahurdon. The error was perpetuated by other later authors, who considered that the origin was the province of Almeria, and remained so in the majority of books, even in modern ones. Furthermore, andalusite had already been known previously, and even been described, in its chiastolite variety, by a Spanish author, Torrubia, in 1754. The description was published in a famous book, "Aparato para la Historia Natural Española", in which aragonite also appears. In both cases the descriptions are accompanied by illustrations that depict both minerals unmistakably. (See the article by Dr. Miguel Calvo, "Minerales que tienen en España su localidad tipo" - http://milksci.unizar.es/miner/mineralesp/tipo.html
Polymorph of:Kyanite, Sillimanite
Isostructural with:Kanonaite


Andalusite-Kanonaite Series.

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Classification of Andalusite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.02-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AF.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.2.2b.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:15.1

15 : Silicates of Aluminum
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Type Occurrence of Andalusite

Type Locality:El Cardoso de la Sierra, Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain
Geological Setting of type material:Low pressure and low temperature metamorphic rocks.

Occurrences of Andalusite

Geological Setting:A result of contact metamorphism of argillaceous sediments, also in regionally metamorphosed schists. Rare in granites and pegmatites, which however afford the largest crystals. Detrital in some sandstones.

Physical Properties of Andalusite

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Pink to red brown, occasionally yellow, green, white, gray rarely violet
Comment: in thin section, colorless to pink or green.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6½ - 7½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Poor on {100}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.13 - 3.21 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.149 g/cm3

Crystallography of Andalusite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnnm {P21/n 21/n 2/m}
Space Group Setting:Pnnm
Cell Parameters:a = 7.798(7) Å, b = 7.9031(10) Å, c = 5.5566(5) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.987 : 1 : 0.703
Unit Cell Volume:V 342.44 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:As euhedral crystals or columnar aggregates having nearly square cross sections, commonly elongated parallel to [001], to 20 cm. Crystals may be much interrupted due to intersection with outer minerals. Also fibrous, compact, massive.
Twinning:On {101} - rare
Crystal Atlas:
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Andalusite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Andalusite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Andalusite no.14 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Andalusite no.18 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.55 (100)
4.53 (80)
3.93 (30)
3.53 (30)
2.77 (70)
2.27 (30)
2.18 (30)
2.17 (40)
Comments:ICDD 39-376

Optical Data of Andalusite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.629 - 1.640 nβ = 1.633 - 1.644 nγ = 1.638 - 1.650
2V:Measured: 73° to 86°, Calculated: 80° to 84°
Birefringence:0.009
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009 - 0.010

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v strong
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= reddish pink
Y=Z= greenish yellow
Comments:Iron substitution may dramatically increase RI and birefringence.

Chemical Properties of Andalusite

Formula:
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
Simplified for copy/paste:Al2(SiO4)O
Essential elements:Al, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, O, Si

Relationship of Andalusite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Kanonaite (see here)
Common Associates:
TourmalineSillimaniteMuscoviteKyaniteCorundum
CorundumCordieriteBiotite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AF.05Sillimanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Kanonaite
Mn
3+
 
Al(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.15Kyanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.20Mullite
Al
 
4+2x
Si
 
2-2x
O
 
10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite
(Al,Ga)
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AF.23Boromullite
Al
 
9
BSi
 
2
O
 
19
9.AF.25Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
9.AF.30Magnesiostaurolite
(Mg,Li,Fe
2+
 
)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.30Staurolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
9.AF.30Zincostaurolite
(Zn,Li,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.35Topaz
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.40Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Alleghanyite
Mn
2+
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.45Kumtyubeite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
9.AF.45Hydroxylchondrodite
Mg
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Humite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.55Hydroxylclinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.60Leucophoenicite
Mn
2+
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.65Ribbeite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.70Jerrygibbsite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.75Franciscanite
Mn
2+
6
(V
5+
 
,☐)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.75Örebroite
Mn
2+
3
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)(O,OH)
 
3
9.AF.75Welinite
Mn
2+
6
(W
6+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.80Ellenbergerite
Mg
 
6
(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)
 
2
(Al,Mg)
 
6
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(OH)
 
10
9.AF.85Chloritoid
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.90Poldervaartite
CaCa[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90Olmiite
CaMn
2+
 
[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
15.2Kyanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
15.3Sillimanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
15.4Mullite
Al
 
4+2x
Si
 
2-2x
O
 
10-x
15.5Pyrophyllite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
15.6Dickite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
15.7Nacrite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
15.8Kaolinite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
15.9Metahalloysite
15.10Halloysite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
15.11Allophane
(Al
 
2
O
 
3
)(SiO
 
2
)
 
1.3-2
· 2.5-3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Andalusite

Synonyms:
AndalousiteAndaluziteApyreFeldspath apyreJamesonite (of Leman)
Lohestite
Other Languages:
Bosnian (Latin Script):Andaluzit
Bulgarian:Андалусит
Croatian:Andaluzit
Dutch:Andalusiet
Esperanto:Andaluzito
Estonian:Andalusiit
Galician:Andalucita
German:Andalusit
Lohestit
Hebrew:אנדלוזיט
Hungarian:Andalúzit
Italian:Andalusite
Japanese:紅柱石
Lithuanian:Andalūzitas
Polish:Andaluzyt
Portuguese:Andaluzita
Romanian:Andaluzit
Russian:Андалузит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Андалузит
Simplified Chinese:红柱石
Spanish:Andalucita
Andalousita
Andalusita
Andaluzita
Lohestita
Swedish:Andalusit
Ukrainian:Андалузит
Varieties:
ChiastoliteTitanian AndalusiteViridine

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Andalusite

Reference List:

- +
Delamétherie, J. C. (1798): Sur une pierre de l´andalousie. Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d´Histoire Naturelle. 46, 386-387

Peck, A.B. (1924) Note on andalusite from California; a new use and some thermal properties. American Mineralogist: 9: 123-129.

Pearson, G.R. and Shaw, D.M. (1960) Trace elements in kyanite, sillimanite and andalusite. American Mineralogist: 45: 808-817.

Burnham, C.W. and Buerger, M.J. (1961) Refinement of the crystal structure of andalusite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 115: 269-290.

Sgarlata F. (1962) Sulla struttura cristallina dell'andalusite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 43-61.

Chinner, G.A., J.W. Smith & C.R. Knowles (1969), Transition metal contents of Al2SiO5 polymorphs: American Journal of Science: 267A: 96-113.

G. H. Faye and D. C. Harris (1969): On the origin of colour and pleochroism in andalusite from Brazil. Can. Mineral. 10, 47-56.

Hafner, S.S., Raymond, M., and Ghose, S. (1970) Nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors of Al27 in andalusite (Al2SiO5). Journal of Chemical Physics: 52: 6037-6041.

Finger, L.W. and Prince, E. (1972) Neutron diffraction studies: andalusite and sillimanite. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Year Book: 71: 496-500.

Vaughan, M.T. and Weidner, D.J. (1978) The relationship of elasticity and crystal structure in andalusite and sillimanite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 3: 133-144.

Winter, J.K. and Ghose, S. (1979) Thermal expansion and high-temperature crystal chemistry of the Al2SiO5 polymorphs. American Mineralogist: 64: 573-586.

Ralph, R.L., Finger, L.W., Hazen, R.M., and Ghose, S. (1984) Compressibility and crystal structure of andalusite at high pressure. American Mineralogist: 69: 513-519.

Vernon, R.H., Flood, R.H., and D'Arcy, W.F. (1987) Sillimanite and andalusite produced by base-cation leaching and contact metamorphism of felsic igneous rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 5: 439-450.

Kerrick, D.M. (1990) Metamorphic reactions. In D.M. Kerrick, Ed., The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. 22, 223-253. Reviews in Mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.

Kerrick, D.M. (1990) The Al2SiO5 polymorphs, 22, 406 p. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.

Bryant, P.L., Harwell, C.R., Wu, K., Fronczek, F.R., Hall, R.W., and Butler, L.G. (1999) Single-crystal 27 Al NMR of andalusite and calculated electric field gradients: the first complete NMR assignment for a 5-coordinated aluminum site. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 103: 5246-5252.

Dahaoui, S., Ghermani, N.E., Ghose, S., and Howard, J.A.K. (2001) Electric field gradient tensors at the aluminum sites in the Al2SiO5 polymorphs from CCD high resolution X-ray diffraction data: comparison with 27 Al NMR results. American Mineralogist: 86: 159-164.

Iglesias, M., Schwarz, K., Blaha, P., and Baldomir, D. (2001) Electronic structure and electric field gradient calculations of Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 67-75.

Winkler, B., Hytha, M., Warren, M.C., Milman, V., Gale, J.D., and Schreuer, J. (2001) Calculation of the elastic constants of the Al2SiO5 olymorphs andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 216: 67-70.

Burt, J.B., Ross, N.L., Angel, R.J., and Koch, M. (2006) Equations of state and structures of andalusite to 9.8 GPa and sillimanite to 8.5 GPa. American Mineralogist: 91: 319-326.

Ohuchi, F.S., Ghose, S., Engelhard, M.H., and Baer, D.R. (2006) Chemical bonding and electronic structures of the Al2SiO5 polymorphs, andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite: X-ray photoelectron- and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. American Mineralogist: 91: 740-746.

Best Localities for Andalusite

Best of Species:Andalusite

Internet Links for Andalusite

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    Localities for Andalusite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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